It is commonly acknowledged that if we want to write an academic essay, usually we will find the materials for the task. Nowadays, we can find academic materials not only from books but also suffer the internet. However, there will be a puzzle in academic essay how can we find the materials to help us to write. Firstly, when we get the topic about our essay we have to understand the exactly meaning of that. We should know what we need to write, what the audiences want to read and then we can find the key words or general meanings about the dissertation. Secondly, we use the key words to find materials for paper. Fortunately, with the development of internet, we can save lots of work and time otherwise we have to find the points from books, there will be lots of work to do. Thirdly, the most important is that understand the materials which we have found. "Reading is vital for stimulating our thinking which is a key component for success"(effective study skills,P213).When we begin to write an academic essay we may read materials as many as possible for finding which materials we need. So how to read quickly and how to manage your reading will decide the quality of your paper. Fourthly, "using supporting sources, important stage in the process, provides access to academic literature, usually able to access tertiary material online, include online databases." There are also other essential points for instance "ensure key words match the controlled index language, search appropriate printed and electronic sources, note precise details, include search-strings used for each database, note the full reference for each item found, the last one is keep good records". Those are kinds of points we should learn, can help us complete our essay. Next, using logic for searches, logic is very important for paper, we make sure the sentences clearly and coherently, it can help reader comprehend your essay easily. Mostly we keep our paper logical by linking words for example and, or, not. The purpose of these words are different, the "and" is aimed to a narrow search, the "or" is aimed to a wide search, and the "not" is aimed to an exclusive term from search. There are also some punctuations can make sure the article being logical. Then, evaluating the literature, "determine the academic credibility of each item you found, determine the relevance of each item of literature for your purpose, and determine the sufficiency for your purpose-have you found/read enough? Then record what you found". Last, there are some key points for record, make sure we have made "bibliographic details", "brief summary of content" (the paper, unit 3) and make clear of the references. Those are very important of writing a clear essay.
At the beginning of writing an academic essay, there is a lot of work to do. The most important thing is taking a logical plan. As the proverb says, "If you fail to plan, then you are planning to fail." In addition, taking a good plan can make you write essay more effective. How can we make a plan?
At first, in order to draw up our plan we have to have a project management. That is "planning the project, undertaking the tasks, and the last is monitoring and controlling the project." When we start to project planning we need some requirements such as have complete planning, research information as much as possible, have a decision for identification, realize our goals, and have a control of where will be mistakes. (The paper, unit 8).
The second step is project control and construction. The emphasis contains some of important factories for example standards and procedures of essay, making paper conciseness, tools and techniques, how can we control the mistakes. To analyse the project brief, there are 3 parts of main points. The teaching material said that "outline what needs to be achieved", "defines the scope of the project" and "forms the basis of the project plan." The factories of standards and procedures are that "outlines what standards are expected", "outlines what procedures are to be followed." Also, do not make these mistakes for instance forget the date, miss the word count and must be word-processed. (The paper, unit 8).
The last one and the most important step is that we can then take the accurate planning. "If we are working in a group-allocate a project manager who will be responsible for project management. Decide the major tasks that need to be undertaken. Allocate tasks to individuals." Thus, in my opinion to be a member in one team we will be have less work though it will be much more significant than we only do this work for ourselves because the work for anyone is not also relating one person but also one team. Next, remember to determine the request of school assignment and "identify which tasks are dependent upon completion of something else and which tasks can be undertaken in parallel. For example for the case of dependent we cannot undertake an interview until you have designed the questions. On the other hand we can be writing a literature review and designing a questionnaire at the same time". (effective study skills, 2010)
In conclusion, the list of planning academic essay we had is first design main tasks and understand what the meaning of the topic is and we do research, plan essay, do not forget to write the first draft then tutor can help us to revise draft and give us some advices to improve the skills of essay
Academic skills for postgraduate students
The essay is a kind of tasks to examine students how they learn the subject and most of essays we have written need more information than the teachers have taught in the class. It at least consists of five paragraphs: an introduction, a body and a conclusion. ( Zeliha Gulcat, Sept 2004) "It is also a piece of critical and analytical prose. The using of language for academic essay is in a subject-specific way and it is drawing on research and citing a rang of authors". The other major characteristics of essay is "developing arguments to support a particular position, remaining objective about a subject and not using I or expressing one's own feeling about a topic"((The paper, unit 10).It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous hulexy, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that "Like the novel, the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything, usually on a certain topic. By tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece, and it is therefore impossible to give all things full play within the limits of a single essay". He points out that "a collection of essays can cover almost as much ground, and cover it almost as thoroughly, as can a long novel"--he gives Montaigne's Third Book as an example. Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference". (wikipedia,2010)
Firstly, we can have a plan. The essay is writing about the exact question so that before we start to write we need to understand the topic completely. The way is that read the question carefully, "Look for the hidden agenda in the title and help you consider how to approach the essay". There are another methods to concentrate on the topic for example "put a box around action words in the title-important because this tells you what type of essay is required, remember to underline key words in title and then glance back make sure you have not missed any words" these are all accurate methods to help us. Next, we have to collect enough valuable information. There are many different ways of collecting data which we have done the target are "fit for purpose" .And Paul also said that methods have to be used in a way that will produce usable information. Selecting the mix of evaluation methods for a particular evaluation is therefore a matter of making decisions about the various trades-offs between spending a lot of resources on a few methods, or of undertaking a wider mix of methods. (Paul Duigam, 2009). When we hand in our essay that is not meaning tutors would only read yours so we have to write a characterful essay. In order to achieve this goal we can use course material, compare and contrast different theories, models, and authors. Next is using criteria to evaluate then showing awareness of complexities-acknowledge strengths and weakness in your own and others work. Do not forget to write your essay surround the topic and the better argument, the more reasonable you have. We also need ourselves' point when we have both side of the argument, which based on the evidence, we'd better agree with some views (paper, 2010).
