Act of physical and non physical

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Definition Wars

War is an act of physical and non physical (In a narrow sense, is a state of hostility with the use of force) between two or more groups of people [1] for dominance in the disputed territory. War in ancient meant as armed conflict, in the modern era, war is more directed at the technological and industrial superiority, there is a doctrine of armed forces such as " who control the height those will control the world ", it demonstrates that the possession of the heights to be achieved by technology. But the war is no longer acting as a verb, but was shifted to the adjective, which popularized this is the journalist, so this shift gradually get its position, but generally, war means "contradiction".

Cause of the war

Specifically and philosophical territory, war is a derivative of human nature which remains to this day maintain dominance and competition as a means of strengthening itself by the existence of the will subdue the hostile parties [2], by starting psychologically and physically and by involving themselves and others, either in groups or not. The war can result in pain and prolonged poverty, as an example world war II resulted in loss of life of hundreds of people in Japan and of course this caused deep sadness in Japanese society.

Causes of the war include:

  • Differences of ideology
  • Desire to expand the area of power
  • Differences of interest
  • Deprivation of natural resources (oil, agricultural products, etc.)

The level of war planning

  1. Highway strategy

Grand Strategy (also called Highway strategy) of "employment purposes of all instruments of power are available to the security community". [1] So the strategy is a process where goals can be realized.

Highway military strategy involves the calculation of economic resources and manpower. This also includes the moral resources, which is sometimes called national. [2] The issues highway strategy usually includes a choice of primary versus secondary theater of war, the distribution of resources among the various services, common types of manufacturing weapons for the good, and the best international alliances in accordance with national objectives.

This has a lot of overlap with foreign policy, but the strategy focuses on the implications of highway military policy. Some have extended the concept to describe the highway strategy generally, including strategic thinking at the corporate level and the political parties.

Highway strategies are usually driven by the political leadership of a country, with input from the most senior military officials. Because the scope and number of different people and groups involved, the grand strategy is usually a problem of public record, although the details of implementation (such as direct objectives specific alliance) is often hidden. Development of a strategy is needed to extend the nation's highways for years or even several generations.


Four functions highway strategy:

  • Support national objectives, which at the highest level involve an increasing fitness, as an organic whole, to shape and cope with the ever-changing environment.
  • Stimulates the determination
  • Ending the conflict
  • Ensure that conflict and peace can not provide the seeds for future conflict. As a basic strategy of highway, Boyd recommended the "unifying vision".


  • Anglo-Zulu War.
  • An example in the history of this decision is the King of Zulu Kingdom Cetshwayo is camping to attack British troops in the Battle of Isandlwana in 1879. This will ensure that the UK will take a more aggressive approach for a future invasion, which eventually led to their victory at the Battle of Ulundi.

  • Cold War

A more recent example from highway strategy is the containment policy used by the U.S. and the UK during the Cold War.


  1. Gray, Colin: War, Peace and International Relations - An Introduction to Strategic History, Oxon: Routledge 2007,
  2. Strategy by B.H. Liddell Hart

2. Strategy of war

Strategy is the usage of fighting to end the war. Strategy is the key to the implementation of the war and ruled by the principles to set force action against the enemy forces that are attacking the weak to produce a victory.

Procces of Strategy

  1. Defining national security objectives as the basis for the strategy process.
  2. Formulate strategies highway, better known by the term policy.
  3. Developing a military strategy.
  4. Designing operating strategy.
  5. Formulate strategies battlefield, better known by the term tactics.

Type of Strategy

  • Military strategy
  • Operating strategy
  • Battlefield strategy / tactics


  • Land
  • The position is a problem in strategy to distinguish the position of contour lines and position within. Countries are in a position outside the line if it can surround your opponent or enemy. The position is the position of the line in a country that faced the possibility of hostility from the surrounding countries.

    Germany during World War was second in line. In World War I Germany allied with Austria, both located in Central Europe. They faced the French and English in the west, Russia in the east, and Italy in the south. During World War II, German allied with Italy against France and England in the west, Poland and the Soviet Union in the east. France in Napoleon Bonaparte's leadership is often in the position in line. To get the victory, the line positions need a quick maneuverability with high power while at the contour position requires coordination and good communication to maintain and take advantage of his position. But it is difficult to coordinate two or more different countries, although they are allied. There is always a misunderstanding due to the prestige and national pride of each.

  • Sea
  • Maritime power is very important to develop power and ensure their welfare state. [3] The development of state power is more easily done through the sea rather than land, such as Spanish ruled over the world in the 16th century. Rule of Spanish captured by England which had slogan that England must take over the world oceans, although receding in the 20th century. Other countries, like France and Germany also wanted to rule the world by building a sea fleet. Sea Battle is the cause of war between France and England.

