An Analysis Of Social Change English Language Essay

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Social behavior will not stay the same throughout my lifetime. Already it has changed many times. People match their ideals to "normal" behavior in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment. I propose through my experiments we will be able to find the true power of same sex relationships. And if it really is true, that people prefer their own gender to the opposite.

Introduction

Three major sources of social change are discovery, diffusion and invention. People conform to "the norm" behavior in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment, as you know. But as times change so does style. When looking back into history and see how the styles have changed through the years it has been for the better. In this day and time styles are still changing due to all the different societies, religious groups and age groups. Gay and Lesbian couples have become more accepted in the public's eyes. And through study I have found that females drift back to their home sanctuaries when they feel threatened or sad while males tend to stand alone in quiet thought.

Friendship has led to be one of the most important characteristics of teenagers', more so than in children (Buhrmester, 1990; Richey & Richey, 1980). A study that compared children with teenagers found that close friendship is more important to teenagers (Buhrmester, 1990). The study also mentioned that self-competence in peer relationship skills is a greater concern for teenagers than it is or ever was for children. After reviewing a book, "growing into a social butterfly" by Jim William, facts were revealed that children with close friends show better academic performance are less likely to drop out of school, and have less chance of juvenile delinquency(Parker & Asher, 1987). What does this have to do with whether someone is more comfortable with same or opposite sex? Well a childrens "best friend paisr" versus "acquaintance pairs" has shown more positive behavioral states between test subjects also allowing them to experience lower stress levels during their social interactions (Field, Greenwald, Morrow, Healy, Foster, Guthertz, & Frost, 1992).

A few other studies, however, have compared same-sex friendships with opposite-sex friendships, using teenagers as test subjects. This study was conducted by: Sharabany, Gershoni, and Hofman (1981) where they investigated situations of peer intimacy of same-sex and opposite-sex friendships during childhood, teenager, and adulthood. A 32 question intimacy test, was administered to 480 Israeli school children in the 5th, 6th, 9th, and 11th grades. Half of the test subjects rated their same-sex best friend and the other half rated their opposite-sex best friend on intimacy level. The Females reported a greater level of friendship bonding with their same-sex friend than did males. The intimacy scores for opposite-sex friends were low for both males and females in the 5th grade, but increased after that for female test subjects more rapidly than for male test subjects. By the 11th grade, the level of opposite-sex peer intimacy was similar to that of same-sex intimacy. Providing that intimacy ratings secure information regarding the "comfort level" experienced in friendships, the use of behavioral and physiological measures can provide additional information to understanding the level of stress during peer interactions.

In another study, using behavioral and physiological measurements (McBride & Field, 1997), high schooler's were videotaped in same-sex and opposite-sex best friend pairs during a face-to-face conversation. Videotapes were viewed and rated for the re-occurrence of behavior states, saliva samples were collected from all 48 test subjects to determine the each subjects' cortisol levels(to see how nervous they were) before and after the interaction. The test subjects then were asked to complete questionnaires in which they rated their interaction and the likability of their partner. But the most comfortable, friendliest interactions were found to be those between females. The Female test subjects rated their same-sex interactions as more comfortable and also their female partners more likable and they engaged in more friendly behavior together than the male-male or opposite-sex groups. Although it had been anticipated that by this age these teenagers would be spending more time in heterosexual relationships and therefore rating them more equally and showing more friendly behavior, that did not occur to be true for this eleventh-grade sample.

Hypothesis:

If test subjects were given the choice between having social interactions with a person of the same sex or the opposite sex, then the person would choose the same sex because the same sex are more related and are friendlier to each other.

Procedure:

Use the Same Test Subjects for BOTH evaluations

1st step of evaluation-Psychological Behavior Measurement

20 evaluation sheets are made, asking for:

Questionnaire

Consent for experiment

Sex(male or female)

Email

6 preferred interaction questions

If you need to talk to someone about something personal, do you contact your best male friend or female friend?

If you have a fight with a friend, who do you want on your side(other than the friend you are fighting with), your best male friend or your best female friend?

If something important comes up in a relationship, and you are afraid to ask your boyfriend/girlfriend, who would u ask? Your best male friend or your best female friend?

If you had to hug someone you didn't know, and didn't know what they looked like, would you choose male or female?

If you had to go on a blind date/fun date, would you rather go with a male or female?

In general, would you rather talk to someone male or female?

Signature - verifying validity

Test subjects are than given the evaluation and are allowed 2 minutes to complete it without speaking to anyone else

Evaluation is collected and put aside for later tallying

Raw data is tallied and formatted for later use

End of evaluation #1

2nd step of evaluation - Physiological Behavior Measurement

20 test subjects are gathered together in a group (10 male, 10 female)

2 (1 female, 1 male) "Bait" test subjects are taken to holding chambers to await incoming Test subjects

Remaining 18 test subjects are told there is a male and female in 2 different rooms

They have no clue of identities of the 2 in the holding chamber

Only told they have a choice between male or female, not knowing what the person looks, acts, or smells like

Test subjects now are siphoned off into the room of their choice to socialize with their preferred "Bait" test subject

After entering room, test subjects were forced to hug "bait" test subject

"Bait" test subjects tally the # of boys and girls that enter their room

Raw data is tallied and formatted for later use

End of evaluation #2 - Test subjects are sent home

Control group for this evaluation was 2 Adult test subjects (my parents). The experimental group was 18 High school students (9 male, 9 female). Responding variable was the interactions between the test subjects. Validity was measured in signatures and emails for the first evaluation. For the second, validity is measured in the use of pictures and signatures.

Data:

Evaluation #1:

Questions':

1

2

3

4

5

6

GENDER

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

FEMALE

2

8

3

7

1

9

4

6

4

6

3

MALE

8

2

1

9

10

X

X

10

X

10

X

C:\Users\lynnylove\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\C0BPDG8X\graph[1].jpg

In this set of data, you will notice the sweeping trend of the graph, if you connect the top of the slopes together. This trend sets the males from the females. As you can see from the yellow and purple bars, female interactions are much more wanted by both sexes. Leading to the expectance that Female test subjects don't mind same-gender socialization as much as Male test subjects do.

Evaluation #2:

Holding Rooms:

Male "Bait" Test Subject Room:

Female "Bait" Test Subject Room:

GENDER:

# of Male Test Subjects:

4

6

#Female Test Subjects:

3

7

C:\Users\lynnylove\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\C0BPDG8X\graph[1].jpg

In this graph, you can also see the trend of females being more popular than males, this experiment was simple to do, and brought in surprising, though reoccurring data. As in evaluation number one, the data is really similar. Though disturbing because it throws off the investigation, because only half the test subjects confirm the hypothesis while the other half refuted the hypothesis, I believe this is what we call a "Catch 22".

Results/Analysis:

The results ended up in a multitude of endings, it turns out males are overly confident and over 75% of the time would choose female interactions to male, while the females swayed more towards their home gender. This occurred, I believe because of peer pressure within the group, with some testosterone, and mother-want mixed in together. This experiment related to real life because it is the study of socio-biology and human nature which can be used to understand the human existence. Later I could possibly use the results from this experiment to be able to decide what kind of ratios I can mix together at parties, without the party getting slow or out of hand.

They hypothesis was neither refuted nor confirmed with these 2 experiments. If given the choice between social interactions with the same sex of the opposite sex, the data differs; males tend to choose the opposite sex, while females tend to choose the same sex, so, the hypothesis was partially confirmed, because females chose the same sex over the opposite sex.

Many unexpected things happened in this data, most of the data seemed to be skewed everywhere, with males choosing female interactions, and females sometimes choosing male interactions, although the data seemed to smooth out in the end. I was expecting the data to start out being obvious, and not so "all over the place" for lack of better words. All the test subjects that partook in the experiment were documented. Information revolving around validity will be later given in the appendix. Improvements that should be made for future tests of this kind would be to isolate test subjects from peer pressure, or just so they cannot discuss questionnaire questions/answers. We should also no make the test subject so general, but isolate it down to either male or female. I concur that this experiment was extremely valid.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, yes, people do prefer interactions with their own gender over the opposite gender. As shown in the data, over 70% of females chose their same gender interactions over opposite gender interactions in the second evaluation. Also the spike in the first evaluation questions that were answered by females with an 85% was solid proof of the experiments success in showing; females prefer interactions with their own gender over the opposite gender. Males on the other hand almost 40% of the time decided that the same-gender interactions were more wanted than opposite gender interactions in the second evaluation and less than 20% in the first evaluation. Does this prove that women are the greater sex and males prefer same sex social interaction over opposite sex social interaction? No, but it does prove that males do not seek same gender interactions as women do.

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