A Picture Of The Existing Situation English Language Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In simplistic terms, a Conceptual Model is a schematic drawing containing a Target Condition on one side of the chart, and a number of factors linked by arrows, which show their relationship to the target condition and to each other.

Target Condition is the situation you intend to influence through a project's activities. It should be described as a state of affairs that occurs independent of your project, for example, Tropical Forests & Fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve.

Factors are events, situations or behaviours that affect the target condition. These will include direct threats (e.g. hunting) and indirect threats or barriers that affect a factor (e.g. prevent a threat's reduction - lack of knowledge about park hunting laws).

Relationships within the Conceptual Model are represented by arrows, which show how a factor, can influence others and, ultimately affect the target condition.

FACTOR

FACTOR

TARGET CONDITION

FACTOR

FACTOR

FACTOR

FACTOR

Activities are the actions you plan to take to change particular factors or threats, and which will in turn influence the status of the target condition. In a Pride Campaign - you will want to focus on factors which are believed to be influenced by (a lack of) "knowledge".

For example: educating the local communities about hunting regulations. You may also want, for example, to help introduce new legislation to reduce hunting, which will in turn affect the fauna in you target condition (in this example it is called Andrea's Central Forest Reserve). These activities will only be summarised as bullet points in your FINAL concept model, underneath your Objectives, as part of your workplan, once your objectives have been finalised during your second stakeholder meeting.

2: Shows major direct and indirect threats to the target condition and what are believed to be the connections and relationships between them

A Conceptual Model enables you to show how the various factors influence one another and in doing so affect the Target Condition. In this example we see that deforestation causes erosion leading to soil runoff which results in siltation.

Target Condition

Coral Reefs in Andrea's Marine Park

Reef Damage

Siltation

Erosion

Deforestation

Key

This "Relationship" line shows how factors lead to each others, and ultimately affect the "Target Condition".

From the rivers the soil washes into the sea, covering and smothering the reef, thereby damaging it.

In this way the Conceptual Model allows you to show well-established relationships between factors/threats and how these ultimately affect the Target Condition. It also helps show where interventions can be made to reduce threats.

Focusing upon threat and threat reduction greatly simplifies the planning and monitoring of a project. If you can be confident that a project has addressed all of the threats facing an area, then you can assume that conservation has occurred or will occur in the future.

In order to implement this approach, it is essential that the Conceptual Model include all major direct and indirect threats to biodiversity at the site.

You can determine the extent to which a project has been successful and make whatever adjustments are necessary, by:

accurately identifying the threats

measuring and documenting their impact before a project begins

designing and implementing appropriate project activities that target them

monitoring the impact of the activities of threat reduction over time

3: A good Conceptual Model presents only relevant factors

A good Conceptual Model does not attempt to explain all possible relationships or contain all possible factors that influence the target condition, but instead tries to simplify reality by containing only the information most relevant to the model builders. Too much information can conceal important aspects of the model, while too little information in the model leads to over-simplification, which in turn leads to a higher likelihood that the portrayal is inaccurate.

4: A good Conceptual Model is based on sound data and information

Ultimately a Conceptual Model is only as good as the data and information on which it is based. Good Conceptual Models are build up using existing information - information that has already published or research that has been conducted:

1. Secondary data (from published work) - such as that included in your background paper, and

2. Primary data - which you collect yourself (through questionnaire survey) and which will help you to fine tune your model, as well as help you design your strategy and activities.

5: A good Conceptual Model results from a team effort

Developing a Conceptual Model can be a useful way for project collaborators to share ideas about important factors at your project site and collectively see how these factors influence the area's target condition. This kind of discussion can help your team to come to some mutual agreement or consensus about what factors are important or which threats need to be addressed.

To design an Initial Conceptual Model, you will need a reusable sticky wall (Rare will provide you with one, made from material and artists mount repositionable spray glue).