    Countries that want to rule the world tend to build the fleet. Naval strength prior to World War II, determined by the number of large battleships and equipped with fire power, propulsion, and power base. In World War I, developed cause of development of the carrier aircraft to attack the enemy or opponent from long distance. During World War II, naval battle won by the party that has many carriers that can deliver the aircraft several times to attack the enemy, such as: naval battle of Midway in the Pacific Ocean between the Japanese fleet and the United States. Although Japan was able to attack the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, they could not destroy U.S. aircraft carriers. Meanwhile, German naval battles develop strategies using submarines to win the battle with the British. In the cold war, the submarine's role became very important. Strategy at sea is to build a growing maritime power with increasing technological capabilities.

  • Air

At the beginning of the 20th century, since World War I aircraft have been used in wars. Aircrafts may radically change the way of war because it can directly attack the central government of the opponent or enemy. Air forces that are used to defeat and to destroy the enemy air forces despite its army and navy are big and strong. The main function is to attack the air force base and the industry of social integrity enemy. Air strategy proved many misses as in the battle of Britain, Dresden, and Vietnam, but it proved worked when the U.S. used the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima during World War II. The development of new technologies, namely the shooting with a maximum accuracy distance, practiced in the Gulf War and the Iraq war. Air power became more important with the development of missiles and rockets.


  1. Carl von Clausewitz, On War (translation of Vom Kriege) by Michel Howard and Peter Paret, Princeton University, New Jersey, 1976
  2. Makers of Modern Strategy, edited by Peter Paret, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
  3. Makers of Modern Strategy, edited Peter Paret, Oxford University Press, 1986

Law of war

White flag is known as a way to show the peace or not a person participation in a war. According to the rules of war so that the people who wave the white flag is forbidden to be killed.

The doctrine of the Legal War is an effort to distinguish between the ways that can be justified by that can not be justified in the use of organized armed forces. Doctrine Theory of legitimate war try to understand how the usage of weapons can be controlled, conducted by more humane, and ultimately aimed at efforts to bring peace and lasting justice.

Legal War tradition discusses about the usage of force morality into two parts: when a part is justified in using its armed forces an what should they do in use the armed forces.

In the years more recently, came the third category , which governs how a war can be ended fairly and peace agreement can be achieved, while the war criminals on trial, too.

Tandan munitions convention is an international treaty that was prohibiting the usage of cluster bombs (bombs bulk). This Convention was held on May 30, 2008 in Dublin, Ireland, [1] and will be signed in Oslo in December. [2]

This Convention was followed more than 100 countries which do not include the United States, Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and Brazil. [3] [4] These countries are the largest owners of cluster munitions. [4]


  1. Baltimore Sun - Cluster-bomb ban U.S. opposes passes (actual passage)
  2. Cluster bombs: international treaty agreed (denotes the signage is not until december)
  3. "Cluster bomb treaty: Signing of ban on production begins",, December 3, 2008. Retrieved on December 3, 2008.
  4. Ab "Britain Joins a Draft Treaty on Cluster Munitions", The New York Times, 29 May 2008

Agreement or peace agreement is an agreement between 2 groups or countries, usually countries or governments, that formally end the armed conflict.Peace agreement is Different with peace accords of the ceasefire, the agreement to end the conflict, or surrender, in which the military agreed to lay down their arms.

Peace agreement is often ends with the determination of borders and war reparations should be realized by these countries after the war.

Famous peace treaty in history :

  • Treaty of Versailles (1919), ending World War I, the participants: the German Empire and the Entente Block
  • Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), mengakiri: First World War, the participants: Austria and Block Entente
  • Treaty of Neuilly (1919), end: World War I
  • Treaty of Trianon (1919), end: World War I, the participants: Hungary and the Entente
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918), end: World War I in the Eastern Bloc, participants: Russia and Central Powers
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648), end: 30 Years War, the participants: Sweden, Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of France, etc..
  • Nöteborg Agreement, ending: a war, the participants: Sweden and the Republic of Novgorod
  • Treaty of Campo Formio (1797), end: Coalition First, participants: French First Republic and Austria
  • Treaty of Utrecht
  • Treaty of Breda
  • Treaty of Amiens

Ultimatum is a Latin word, which meant that last statement or request that was not cancelled which become part of a diplomatic way to other countries, and usually followed by war, if not satisfied.

In everyday life, ultimatums is also something that is made in a variety of contexts, as in:

  • the legal process (eg a request to conduct a defense bargain or face a court)
  • a business relationship (eg a request to approve a specific price or forward transactions)
  • labor disputes (eg requests to provide salary increases or other improvements in working conditions, or face a strike)

A civilian is someone who is not a member of the military. According to the Fourth Geneva Convention, is a war crime to attack a civilian who was not intentionally attacking or destroying or taking property's citizen does not need.

Even so, the prppety of a civilian may be destroyed if there is a military objective; property of a citizen may be seized for military purposes, and accidentally damage is something that can be received in a war.

