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Language is very important in our life, because it will help us to do communication in social communities. Social community has different dialect which is influenced by the condition or the culture itself. This condition will make a new dialect although it has same characteristic of their mother tongue dialect.
In our society has a big speech community that uses a standard dialect, such as Balinese dialect. The Balinese dialect is the mother tongue of various kinds of dialects in Bali. Under of big speech community, there has a small speech community that has different dialect in each other, such as Sembiran dialect, Kintamani dialect, Nusa Penida dialect, etc.
The different among dialect in small speech community was caused by the location or natural border, such as river, sea, forest, mountain, etc. These borders will border one dialect with other dialect.
In common, although there has various dialects in speech community, there is on dialect which is decided as a standard dialect of one area. This respond paper will be discussed about the standard dialect and scoped by the following guiding questions: (1) what is a standard dialect? (2) How does standard dialect differ from non-standard dialect? (3) Do the two types of dialect differ grammatically? (4) Who speak the dialects? , and (5) How are they learned?
According to Romaine (2000), a dialect, however, varies from other dialects of the same language simultaneously on at least three levels of organization: pronunciation, grammar or syntax, and vocabulary (p. 19). Every dialect in this word has these aspects but it may different in using pronunciation or grammar or vocabulary.
Dialects are groups of idiolects with a common core of similarities in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary (Wenker, 2008). Dialects exist as a continuum in which adjacent dialects are mutually intelligible, yet with increasing isolation between noncontiguous dialects, differences may accumulate to the point of mutual unintelligibility. For example, in the Dutch-German speech community there is a continuous area of intelligibility from Flanders to Schleswig and to Styria, but with Flemish and Styrian dialects mutually unintelligible. Adjacent dialects usually differ more in pronunciation than in grammar or vocabulary. Some countries have an official standard, such as that promoted by the French Academy.
Dialect variety of a language used by a group of speakers within a particular speech community. Every community has different dialect that is influenced by their area or regional. Dialect is study of language about how the people or speech community use grammar, pronounce and vocabulary of language in their regional. As we know, in every country have various dialects, such as Balinese dialect, Javanese dialect, French dialect, etc.
Dialect can be divided into two types, standard dialect and non-standard dialect. Standard dialect is standardized for public performance or a dialect that supported by institution. The institution may include governments that design a correct form of language to make uniformity in speech community. Standard dialect normally taught in schools and to non-native speakers learning the language. It is also the variety which is normally spoken by educated people and used in news broadcasts and other similar situations.
A non-standard dialect also has a grammar, vocabulary and syntax that like a standard dialect, but it is not designed or recognized by institution. When the people use slang expression or informal language, they believe that they use non- standard dialect. The example of a non-standard dialect is Sembiran dialect, Nusa Penida dialect, etc .
Beside, the differences between standard dialect and non-standard dialect is decided by legalize of institution, it also we can see by the using of language. The standard dialect, especially Balinese dialect usually used in formal situation or when they meet with other people in different region. The example of formal situation like when talking in religion ceremony and village meeting in social building (bale banjar). But, the non-standard language usually is used by speech community in daily life, whereas when we talk with our friends or when we talk with our family. Common, non-standard dialect more used by the speech community in their area than non standard dialect. When I visited in Kinatamani village with my friends, I found the society there usually use a Kintamani dialect rather than Balinese dialect. They use Balinese dialect when talk with other people that come from other area.
When a dialect is spoken by a large group of speakers of a language, it often acquires prestige, which leads to the development of a standard language. The first linguistic dialectology focused on historical dialects, written texts serving as the basis for establishing the dialects of a language through the methods of comparative linguistics.
In using dialect language, the society usually gives evaluation or judgment of the dialect to know what is the characteristic of the dialect. It means that what this dialect is suitable to use and what is the differences with the standard dialect that they have. When we talk with other people that has different dialect whit us, we usually give the evaluation of dialect that he/ she use. It involve of the grammatical, pronounce and vocabulary. It was done by society to know the means and the purpose of her/his language. For the example, when I talk with my friends that come from Sembiran village, he uses different dialect with me. When he ask me "kar japa jani?", I'm confuse what he means. After I ask him about what the meaning of his question, he explains it briefly. He means that "mau kemana sekarang or where you going". From this example, we can see, the word "kejapa" is the regional dialect and the standard dialect of Balinese language is "kal kije'. The different structure is come from the vocabulary "kar japa".
In another example, we can find in Kintamani dialect in which they use "ngara" word when they mean no. For examples conversation, when Karma said "Bukune entungane ajak i Wayan" (the book was thrown by Wayan), then Putu said "Ngara ye bani" (He did not brave).
From the conversation above, we can see the non-standard dialect of the word. The non- standard dialect obtain on "ngara" word, in which the standard dialect of this word is "tusing". So, the different structure is come from the vocabulary. But the grammatical is same with the standard dialect (tusing ye bani).
In grammatically aspect, standard dialect and non-standard dialect have same structure especially in Balinese language. It can show from the example above, whereas the differences of those dialect just seen in using vocabulary. When the non-standard dialect "ngara ye bani" and the standard dialect "tusing ye bani", these same in structure but differ in the vocabulary.
The dialect will be speech by a community that stays in same area. This dialect usually they use when they meet whit family and their friend that also come from their community.
The speech community usually gets the non- standard dialect when they were born in the certain area. This dialect they learn from their environment around and learn from their mother or family. But the standard dialect will be gotten by speech community in school, public place, broadcast, etc. And also they can get from the dictionary which is arranged by the institution/ government.
From those explanations that based on guiding question, I can conclude that standard dialect is that variety of dialect which is usually used in print, and which is normally taught in school and to non-native speakers learning the language. The standard dialect recognize by institution to make base of many dialects that had in big speech community. It usually uses in public places and when the people meet whit other people that come from other speech community. The non-standard dialect is dialect that used by small community or area. The example of it is slang or jargon language that common use in speech community. The non- standard dialect was caused by the situation or the natural border, such as river, forest, etc. Beside differ in the definition, these types also differ in using that influenced by the situation.
When we stay in formal situation, we should use standard dialect, such as in meeting, in school, office, etc. It was caused by the different character of each people or area. By the standard dialect, we can talk with other people successfully and avoid the misunderstanding in each other. But, the non- standard usually use when we talk with family and friends that come from same area. The two types of dialect is same in grammatically because differ locate on the vocabulary. It was caused from the same a mother tongue of the many dialect that had by region or small speech community.
As we know, the dialect is usually used by the people or speech communities that live in same area or region. He got this dialect, when they born especially non-standard dialect and for the standard dialect they get from school, or public service like broadcast.
On the speech community, society has important role to give their evaluation of dialect. The society will give the evaluation what the dialect is suitable to use and what is the differences with the standard dialect that they have. When we talk with other people that has different dialect whit us, we usually give the evaluation of dialect that he/ she use. It involve of the grammatical, pronounce and vocabulary.