Secondly, "having made up a comprehensive, matrix of evidence for your essay you are now ready to manage the drafting and editing stage."(Effective study skills, 2010). Think about what we have wanted to discuss, what our opinion is, have we had enough examples to prove our idea, and what opponent evidences? (Paper, 2010). These can make our essay more reasonable and make readers trust your view. "Drafting, is often referred to as the composing part of the writing process." We'd better finish this step firstly when we have not had a decision of sentences and paragraphs. "It is the time when you can try out ways of communicating to your audience. When you are drafting an essay, it can be enough of a struggle just to get the ideas down in the right order". When you finish drafting, the next is editing. In my opinion, editing is more important than drafting because when we start to edit our essay, we may change some sentences and vocabularies or our view. After we have edited our essay and that is the audience actually read.
Next, constitute your essay. "Academic integrity is a code of practice which is strongly adhered to in any type of academic writing. We must ensure that we are able to give recognition to the work of others in our own writing. To do this effectively, we need to understand the rules of referencing our work and how to cite others' work within our text." When we collect enough information for paper, in my opinion, only patching the information together is not a good idea, it may make our essay incoherent. The best way is read our information and understand then summary the sources in paragraphs. The reference is other important part of the essay, the reference can tell the readers what the background of our paper and "citing references provides our tutors with confirmation that we are aware of what is going on in our subject and research field." (Effective study skills.2010) So that quote some references can make our paper more professional. These kinds of work means structuring our essay the introduction is a very important part because it tells it tells our reader
what it is about,
It sets the tone for our essay. In other words, it tells the reader whether our essay will be light, humorous, serious, controversial, etc.
it shows our reader how our essay will develop. That is to say, there must not be big surprises in the development of ouressay
it helps the reader to make a transition from the conditions he is in to the content of our essay
it is where the reader decides whether to read our essay or not. In other words, they may put our essay down if they feel that it is going to be extremely boring (our instructors excluded because they have to read our essays whether they are extremely boring or not, they have to correct and evaluate our essays anyway) (Zeliha Gulcat, Sept 2004)
The third part is feedback; possibly we can call that tidy up. When we finish paper this way is indispensable. The book of effective study skills tells that managing the writing process is one aspect of developing your writing skills. Making the most of the feedback you receive is an essential part of increasing your grades. we spend a long time writing essays is not meaning we can get high mark. The key is improving our skills, strategies and style and thinking about whether our tutors consider your essay is worthy of high grade. "Academic writing is regarded by some academics as a process of socializing the student into the research community, be it engineering, medicine, sports science etc." (Effective study skills.2010).
Finally, if we have written a good introduction and then we developed your body essay logically the next job would conclude our essay naturally. A good conclusion can help the reader understand our argument. There are also some methods of the conclusion, the first is reviewing our essay main idea it is the easiest way to finish the conclusion, the second is restate topic that can make audience understand what your exact meanings are, the next we can use question, according put question we can finish our essay easily and questions can bring our essay some interesting. Make sure our conclusion is the end of the essay, "do not bring up new ideas or start new discussion in the conclusion, do not let your essay finish weakly with a weak conclusion section. A good essay deserves a good conclusion. Make sure that our conclusion is consistent with the arguments in our essay. Sometimes we may get carried away and end up concluding the opposite of your thesis, especially if we do not plan well."(Zeliha Gulcat, Sept 2004)
"Do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of."
We have heard that sentences for a long time and we all know what the meaning of it. However, is there anyone can say I have never waste time? To be honest, we have already waste the time but the key is how we waste it. Many of us spend on something neither important nor necessary. Time management is not meaning does not waste any time, but teaching us how we can save time to be a better person, as we known, time is invisible we can see what it is. For example, I am typing right now, we know the time was passed, but unfortunately we cannot feel, we cannot touch, we cannot hear so that it is very difficult to manage it. For the purpose of management we want everyone use that for changing our life. (cbqqbr,2008). "Time management tips provide us with power to energize and enrich our time choices. This begins with investing the time to reflect on which time choices truly fulfill our needs. And it builds with identifying which time choices are due for an overhaul"(Puala Eder, How to Create Reflection Points to Redirect Your Energy and Enrich Your Time). Time is also a resource just like any other resource we use in your lives and we cannot use it twice. (paper, 2010).
So what can we do if we want to save time?
There are several ways to manage time. Firstly, "do not create impossible situation: Don't get trapped into doing too much. Don't try to work full time and take a full load. Don't take too many lab classes. Use time to create success, not failure. Be realistic about school."(Donald Martin, 1991).
Secondly, decide which is more important. We can do a list such as months review the daily things to do and what is good for our success and avoid failure. Remember we want to achieve our goals and for this target we should focus on the things which can help us. All in all are told us to be smart: Specific-focus on what needs to be done, Manageable-management your time, Achievable-sensible small goals, Relevant-concentrate on the important, Timely-manage time to hit deadlines.(paper, 2010).
The last, do not lack of focus and do not do distractions. "Time is precious" (Donald Martin, 1991). Avoid the unpleasant tasks first. Do not do work if it is full of distraction for us. Then we can make a goal for a small job. Finally, reward ourselves by achieving the target. Also, we can have a rest