In practice, who may be called as the non-combatants and combatants sometimes become a complicated issue, particularly in the guerrilla war in which guerrilla fighters receive the support of local residents. Sometimes the argument that the distinction between civilians and military, and lack of pleasure attacks against civilians are a reflection of Western attitudes toward the war; for other communities this is not a problem, instead they regard that the war strategy of the West such as strategic bombing as being not groove.

Beyond that, there are 188 countries that follow the Geneva Convention (as of December 31, 1996) including state-of non-Western countries that have been in conflict since August 12, 1946, on the stipulation of the Convention, such as Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, Congo, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, both of the two Korean states, Kuwait, Laos, Rwanda, Syria and Vietnam.

Defense to Attack Replies

Development of operations and tactical level there are several ways:

  1. Defense must end attacks Replies
  2. Defense is not only aimed holding the attacker, but also to win the war or battle. Each defense should be able to counterattack. Defender defeated the attack if only the attack can do a counterattack against the attackers and defeat. Only with such a good source of the threat of military threats and non-military threats can be eliminated. When the defense was unable to counterattack, will be static war, nobody wins and who loses as the war in Western Europe became trench war (war Germany - France) in World War I. This war ended after the British helped French by used tanks to break through enemy defenses.

    The greatness of the dominance of Germany troops attack by tank-infantry teams, supported by engineers air(blitzkrieg) can be resolved satisfactorily by defense of the Soviet Union through a counterattack, although after the Soviet Union experienced many failures and lost before. The victory was result of Soviet tactical innovation was because of using mine field to reduce the freedom of movement of tanks; augment anti-tank weapons to infantry; the other troops opened fire on the rear area and lines of communication of the attacker to complicate logistical implementation which needed forward movement of the tank.; and prepare the tanks for destroying attackers of tank that held its advance. Since tactical innovation Soviet, attacks did not lead again on defense.

  3. Thwart efforts Striker Consolidation

If the backlash does not resolve conflict by a victory for the defense, the attacker must thwart a consolidation effort. Discomfiture consolidation done by military interference, a defense areas, and conduct diplomacy efforts and mobilize support for other countries to help the importances of the defense. Germany's attack against to Soviet Union in Operation of Barbarossa began on June 22, 1941 is an example of land war and achievement of the defense to beat the attacker by a counterattack.

Some examples of the biggest war ever will be remembered by many people around the world, including World War I and World War II ..

1. World War I

World War I (abbreviated as WW1; also called the First World War, the Great War, War of the States, and the War to End All Wars) was a world conflict that lasted from 1914 until 1918. [2] More than 40 million people died, including approximately 20 million military and civilia. [3] [4] [5]

The war began after Prince Franz Ferdinand, from Austria-Hungary (now Austria) terrorist group killed by Serb, Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo. Unprecedented conflict of this magnitude, both from the number of troops deployed and engaged, and the number of victims. Chemical weapons are used for the first time, the mass bombing of civilians from the air is, and many of the large-scale genocide of this century's first war took place as this. Four dynasty, Habsburg, Romanov, Ottoman and Hohenzollern, which has roots power until the time of the Crusades, all fell after the war.

World War I became outbreak time of the old world order, marking the end of monarchical absolutism in Europe. He also became a trigger of the Russian Revolution, which will inspire other revolutions in other countries such as China and Cuba, and will become the basis for the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. Germany's defeat in this war and the failure to solve problems that are still hanging has been the cause of World War I will be the basis of the rise of Nazis, and with the outbreak of World War II in 1939. He also became the basis for new forms of warfare that relies heavily on technology, and will involve non-military in a war like has never happened before.

World War became famous as trench warfare protection, where a large number of soldiers is limited motion in the trenches and could only move a little because of tight defenses. This happens especially on the Western Front. More than 9 million people died on the battlefield, and nearly as much as it is also the number of civilians who died because food shortages, starvation, mass murder and inadvertently involved in a battle.


  1. A b Evans, David. Teach yourself, the First World War, Hodder Arnold, 2004.p.188
  2. The First World War. Channel4.
  3. Military Casualties of World War One.
  4. The Treaty of Versailles and its Consequences.
  5. Bade 2003,

2. World War II

World War II, officially began racing on September 1st, 1939 to September 2nd, 1945. Nevertheless there who thinks that the war had actually started earlier, namely on March 1, 1937 when Japan occupied Manchuria. Until now, this war is the most devastating war ever happened on earth. Approximately 50,000,000 (fifty million) people died in this conflict.

Generally it can be said that wars begin when the German occupation of Poland on September 1st, 1939, and expire on August 14th, 1945 when Japan surrendered to U.S. troops. World War II officially ended when Japan signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender aboard the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, 6 years after the war began.

As the conclusion, wars create suffering to the people. Not few of them are either dead, fall in comatose, or seriously injured and not many survived. War can be prevented by creating harmony in the world and opening ourselves up to understand each other. We must learn from our past-mistakes (The wars) so we won't create any war anymore.