MAKING A SIMPLE REUSABLE STICKY WALL (GLUE-BOARD)

Purchase a piece of RIP STOCK NYLON measuring approximately

8 feet x 4 feet (2.5 metres x 1.25 metres) from your local fabric retail store (check your Yellow Pages for a listing), as well as a spray can of

re-positionable ARTIST'S MOUNT from a quality art's and craft shop. In an open area (so the fumes can dissipate) spread out the cloth and spray ONE side of it evenly with a light coating of the artist mount glue. (You may need to give the cloth several treatments). Leave it to dry for a few minutes then fold the cloth so the glued sides fold onto one another. When you are ready to use your sticky wall, unfold the cloth by peeling it back, and then attach it to a convenient wall using thumb tacks or duct tape. You will find that sheets of paper stick to the cloth, and can be taken off and replaced with ease.

Follow these instructions to prepare an Initial Concept Model:

Set Up: Before the session begins, put up your sticky wall. You can attach this to a convenient wall using duct tape or thumb-tacks. Also, write the following on a large sheet of Bristol board or flip chart paper and have it ready to display prominently. (You can abbreviate it or change the examples).

Target Condition is the situation you intend to influence through a project's

activities.

It should be described as a state of affairs that occurs independent of your project, for example, Tropical Forests & Fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve.

Factors are events, situations or behaviours that affect the target condition. These will include direct threats (e.g. hunting) and indirect threats or barriers that affect a factor (e.g. prevent a threat's reduction - lack of knowledge about park hunting laws).

Relationships within the Conceptual Model are represented by arrows, which show how a factor, can influence others and, ultimately affect the target condition.

When the session begins, have the participants seated in a semi-circle facing the front wall. They should be close enough that they can clearly see things that might be written on it. Make sure that the room is well lit and aired, and that external distractions are minimal.

Welcome and name-gathering: Seat people comfortably in a semi-circle where they can see you and each other. The Introduction period should serve to introduce (or re-introduce, since you may have met some of the participants before) to each other and introduce the workshop agenda. It is wise to circulate a piece of paper at the start of the meeting on which participants can write their names, titles, organizational affiliations and contact addresses. Be explicit about the aims of the workshop - see above. The day should be set-aside for participants to design an Initial Conceptual Model of the Site.

It is useful to give the participants a time frame so that they are aware as to how long the session might last - say six hours.

To the meeting participants, you need to define:

The Target Condition

Factors

Relationships

(see definitions earlier)

With you (or another facilitator) standing in front of the participants, start off by asking each participant to highlight the one thing he or she is proud of. You might want to write these down for later reference. By asking everyone to speak you will ensure that every participant's voice is heard of from the start and thereby improve participation. Thank each person for coming and offer praise. "That's great Zulhan, thanks for coming, I hope that by working together we can come up with a realistic Concept Model that shows the current situation in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve."

After an opening round of introductions and getting to know one another, you or the moderator should begin by carefully reviewing your expectations for the workshop. Be very clear about what you hope the gathering will achieve, for example it is not to discuss building an interpretive center, nor to talk about alternative fishing techniques. It is to prepare an Initial Conceptual Model for your project that reflects local site conditions. This Initial Concept Model will serve as the foundation for project design, project management and monitoring. Re-iterate that a good Conceptual Model:

Present a portrait of the prevailing situation at a given site.

Show major direct and indirect threats and other factors that affect the target condition that your interventions are trying to influence. For example: Primary Forest in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve.

Show what are believed to be the connections and relationships between the various factors (events, situations barriers and threats) affecting the target condition.

You will need to stress that a good, well thought out Conceptual Model should also present only relevant information, be based upon sound data and result from a team effort that has taken into consideration the thoughts of key stakeholders. That is why they have all been invited. Re-emphasise what a target condition is….In brief, the Target Condition is a state that you want to influence through some activity or intervention. As a result, it should be described as a situation that occurs independently of your project. For example, GOOD target Condition Statements might read:

 Tropical forests and fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

 Marine Biodiversity on Regis Reef

Margoluis and Salafsky advise that Target Condition statements should NOT include action words like conserve, maintain or protect. These will be used when it is time to take action and turn the Target Condition into a project goal. As such, the following are NOT GOOD statements for a Target Condition.

 To conserve the biodiversity of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

 To protect the marine resources of Regis Reef

Ask a focused question

You should decide the Target Condition and then, on a large piece of paper pose a question that will help participants focus on it.

For example: What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

Stick this Focused Question either above or in the upper left hand corner of your sticky wall.

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

Sticky Wall

Focused question

Define Factors

Indicate to those gathered that the first step in the process is for them to collectively identify the various factors that influence the site and its Target Condition. Because factors may be an unfamiliar term to many of them, you will need to explain it clearly, before continuing. Use examples (below) and put them up on a flip chart for ready reference.

Direct Factors - These are factors that immediately affect/threaten the target condition or physically cause its destruction, i.e. commercial timber harvesting, fire, over-hunting.

Indirect Factors - These are factors that underlie or lead to the direct factors, i.e. poverty, (lack of) knowledge about hunting regulations.

Contributing Factors - Factors which are neither direct nor indirect but that have some influence on the target condition, for example weather - weather affects conditions that can lead to an increased or decreased risk of fire.

Identify the Factors

Use the participatory methodology outlined below:

Brainstorming - Order - Name

to first identify direct factors. This methodology is an adaptation of the ToP (Technology of Participation) concept developed by Sherwood Shankland and the Institute of Cultural affairs

To identify the DIRECT factors affecting the area's Target Condition, you should:

Ask everyone in turn to say one direct factor that affects the Target Condition.

This calling out examples will help ensure that the participants really understand what direct factors are. It will also get everyone to participate and to speak up. By having the Target Condition in the form of a focused question displayed prominently at the top of your glue board should help ensure that the factors given are in context.

2. Now have the entire group break into smaller groups each comprising 3-4 individuals. Collectively they should write down 5 direct factors. Each factor should be written separately on a card or sheet of A4 paper.

Participants should not use long sentences, but they should be clear and concise with 3-5 words at most. They should use marker pens that produce bright, clear, and easy-to see text that contrasts with the card/paper upon which it is written.

Important Note: Factors/threats should be written as neutral statements, so rather than writing increased clear-cutting, they should would write, commercial timber harvesting.

3. After giving the groups 5-10 minutes to do this, ask each group to pass to spread their cards out in front of them and to choose the one that is CLEAREST/ EASIEST TO UNDERSTAND.

They should each pass forward the single clearest card. As they do read out the statement written on it and put it on the board. The result will be a mosaic of cards/sheets of paper - each with a concise comment, word or simple phrase on it.

BRAINSTORMING

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

YOU MAY HAVE AS MANY AS 25-30 OF THESE DIRECT THREAT CARDS ON YOUR GLUE BOARD

Slash & Burn

Cutting to clear land

Hunting

Clearing

Fire

Shooting parrots

Bush fires

Sale of wildlife

Timber Company operations

Commercial logging

Now ask participants if they understand the various statements displayed or if clarifications are required. If queries are raised, ask the author of the card to re-phrase the statement until it is clear.

Next, ask the participants to look at the board and to see if any of the cards can be PAIRED. Such that Fire and Bush Fires would seem to be a natural pair. These should be brought together with the cards moved till they are next to one another. Using a glue board/sticky wall makes this moving around easy to do. Look for, and place pairs before you bring together larger groups. When you have all pairs displayed, you can move to see if there are third (or even fourth) cards that might be GROUPED together. For example, you might first put clearing and cutting to clear land as a pair, but collectively decide to also add Clearing for subsistence farming and, perhaps Slash & burn.

Your wall will look like this:

BRAINSTORMING

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

Timber Company operations

Clearing

Fire

Commercial logging

Cutting to clear land

Bush fires

Slash & Burn

Hunting

Shooting parrots

Sale of wildlife

Next ask the participant groups to each pass forward ONE CARD THAT IS DIFFERENT FROM THOSE ALREADY DISPLAYED. Again, read the statements out as they are displayed, ask for clarify and then order and group them into pairs or groups.

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

Timber Company operations

Clearing

Fire

Commercial logging

Cutting to clear land

Bush fires

Slash & Burn

Sale of wildlife

Hunting

Over grazing

Shooting parrots

Too many tourists

Again, pair and group the cards. This grouping process tries to link ideas. You or the facilitator should ask participants to look at the paper sheets and, pointing to the first one - for example Hunting - ask, What other responses on the board are similar to this one? Perhaps, Shooting Parrots. Have the entire group help with ordering of the various groupings !

For example, say John do you agree?, or Harry what do you think?

As the group responds, you should move the cards around such that all the similar ideas are grouped together. To make this process easier you can group related cards under a common symbol, such as a circle or star. You can also ask the participants themselves to move the cards around.

7. Finally, ask participants to mark their remaining card(s) with the group symbol that it most closely fits in, or no symbol if there is no logical fit. They should then pass these forward, read out the statements and place them on the glue board under their respective symbol. With new symbols assigned to those which do not fit into any existing group.

ORDER

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

CARDS WITH A SIMILAR THEME SHOULD BE GROUPED TOGETHER

  

Slash & Burn

Fire

Hunting

Shooting parrots

Bush fires

Clearing

Subsistence farming

 

Over grazing

Timber company operations

Cutting to clear land

Sale of Wildlife

Commercial logging

Create Title Cards. When all the sheets are in groups, participants should reflect on the cards and look at the relationships between them. Read out loud all the cards in a given group and then name that group. For example, for all the  cards - ask participants what the cards have in common, and for a few words that summarize the thoughts behind them. Title cards should be in a different colour.

For example: Slash and Burn, Cutting to clear land, Subsistence farming and Clearing, might all be put under one heading, say Subsistence agriculture, while Timber company operations and Logging might be put under Commercial Logging.

Once each category or group of symbols have been named, see if you can place the few stragglers or one-off suggestions into one or other of the named groups. If not, think of a title for each of these as well.

NAME

What factors influence the tropical forests and wildlife of Andrea's Central Forest Reserve?

TITLE CARDS

  

EXPANDING SUBSISTENCE

AGRICULTURE (2)

HUNTING

(2)

FIRE

(2)

Fire

Hunting

Slash & Burn

Shooting parrots

Bush fires

Clearing

Subsistence farming  

OVER-HARVESTING &

OVER USE

(1)

COMMERCIAL

LOGGING

(2)

Cutting to clear land

Timber company operations

Over grazing

Commercial logging 

OVER USE BY

TOURISTS

(1)

Too many tourists

Add up all the sheets under each title card and mark the number in the lower right corner of the title card, for example. This gives an indication, as to the relative importance or obviousness of a factor. The more of them there are, the more people will have mentioned that factor as being important.

TARGET CONDITIONRemove the sheets - representing the various direct threats your group has identified - from the wall or glue board. Now place a colored sheet of card (A4-size or larger) with the Target Condition (written as a statement rather than a question) written on it to the right side of your glue-board:

Tropical forests and fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

STICKY WALL

Now, take the direct factor/threat TITLE sheets produced in the exercise outlined above, and place them off to the left side of the target condition. As you do this, use pieces of colored wool/yarn /paper arrows to show how you believe the various threats relate to each other and to the target condition. Involve the participants in this exercise by soliciting their input and advice. For example, fire both directly influences the target condition, but it also exacerbates and contributes to deforestation.

Subsistence

Agriculture

Fire

Deforestation

Tropical forests and fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

Commercial

Logging

Hunting

Subsistence

Agriculture

Fire

Deforestation

Tropical forests and fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

Commercial

Logging

Hunting

Wildlife Trade

Over Harvesting

of Products

Overuse By Tourists

Have one of your group write up the results of your analysis on to a sheet of Bristol board or on to a sheet of flip chart paper.

11. Now have the group reflect on these direct factors and identify, the root causes of them. In other words, what INDIRECT factors lie behind them, and thereby also influence your Target Condition.

For example, your Ministry's forest policy, might be to promote timber concessions in the area, which in turn encourage commercial logging and deforestation.

Similarly, increasing population, migration or high unemployment may result in expanding subsistence (slash and burn) agriculture, which results in more fires, that result in deforestation.

Use the participatory process to identify these Indirect Factors following the process described earlier - Brainstorming - Ordering - Naming.

Use a different coloured card, and arrange the indirect factors in a way that shows how they lead to, or influence, the direct factors and/or the Target Condition (see figure below). In general these should be located to the left-side of your board and linked by strands of coloured wool to the direct factors.

To do this have the group's participants reflect on each direct threat in turn and ask them to produce one or two cards outlining what factors they think lie behind. These should be passed forward, considered, named and incorporated into the model. Indirect factors can include barriers. For example, a farmer could clear his land without using fire, but fire is quicker and less costly. This cost/ease factor a barrier to his changing his behavior.

12. Contributing Factors. Contributing factors are not direct or indirect threats, but have some influence over them, and as such, over the Target Condition. For example, weather might lead to drought conditions, which enhance the likelihood of fire, which in turn destroys the forest and degrades the Target Condition.

Min. Forestry

Land Use Policies

Int. Trade Policies

Socio-cultural values

Over population

Timber Concessions

Weather

Commercial

Logging

(Limited) Job Opportunities

Need for Cash

Deforestation

Expanding sub.

Agriculture

Fire

Over Harvesting

of Products

Forest Dynamics

Tropical forests and fauna in Andrea's Central Forest Reserve

Poverty

Land Ownership

Degradation From Overuse By Tourists

Wild Animal Populations

(Lack) of awareness

Hunting

Wildlife Trade

Poorly enforced

regulationsKey:

(Lack) of manpower

resources

Direct Factors

Indirect Factors

Contributing Factors

Review your Concept Model

When you have completed your Initial Conceptual Model, look at it again to see if it really represents the situation at your field site. You might want to change some of the cards, or include/delete some of the arrows. For example: in Figure 1, we have added Forest Dynamics, and Wild Animal Populations to be more specific about the target condition.

You might want to use the word drought rather than simply weather, again to be more specific.

One might wish to change deforestation (which may be considered too broad) to small scale subsistence logging, which is a more specific and accurate summary of the threat.

When you write up the results of your Initial Conceptual Model you can use different shaped and coloured boxes for Direct, Indirect and Contributing Factors, as shown in Figure above.

The process of Initial Conceptual Model development may sound easy, but you will find that it takes a lot of thought and hard work. You will need to type up your Concept Model in the form of a narrative (written description). The best way to do complete the narrative is this is to start with the Target Condition and to work to the of the end of the model, moving from right to left. We might write:

Central Forest Reserve of Andrea

(fictional setting for Concept Modelling Workshop)

In the Central Forest Reserve of Andrea, our Target Condition is a pristine tropical rainforest ecosystem. This can be described in terms of rainforest dynamics and the interaction of the plant and animal communities that are found in the reserve. This condition is being degraded by hunting, deforestation, unsustainable use and fire. The rainforest habitat within the Central Rainforest Reserve is defined by abundant plant and animal life, including the world's last remaining population of the endemic and endangered Great Parrot. This, and other species of fauna are threatened by hunting and wildlife trade. A situation that is exacerbated by a lack of manpower and poorly-enforced regulations. Cash demands and poverty force some young men from the community to hunt in and around the reserve, and community members complain that they have little knowledge of hunting regulations. They have, however, expressed a willingness to cooperate with the Andrea Forestry Department to curb these illegal activities.

Expanding subsistence (slash and burn) agriculture by (generally older) community members adjoining the reserve results in the continuing loss of habitat through deforestation. While some fires are started naturally, particularly after the long winter drought season, most are started as a result of slash and burn agriculture. Pressure from subsistence agriculture is in turn exacerbated by local community needs for more land, limited job opportunities and poverty.

Deforestation is also caused by a number of other direct threats including development (mostly for international tourism) and commercial logging. Commercial logging is a direct function of the extent of timber concessions awarded by the Ministry of Forestry, who are in turn influenced by international trade regimes.

Another threat to the reserve's primary forest is through unsustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products. This also can be attributed to a widespread lack of understanding, a lack of land and resource tenure rights, and the need for cash. A lack of opportunities and the need for cash result from high levels of unemployment, illiteracy and poverty in the area. The demand for cash is due to the need to cover expenses for food, education and health services.

Formal education influences these economic factors, as does population growth. Access to health services for women and children impact family size. A lack of knowledge of appropriate agricultural techniques by farmers in Andrea also results from a lack of educational opportunities, and advice. Inadequate land distribution, inadequate government policies, poorly-enforced regulations by the Forestry Division, and a lack of manpower/resources all combine to adversely affect the way the natural resources in and around Andrea's Central Forest Reserve are used.

Flagship Species

NOTE: You might want to use this initial stakeholder meeting to select a target species for your campaign (read the appropriate section in your manual: Promoting Protection Through Pride). Perhaps your stakeholders can come up with a number of suggestions, which you can then field test in your pre-project survey (see next manual.

Remember a good target species is usually:

1: Endemic (special - not found anywhere else)

2: Charismatic (not a slug)

3: Linked to the habitat in which you are working

4: Neither a pest nor a popular food

5: Has positive cultural or other symbolic links (i.e. National Bird)

6: Has widespread support as representing a Country's pride, beauty, and uniqueness

You might also want those present at your first meeting to help you draft some catchy slogans - again these can be tested in your pre-project survey. You may want to undertake this task after you have identified specific campaign objectives - see later.

When you have documented all your accomplishments to date, attach your list of stakeholders that you invited to the meeting (in the form of a table); your Concept Model illustration and narrative and send all, to Rosemary Godfrey (rgodfrey@rareconservation.org)

Quick Reference List for Concept Model Meeting

(useful quick reference to follow during your actual meeting!)

Set Up

Put up:

Sticky Wall

Put up, on Flipchart Paper/ boards:

Goal/ Mission of Project….e.g. "To protect the marine life of…….etc"

Target Condition….e.g. "The Marine life of……"

Definition of Factors (Direct, Indirect, Contributing (see page 8 of this document)

Relationships definition (see page 2)

Brainstorming ----> Ordering ---> Naming

Also have ready on flipchart paper/board:

Focused Question….e.g. "What factors influence the marine life etc….."

At Start of Meeting

The Meeting Itself

On arrival, ask participants to enter their details onto a contact sheet - name, organization/affiliation, contact details

Welcome

Introduce yourself

Ask each participant to name themselves and something they are proud of

Ice Breaker

Outline Aim of the Workshop - it is to prepare a model to reflect local site conditions. This is to help identify how an awareness campaign can have a positive impact on our lives.

Define the Rules for the Meeting

Highlight the Agenda showing time schedules for each section

Highlight the sticky wall and show how it works

Read out the definition of the Target Condition

Read out the Goal/mission of the awareness project/organization

Now - replace the Goal. With the Focused Question sheet

Define Direct, Indirect and Contributing Factors

Now - Carry out Brainstorming, Ordering, Naming for Direct Factors:

Give examples of Direct Factors

Ask participants to state 2 or 3 examples of Direct factors, just to make sure it is clear for everyone

Break into small groups of 4 or 5 people

Brainstorming

Ask each group to write down 6 Direct Factors on white cards, tell them they have 10 minutes

Then ask each group to stick n the wall, the clearest, easiest to understand

Read them out - and ask if they are clear. If more explanation of a card is needed, ask for the group who stuck the card up, to explain their thoughts on the factor

Ordering

Ask participants to help pair/group the cards together on the wall, if they are/mean the same thing e.g. hunting/ killing animals. Use the symbol cards to represent different groups (e.g. star, square, triangle).

Now ask the group to pass forward a direct factor card that is different to those already up there.

Again - ask if the cards are clear, and pair/ group them

Keep going until all the cards are on the wall, and are paired/grouped together.

Naming

Now ask participants to help define Title Cards for each Group of cards. Remove the white sheets, and replace with a red/pink title card - e.g. "Hunting". Make a note on bottom of the title card of how many cards had been placed for each factor.

Relationships

Now link the Direct Factors with arrows, to show if they influence each other, and that they influence the "Target Condition"

Once you have finished with the Direct Factors - Repeat the Brainstorming, Ordering Naming for Indirect Factors. Link with arrows into the model.

Finally - repeat the process for Contributing Factors

Review the model - and summarise to the group. Photograph it, and ask a helper to copy the model onto board/ flipchart paper

Then - create the model in MS Word or Powerpoint

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.