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What is referencing? Referencing, or citation, is a vital aspect of research and academic writing. Referencing is a formal, systematic way of acknowledging the sources (other writers' words, ideas, and theories) that you have found in your research and used in your writing.
When some one writing assignments at collage or university he usually required to refer to work of other authors. Each time doing it; it is necessary to identify their work by making refer to it both in text of in assignment. It called in-text referencing and in a list at the end of assignment (called referencing list or end-text referencing). This practice of acknowledging authors is known as referencing.
Referencing must provided whenever use some one else opinions, theories, data or organization of material. And need to refer information from books, article, videos, computers, and other print or electronic source.
A referencing is required
Para phrases (use their idea in your own words)
Summarizing (use brief account of their ideas)
Quote (use some one else extra words)
Copy (use their figures, tables or structures)
Why should do referencing?
References enhance the writing and assist reader by:
Showing breath of researches
Strengthening academic argument
Showing reader to consult source of independency
Allowing the reader to verify data
Which referencing system should follow?
There are a number of different referencing systems used in academic writing.
Author-date systems commonly known as Harvard and APA (American Psychological Association)
Footnoting or end noting systems commonly used in History and Law.
It is important that you use the referencing system required by lecturer for an assignment and maintain consistency in using that system.
How to do in text
The following is a set of guidelines for modeling referencing techniques for paraphrasing and direct quotations in the body paragraphs of your assignments (in-text referencing), and in the reference list at the end of the assignment.
If no example can be located for the resource you intend to use, be guided by the principles of author-date referencing; always include details that you consider would be necessary to locate that resource and place them in the order in which they appear in the Harvard system:
Author and date
City where published.
If it is an electronic resource, include:
Author and date
URL address or name of database.
Examples for in text
Surname (family name) of the author(s) and the date it was published. If the author's name is part of the sentence statement, only the date needs to be in brackets.
Example: â€¦ Hartley (1999) declared thatâ€¦
If it is not, both the name and date must be in brackets, separated by a comma.
Example â€¦â€¦although other authors have denied this (Hartley, 1999)
The page number(s) must be added if a specific part needs to be identified.
Example: â€¦which is described there in detail (Hartley, 1999 p.172)
If there are 2 authors:
Example:â€¦..in the much acclaimed work on the subject by Martin and Frost (2001)
For 3 authors or more, it is usual to use the Latin et al (meaning "and others") after the name of the first author. You must put it in italics.
Example â€¦..Anderson et al (2003) concluded that â€¦â€¦.
The Referencing list
How to do end text
An end-text 'Reference List' records bibliographical information for each source you have referred to, quoted from or paraphrased (and only those sources) in the body of your written work.
Each citation must have a matching entry in the reference list. It must have the full bibliographic details so that readers can find the source.
The reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography lists everything you may have read, while a reference list is limited to the in-text references in your assignment.
The reference list is:
arranged alphabetically by author's family name, or title if a source has no author
A single list-books; journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged in separate lists.
Setting out item in referencing list
The main elements required for all references are the author, the date, the title and the publication information.
The basic formats are shown in the examples below. These should be followed exactly, paying special attention to details of capitalization, punctuation, italics and wording.
Example of a book
The basic format required for books is:
Author's family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.
Example: Daly, J 2004, Nursing leadership, Elsevier, Sydney.
The author's name, family name first, followed by a comma and an initial.
Year of publication followed by a comma, no parentheses/brackets.
Title in italics, followed by a comma. Upper case used for first letter; lower case for the rest.
Publisher followed by a comma.
Place of publication. If more than one place is listed give only the first listed. If there is another place of the same name or if the place is little known add the state or country. Full stop at the end.
Example of an academic journal article
The basic format required for journal articles is:
Author's family name, Initial(s) year, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page range.
Example : Davis, L, Mohay, H & Edwards, H 2003, 'Mothers' involvement in caring for their premature infants: an historical overview', Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 578-86.
Davis, L, Mohay, H & Edwards, H
Author's family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) with no punctuation after the initials. Ampersand (&) joins second or last author- no comma after last author's initials.
Year of publication followed by a comma, no brackets.
'Mothers' involvement in caring for their premature infants: an historical overview',
Title of the article in single inverted commas, (capital for first word only), followed by a comma.
Journal of Advanced Nursing,
Title of the journal capitalized and in italics, followed by a comma.
Volume number of the journal followed by a comma.
Number of the issue followed by a comma.
Page numbers of the article, with an En dash between.
Example of an electronic publication
The basic format required for electronic sources is:
Author's family name, Initial(s) year date, Title of document or website, date viewed, <URL>.
Thomas, S 1997, Guide to personal efficiency, Adelaide University, viewed 6 January 2004, <http://library.adelaide.edu.au/~sthomas/papers/perseff.html>.
Author's family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) with no punctuation after the initials.
Year of publication followed by a comma, no brackets.
Guide to personal efficiency,
Title of the source in italics, followed by a comma.
The document's publisher, if known.
viewed 6 January 2004,
Date the document was viewed with a comma after year.
The internet address (URL or Uniform Resource Locator) is enclosed in < and >, with the full address and followed by a full stop if at the end.
Examples for end text References
Andersson, B., & Beveridge, A. (2007). A guide to assessments and skills in SCCA (2nd ed.). [Booklet]. Perth, WA: Edith Cowan University.
Bennett, T. J. (Ed.). (2008). Referencing guide (10th ed.). Perth, WA: Edith Cowan University.
Grellier, J., & Goerke, V. (2006). Communication skills toolkit: Unlocking the secrets of tertiary success. Australia: Thomson Social Science.
Marshall, L., & Rowland, F. (1998). A guide to learning independently (3rd ed.). South Melbourne: Longman.
Wallace, A., Schirato, T., & Bright, P. (1999). Beginning university: Thinking, researching and writing for success. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin.