What Is Project Planning Engineering Essay

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The dependencies between different tasks are identified and using an activity network diagram the critical path is defined. Another important factor to the taken into consideration is the calendar definition. The total amount of time available (which includes working hours per day, holidays etc.) is another important point to be considered. Project management software calculates the slack time and henceforth the necessary resources can be allocated to each activity depending upon the budget of the project. From the time available and allocated to each activity, the total number of man resources to be designated at all times can be decided. This is where the project planning comes in to the main picture to try and optimize the use of resources against the activity. Once this decision has been made, this part of the project becomes the baseline. During the entire project the earned value management is calculated, which is the comparison of activities and resources on the trot versus the ones which were planned.

Need for project planning

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Intelligent and resourceful investment of manpower, finance and most importantly time is daunting task and in no way is taken lightly even for the smallest of the projects. Not only does it need a collaborative effort of different departments within a company but also intermingling of several companies. There is need of set plan which can be followed during the project and thus monitor the progress of the ongoing task. Without a defined pattern of work, all the resources put in may be wasted if the final objective is not achieved.

A clear defined set of actions clears the path of any confusion and powers the management to plan more decisively for any mishaps.

Time, the most important resource in a project, is clearly defined.

Another important resource, finance, is well taken care of. As the project plan is laid down an approximate of the amount of sum to be invested is well considered. Not only does this avoid dues at a later point, but sometimes it also helps decide the feasibility of a project.

Several risk factors are identified and a due action of course is planned for such events.

Duplication of resources is usually avoided, as it gives everyone a clear idea of their respective jobs.

Coordination of several resources is made easy and within the available budget of resources.

A clear detail of the quality of project expected is derived from the initial stages of planning itself.

Project Planning

Conceptualize project scope and objectives: Opportunities are identified; a roadway to overcome problems is decided, project solutions are considered and the capacity of the organization is evaluated.

Plan the project: Scope of the project is well-defined; goals and objectives are clear; most appropriate path of action is decided; inputs and resources required in terms of finance, people and time are taken into consideration and a budget with respect to these terms is decided and project plan is drafted.

Prepare project proposal: A well drafted project plan is presented to stakeholders and upon obtaining their approval resources necessary for the project are procured.

Implement the project: Implementing the project by following the work-plan and completing pre-determined tasks and activities. Monitoring the progress and adjustment are as well necessary.

Evaluate the project: Reviewing of the project is as important as completing the project. This may avoid the mistakes or mishaps in future projects and improve the quality of future projects.

Conceptualization of Project

Stating the project

The analysis of current situation and defining the opportunities of the project is very essential. Depending on how successfully the opportunities are understood and articulated it is determined the how successful the project will be. After the situation is analyzed, the project planner may have answers to certain questions such as:

What is the opportunity?

When and how did the opportunity arise?

What are the main needs generated by the opportunity?

What is the significance of the opportunity?

Why should anything be done about the opportunity?

Identifying opportunities

After identifying the possible opportunities, the different possible solutions of the newly found opportunity are brainstormed. Brainstorming is one simple method of identifying solutions to discovered opportunities which includes bringing groups of people together and asking them to share their ideas and raise questions. There are two stages of brainstorming, the creative stage and the critical stage. In the creative stage raw ideas are put forth and all possible alternatives are discussed. Critical stage involves the identification of rationale of the ideas, even if these ideas as a whole seem far-fetched. Questions such as the following are critically examined

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Appropriateness of the resources, time, finance, man-power?

Heavy commitment to previous activities

Remote area for supervision

Defining project scope and objectives

After an opportunity has been sighted, and it has been decided that the project will be undertaken, the next most important task is to define the scope and objective of the project. This definition broadly states the general purpose and the goals of the project. Following this general statement are the specific objectives which are monitored and supervised.

Broad statements that describe the overall purpose of the project are called the goals. The more specific ones are the objectives.

Objectives are written keeping in mind the SMART guidelines:

Specific

Measurable

Achievable

Realistic

Time-Bound

Once the goal, scope and objectives of a project have been defined, a project planner is in the position to answer a few questions such as:

The aspects that will be / will not be answered by the project

Benefits from the project

Methodology for implementation

Expected outcome

Project components

General strategy followed by the project

Needs met from undertaking the project

Fulfillment of the beneficiaries

Formulate the Project

Once the objectives, goals have been defined, specific objectives need to be converted into planning steps and details of project implementation need to be determined. Several tools which assist in the process are:

Checklists

Work plans

Gantt (bar)charts

Budgets

Logical framework analysis

Planning Checklists

The basic tool of project planning is project planning checklists. It contains every activity that needs to done, when and by whom. The purpose of checklist is to identify all the things that will have to be done during the course of the project. It helps the planner to monitor the progress. The checklists generally have a definite pattern only the contents vary as per projects.

Work plans

The specific tasks, deadlines, responsibilities are defined by the work plans. It is necessary to prepare:

Sub-plans relating separate tasks

Implementation schedules or timeframes

Distribution of responsibilities

Participation list

Gantt (bar) charts

A time-tested and popular method in project planning is the Gantt charts. It is a graphical representation of progress of project v/s time. Easily understood, these charts aid the managers to conveniently represent activities against the time.

Preparing a Gantt chart:

All the discrete activities are listed

A sequence or pattern in which these activities to be performed is established

Time-frame of execution is decided

The sequential order of these activities are determined

Resource allocation is carefully considered

Logical Framework

What is Logical Framework?

Identifying all the main ideas of a new project, listing and examining how they fit is the main outlook of logical framework. A general methodology is

Ordering of the planned activities in the project, which proves helpful in monitoring

Assumptions are noted and scrutinize their truthfulness

Progress indicators

Activities List

As simple as the name suggests, a list of all the activities to be done is prepared. It is prepared in an order where it leads from the input to the goal. Usually the inputs are mentioned at the bottom and the activities are then listed such that the final goal is met.

Examination of assumptions

Depending on the assumptions, the course of action decided may lead to desired output.

Budgets

A very important step in planning any project is resource allocation and one of the most important resources is finance. Only after careful analysis and critical thinking the budget is designated.

There arises a difficulty in the monetary control and trouble in accounting for the finances when the budget is not suitably assigned. This happens when an appropriate accounting system has not been chosen from the launch or the system chosen has not been able to adapt to project situation. Whatever the situation is, there is always a need of backup plan and emergency experts who handle the situation professionally.

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Budgeting is a very specialized process and needs to be carefully executed. It is also a control technique, wherein the budget is prudently prepared before the start of plan and compared during the execution, so as to monitor the progress and make necessary changes if necessary. It is very necessary for the budget to be flexible and be capable to estimate the inflation costs.

Project Proposal

Presentation of project proposal

For all the brainstorming that has been employed beforehand in identifying the opportunity, discussing creative ideas critically, deciding the objectives and goals, resource allocation, the most important part is the presentation of the project proposal to the authorized committee to get their approval. This proposal clearly states:

The opportunity identified

Capability of the organization

Resource allocation

Progress monitoring tools

Expected time

Possible entities of failure

Necessity of the project to the organization

Pre-proposal

The project is evaluated by someone completely unassociated but with the knowledge of the field to evaluate the project individually. A few things that are kept in mind:

Is the project associated in the field of the company? Is it a strong or weak hold area of the company?

Are the local social, political and economic realities satisfied?

What is the vulnerability of the project?

How will it affect the environment?

The necessity and realism of the project?

Long term sustainability?

Description of the project

There are several ways in which a project proposal is given. The board may ask for the documentation supporting the claims of the project. These documents are prepared right from the starting stages of project planning.

A very general outline of the project may include the following:

Project Outline

Identification and description of the opportunity

Rudimentary information of the location, community, country laws

Definition of the opportunity

Existing competition

Skill, knowledge and experience of the organization in that type of projects

The need for the project

Proposed project

Brief about the project

Specified project goals and objectives in terms of results

The necessary course of action

Reason for rejection of other alternatives

Project benefits (direct and indirect)

Action Plan

Description of the activities

Time-plan-action detail and evaluation

Labor allocation

Hierarchy of the project

Responsibilities

Recruitment if any

Budget

Details of the input

Details of the expenditure

Long term resource commitment

Financing

Amount to be borrowed

Viability of the loan

All possibilities of outside assistance

Post-Project Needs

Monitoring

An important theme followed in planning a project is the defining of milestones. These milestones help in the monitoring of the project and measure the deviation. However carefully the plan has be prepared, there is always an uncertainty regarding either one or several of the components of the plan, let it be the budget, resource etc. Monitoring is done right from the beginning of the project and the initial indicators are followed as far as possible. Also due to unforeseen circumstances, adjustments are made to plan to suit the need of the objective and to achieve the final goal. The project plan is financially scrutinized right from start as this is the easiest way to detect deviation and avoid any erroneous development from commencing.

Evaluation

A few evaluation measures are:

What are the achievements of the project?

Will the original goal be achieved?

What the pros and cons of the output?

Should the project be expanded?

Monitoring and evaluation are the basics of any project and are an inherent part of the project plan. Both the monitoring and evaluation tools are principally defined initially along with their execution processes which follow during the project.

Reporting

Why report?

At any stage one of the most necessary requirements is reporting. The list of all those who require reporting is prepared, what is the type of information they receive, and how will they receive this information is the identified in the project plan.

Technicians at the lower end of the hierarchy collect this information and give it on to their leaders who pass it higher on. It is very important that correct information is received timely. These reports help the decision maker to make well informed decisions as they

Present information only needed for decision making

Logically arrange this information

Provide the initial analysis

Format the document

It is very important to present timely reports to maintain the management's confidence. It is also important to prepare these reports that justify the necessary funding and request for additional funding if necessary. These report help monitor the progress and help in keeping abreast with the latest development in the project.

Contents of the reporting report

Information of the activities completed and initiated

Description of the difficulties faced

Work plan, priorities of the next time period (week, month, quarterly)

Important developments

Initiation of Project Planning in Oil Industry

Before starting any project it is necessary to determine the process design conditions. It is especially important in Oil industry where the process is not only financially taxing but also pays heavy emphasis on safety. These process design form an integral part of the proposal that is presented to the board of directors of the oil company.

Process Design Conditions

Process Design

The following data has been assumed after assessing proposals of different companies undertaking such projects. The data may stand its ground to some extent but may differ factually.

The foremost important data is the field data.

Field Data

Number of Wells DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Reservoir Temperature DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Reservoir Pressure DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Well Shut in Pressure DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Flowing wellhead pressure DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Flowing wellhead temperature DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Flowing Pressure to inlet production system up to 25 bar

Total fluids flow-rate

Oil 50,000 bbl. /day

Produced Water 10,000 bbl. /day

Total gas flow-rate 50 MMSCFD

Oil Production

Design flow-rate 50,000 bbl. /day

Oil API Gravity @ 15 °C 33-40°

Viscosity DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Pour Point DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Gas Production

Associated gas 50 MMSCFD

H2S Content in Gas NIL

CO2 Content in Gas NIL

N2 Content in Gas NIL

Produced Water

Design flow-rate 10,000 bbl. /day

Oil in Water Content 50 ppm max

Export

BS&W Less than 0.5%

Export pressure 75 psig

RVP Less than 10 psi

The next important step is to understand the process by which hydrocarbons are stabilized.

Hydrocarbon Stabilization

Stage One

The 1st Stage Separators is a conventional horizontal 3 phase separators. The separated oil phase flows under level control to the Inter-stage Heater, the gas is routed to the HP Flare Gas Header. The water phase flows, through a hydro cyclone package under level control, directly to the Degasser Vessel in the Water Treatment unit.

Inter-stage Oil Heater

The Inter-stage Oil Heater Unit comprises of a direct gas fired type heater designed to raise/maintain the temperature of the oil in order to meet the export oil RVP at a maximum value of 10 psi. Heating the crude will also improve the dehydration efficiency of the downstream electrostatic coalescers. Temperature control of the crude oil is facilitated by a crude oil stream bypassing the heater, the flow rate of which will be determined by a temperature control loop. After heating, the oil phase flows to the 2nd Stage Separator.

Second stage

The second stage separator is a conventional horizontal 2 phase separator. The separated gas flows under pressure control to the LP Flare Gas Header. The separated liquid flows to the downstream Electrostatic Dehydrator and De-salter under level control. The second stage separator is mounted above the Electrostatic Dehydrator.

De-salter Stage

Oil from the 2nd Stage Separator enters the Electrostatic Dehydrator from the bottom of the vessel through a distribution manifold and rises vertically through a charged grid section where coalescence of suspended water droplets takes place. Clean oil exits from the top of the vessel, whilst coalesced water droplets descend under gravity to the bottom of the vessel. The clean oil phase exits from the top of the vessel and flows to the De-salter. The water collected in the bottom of the vessel flows under level control and pumped back into the 1st Stage Separator.

Prior to entering de-salter, the dehydrated oil co-mingles with wash water and passes through

a static in-line mixer. The operating pressure of the de-salter will be slightly less than the dehydrator due to pressure drops across piping and the in-line mixer. Small quantities of gas may flash and this will be removed from the top of the vessel and will return to the 2nd Stage Separator by means of a balance line. The dehydrated oil / wash water mixture enters the bottom of the Electrostatic De-salter. The oil passes through a distribution manifold and rises vertically through a charged grid section where coalescence of suspended water droplets takes place. Desalted oil exits from the top of the vessel, whilst a coalesced mixture of wash water and associated water droplets descend under gravity to the bottom of the vessel. The clean oil phase exits from the top of the vessel and flows to the crude oil transfer pumps via the 2nd Stage Separator level control valve. The water collected in the bottom of the vessel flows is re-circulated back into the inlet of the Dehydrator.

Oil, from the De-salter feeds 3 x 50% Crude Oil Transfer Pumps (one standby) under level control. The Crude Oil Transfer Pumps have a common discharge header which is provided with a minimum flow recycle back to the Crude Oil Separation Process.

High pressure KO drum

The HP Flare KO Drum receives produced gas, relief and emergency blow down from the first stage Separator, via the fuel gas system. Entrained liquid is separated in the KO Drum and returned to the closed Drain Drum via the HP Flare KO Drum Pump. The LP Flare KO Drum receives produced gas, relief and emergency relief from the 2nd stage separator, Crude Storage Tank and the Closed Drain Drum.

Supply Scope

Hydrocarbon Processing Equipment

Production Separator

One production separators designed to provide separation of the fluid phases that contained within the well effluent. The separators will discharge the separated gas phase under pressure control to the gas compression package. The oil phase will be piped under pressure control to the 2nd Stage Separators, whilst the water phase will be piped under level control to the produced water treatment facility.

Design Parameters

Design Code ASME VIII

Gas Capacity DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Oil Capacity 50,000 bbl. /day

Water Capacity DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Design Details

Design Pressure 350 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 90" I/D x 33' T/T

Operating Pressure 300 psig

Operating Temperature DEPENDING ON THE FIELD

Inter-stage crude oil heater

One direct gas fired crude oil heaters complete with fuel gas burners, coils flue duct and stack, burner management system, valves, and instruments. The oil heater will be installed to heat oil exiting the 1st Stage Separator and entering the 2nd Stage Separation.

Its design duty is 20 MMBtu / h.

Second stage separator

One second stage separators (two-phase) designed to provide separation of the fluid phases contained within the effluent. The Separators will discharge the gas phase under pressure control to the Fuel Gas System. The liquid phase will be piped under pressure control to the Electrostatic Dehydrator (LCV located downstream of the de-salter).

Design Parameters

Design Code ASME VIII

Gas Capacity TBA

Liquid Capacity 50,000 bbl/day

Design Details

Design Pressure 60 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 86" ID x 30' T/T

Operating Pressure 38 psig

Operating Temperature TBA

Electrostatic dehydration

Desalting combines three steps to achieve the required salt removal. Fresh water mixing provides dilution, electrostatic coalescence to promote droplet growth and dehydration of oil by phase separation.

Electrostatic Coalescers use a highly efficient electrostatic force field for final coalescing of the small water droplets. Gravity then separates these larger drops from the oil. The desalting process involves mixing of the oil and the soft water. Effective mixing will be necessary as the salt is removed strictly by the dilution of the tiny droplets of brine remaining in the crude oil. The water is then allowed to coalesce and is removed as in conventional dehydration process.

Mixing is often done by introducing the dilution water into the oil just upstream of a control valve or static in-line mixer. The necessity is to contact the tiny emulsified brine droplets with dilution water.

The process adopted here involves two (2) stages of dehydration and desalting comprising of two (2) Electrostatic Coalescers and dilution water injection between the stages.

The crude oil from upstream the elevated 2nd Stage Separator gravity drains to the bottom of the Electrostatic Dehydrator and is evenly distributed into the vessel through a hydraulically designed internal feed distributor positioned beneath the oil/water interface. Bulk water is immediately separated from the wet oil in the lower region of the vessel before the wet crude oil feed enters the high voltage electrical field. This method of introduction maximizes crude oil dehydration while minimizing power consumption.

The wet oil passes up through the grids in a plug-like flow manner and the remaining water is coalesced by the high voltage electrical fields. The coalesced water droplets, now sufficiently large enough to be separated by gravity, fall to the bottom of the vessel. The effluent water is removed from coalescer under level control.

The dehydrated crude oil is collected in the top of the vessel and is removed via an outlet oil collector arrangement.

The crude exiting the Dehydrator is co-mingled with wash (soft) water, upstream either a mixing valve or an in-line static mixer and is fed to the Electrostatic de-salter. Through the same physical process as the Dehydrator the fine emulsion of associated / fresh water is removed from the bottom of the vessel and the dehydrated and desalted crude oil product exits from the top.

The de-salter will be operated liquid full. A balance line is provided between the second stage separator and the top of the de-salter. Any gas flashing from the crude in the de-salter will move to the top of the vessel and will be released to the elevated second stage separator. An

LSLL will also be provided at the top of the vessel which would trip the transformer in the event of activation.

Design Parameters

Design Code ASME VIII DIV 1

No of Stages Two

Orientation Horizontal

Type Conventional - Bottom Inlet, Top Outlet

Size 96'' ID x 40' T/T

Dilution Water required 8,000 bbl. /day

Outlet Salt Content in Crude 8.5 ppb

Design Details

Design Pressure 60 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Operating Pressure 38 psi

Operating Temperature TBA

Design Capacity

Gas Capacity Negligible

Oil Capacity 50,000 bbl. /day

Wash water pumps

One (1) skid mounted Wash Water Pump Packages operating on a 100% duty / standby basis. The pumps are designed to provide wash water to the desalting train and will be complete with suction filters and all necessary piping, valves, instruments and controls.

Design Details

Pump Type Single Stage Centrifugal

Driver Type Electric

Design flow rate 8,000 bbl. /day each

Discharge Pressure 6 Bara

Produced water transfer pumps

One off packages each comprising two (2) Produced Water Transfer Pumps (100% standby), suitable for transferring produced water from each of the process trains to the inlet of the 1st stage separator. Each pump will be suitable for exporting 5,000 bbl. /day.

General Specifications

Pump Type Single Stage Centrifugal

Design Flowrate 5,000 bbl/day (each)

Absorbed Power TBA

Motor Type TEFC, EEx'd'

Design Discharge Pressure 100 psig

Crude oil export pump

One off packages each comprising three Crude Oil Transfer Pumps (50% standby) is suitable for exporting crude oil from each of the process trains to the client storage tanks. Each pump will be suitable for exporting 25,000 bbl. /day of stabilized crude oil at a maximum pressure of 8 Bar.

General Specifications

Pump Type Single Stage Centrifugal

Design Flowrate 25,000 bbl/day (each)

Absorbed Power TBA

Motor Type TEFC, EEx'd'

Design Discharge Pressure 75 psig

Crude oil metering package

One (1) of packages each consisting one (1) Crude Oil Metering Skid designed to provide transfer metering of the stabilized crude oil exiting each of the process trains prior to transfer to the storage tanks. The skid will be equipped with two (2) industrial grade turbine meters, suitable for use in a liquid hydrocarbon service configured in a parallel duty / standby arrangement.

The metering skid will be equipped with a BS&W Monitor to monitor the BS&W of the crude oil prior to export by pipeline. The metering skid will also be fitted with an outlet ESD valve to isolate the facility from the export line in the event of an emergency.

General Specifications

Extended Linear Flow Range 8600 - 86,000 bbl/day

Linearity better than ± 0.25% over linear flow range

Repeatability ± 0.02 of reading

Design Pressure 815psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 oF

Operating Pressure 75 psig

Hydro-cyclone package

One off the hydro cyclone package designed to treat produced water from the 1st stage separators. Hydro cyclones operate due to pressure differential. The liquid mixture is fed tangentially into the hydro cyclone element (called a liner or tube). The inlet velocity and the involute inlet shape, forces the liquid mixture to spin in a vortex flow pattern. The rotational acceleration is increased as the internal diameter is reduced over the length of the liner. Centrifugal forces generated by the flow pattern create the separation between the two immiscible liquids. The heavier liquid is forced outward toward the inner wall of the liner, which displaces the lighter fluid toward the axis of the liner, where it forms a core. The heavier fluid flows out through the tailpipe creating the underflow stream. By controlling the pressure drop across the liner, the light phase liquid is forced to flow in the opposite direction to create the "core". The light phase core is forced to flow from the hydro-cyclone through a centered opening near the inlet creating the overflow stream.

Size 18" ID x 40.88' T/T

Type Horizontal

Flowrate 10,000 BWPD

Feed Pressure 60 to 120 psig

Reject Oil Pressure 10 psig

Operating Temperature 50 to 70 ÌŠC

Oil s.g.0.80

Water s.g.1.02

Inlet Oil in Water < 2,000 ppm

Outlet Oil in Water < 40 ppm

Design Conditions 285 psig @ -5 to 200°F

Corrosion Allowance 3 mm (wetted carbon steel surfaces)

Sour Gas Yes (design to NACE MR0175)

Solid Loading Yes

Produced water degasser

One (1) skid mounted Vertical Water Degasser complete with valving, instrumentation, piping and controls to the skid edge.

Design Capacity

Water flow rate 10,000 bwpd

Oil flow rate 50 Sbbl/day

Design Details

Design Code ASME VIII Div. 1

Design Pressure 60 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Operating Level 50 % full

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 72" ID x 18' T/T

Operating Pressure ATM

Operating Temperature TBA

Produced water boost pumps

One (1) skid mounted Water Booster Pumps operating on a 100% duty / standby basis. The pumps are designed to transfer the produced water and will be complete with suction filters and all necessary piping, valves, instruments and controls.

Design Details

Pump Type Single Stage Centrifugal

Driver Type Electric

Design flow-rate 10,000 bbl. /day each

Discharge Pressure 6 Bara

HP flare gas KO vessel

One horizontal flare gas KO vessel designed to remove entrained liquids from the gas phase en route to the gas flare. The vessel will be open to atmosphere, allowing gas to vent naturally. The liquid phase will be pumped back to the Closed Drain Drum under level control. Downstream of the vessel an ultrasonic flare gas meter shall be installed to monitor the quantity of flared gas.

Design Capacity

Gas Capacity 50 MMscfd

Liquid Capacity Trace

Design Details

Design Code ASME VIII

Design Pressure 75 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 84 ID" x 30' T/T

Operating Pressure 20 psig

Operating Temperature TBA

LP flare gas KO vessel

One horizontal flare gas KO vessel designed to remove entrained liquids from the gas phase en- route to the gas flare. The vessel will be open to atmosphere, allowing gas to vent naturally. The liquid phase will be pumped back to the Closed Drain Drum under level control.

Upstream of the vessel an ultrasonic flare gas meter shall be installed to monitor the quantity of flared gas.

Design Capacity

Gas Capacity 10 MMscfd

Liquid Capacity Trace

Design Details

Design Code ASME VIII

Design Pressure 75 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 72 ID" x 20' T/T

Operating Pressure 5 psig

Operating Temperature TBA

Close drain drum

Liquid effluent from the Flare KO Drum and the Fuel Gas KO Drum will be collected in the Closed Drain Drum. Also, all high operating pressures would be connected to the close drain drum for drainage purposes prior to maintenance. The vessel will be fitted with two submersible pumps which will transfer the accumulated liquid to the Crude Oil Storage Tank.

Design Details

Design Code ASME VIII

Design Pressure 60 psig

Design Temperature -20 / 185 ÌŠF

Vessel Details

Vessel Dimensions 42" ID x 10' T/T

Operating Pressure Atmospheric

Operating Temperature 59 - 158 ÌŠF

Flare system

One vertical flare stack c/w flares tips and electronic flare ignition system. The number of tips shall be designed to optimize the flare rate required for each tip

Design Details

HP Gas Flare capacity 50 MMSCF/Day

LP Gas Flare capacity 10 MMSCF/Day

Contractor site office

One off air conditioned office / process control facility for production operations crew and facilities for contractor personnel as required. This shall be mounted directly above the workshop/laboratory.

One containerized workshop/laboratory for day-to-day maintenance of the process facility. The container will have a separate compartment to house the instrument air package unit.

Control and utility system

A Safety Alarm and Shutdown system is provided to alert the operators of deviations from normal operating conditions, and to shut the process down in an orderly manner when required. Two levels of shutdown are provided, process shutdown (PSD) and emergency shutdown (ESD). Instigation of the Safety Alarm and Shutdown System is from an Electronic Panel mounted in the Control Cabin.

A PSD automatically isolates the plant using shutdown valves and trip associated electrical equipment, and is initiated automatically when the process deviates beyond safe operating parameters. PSD pushbuttons are provided throughout the plant to allow operator intervention when required. The PSD logic is by means of a PLC.

An ESD is manually initiated, and isolates and depressurize the plant and trips electrical equipment in the event of an emergency. ESD pushbuttons are provided throughout the plant and in the Control cabin. ESD may is also be initiated by the fire and gas detection system on a time delay. The ESD logic is by means of a hard-wired relay system.

Process control and shut down

One off, custom built PLC based Combined Safety & Shutdown system designed to protect the integrity of the process system. If the operations crew is unable to correct an upset condition before it becomes dangerous, the shutdown system would isolate the process system from incoming well fluids and export line, and place the process system in a safe stable condition.

The Control System shall be designed with processing capacity (i/o's) for One 25,000 bbl. /day train.

Process Shutdown System (PSD)

PSD is defined as the shutdown of all process systems, tripping of individual process systems or subsystems, initiated automatically or through operator action from the Control Room.

PSD would be initiated by:

• Manual PSD pushbuttons located in the process area at strategic locations, including escape routes from the hazardous areas and in the PCR.

• Automatically as a result of the excursion of directly monitored signals beyond defined limits.

Actions occurring as a result of a PSD are:

• Shut down of all process pumps and equipment.

• Shut off of hydrocarbon flows from external sources by closure of ESD valves.

• Isolation of the plant into sections ready for depressurizing.

Emergency Shutdown (ESD)

This system provides the highest level of instrumented protective functions, designed to bring the installation into a safe condition in a serious emergency. The emergency shutdown system is a hard-wired "fail-safe" relay system. ESD is defined as the shutdown of all process systems and equipment, closure of all incoming flow line ESD valves and initiation of process equipment depressurizing (blow-down).

ESD would be initiated by:

• Power Failure

• Manual operation of ESD push-buttons located throughout the installation

• Confirmed fire detection

• Shut down of all installation process systems by initiating PSD.

• Shut off of hydrocarbon flows from external sources by closure of ESD valves.

• Automatic process depressurizing after a time delay to allow completion of ESD valve closure.

Instrumentation

Control System

Field mounted 4 / 20 mA units communicating with the control system via multicore cables.

Control of the system would be via pneumatically actuated valve, via I/P converters.

Instruments connected to the control system will also be used to provide alarm points for the control system.

Shutdown Systems

Field mounted 4 / 20 mA units communicating with the control system via multicore cables.

Again, I/P converters will be used to communicate between the PLC based logic

A total of 200 input/output's (approx. count), for controls and shutdown systems, are estimated.

Fire and gas detection system

General System Overview

A Fire and Gas Detection System is provided to alert the production operators of fire and/or gas release within the process area, and provides alarms at a common fire and gas panel mounted inside the Control Cabin. On confirmed fire or high level gas detection the fire and gas panel automatically sends a signal to the safety alarm/shutdown panel to affect an ESD. Fire Detection is by UV/IR flame detectors for detecting hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon based fires by sensing solar blind ultraviolet band.

Gas Detection is provided by dual IR sensor assemblies, designed to monitor ambient air for concentrations of combustible gas in the LEL range and provide a linear 4-20 mA output corresponding to that range of sensitivity.

A total of 25 input/output's (approx. count) for fire and gas detection controls are estimated.

General Specifications

Fire Detection UV/IR

Hydrocarbon Gas Detection Dual IR

Alarm System Multi-head voting causing process shutdown

Plant utilities

Power generation system

Power Generation units providing sufficient power to the process facility area. The package will be equipped with two (2) 500kW gas engines and one (1) 500kW diesel engine. The generators will be fitted with all ancillary equipment and switchgear required for supplying power to the process facility.

Power distribution system

One safe area power distribution unit, designed to receive a single power feed from the utility system and distribute to the process area power users. The distribution board is mounted within the site workshop/laboratory cabin along with safe area electrical motor starters.

General Specifications

Incoming Feeder 440~480 V / 3P / 60 Hz

Main outgoing supplies 3 x crude export pumps

1 x water transfer pumps

1 x Water booster pumps

1 x water injection pumps

1 x closed drain pumps

Process Control / Workshop users

Skid lighting

Lighting

One set of site lighting designed to raise the level of illumination in the process area to a safe level for night-time operations. The lighting system will consist of skid mounted fluorescent tubes for on-skid illumination of local instrumentation and pole mounted floodlights for general area illumination.

Chemical injection package

Four Chemical Injection tanks on a common skid each tank complete with one electric driven, diaphragm type, chemical dosing units each for pumping antifoam / de-emulsifier / biocide / corrosion inhibitor / scale inhibitor or oxygen scavenging chemicals directly from the tank. Skid Accessories will include flexible hose, calibration tube, PSV, check valve, local control panel and isolation valve per pump.

Instrument air system

Ambient air is pre-filtered then compressed using a duty and standby air compressor system and then piped to and air dryer and air receiver before providing clean dry instrument air to the process equipment.

Equipment Specification

Air Compressors Type Single Stage Rotary Screw

Design flow rate 75 ACFM

Working Pressure 125 psig

Air Dryer:

Type Heatless Regenerative

Design flow rate 75 scfm

Diesel storage

Diesel for the process system including diesel fuel to the Generators and back-up supply to the Crude Oil Heaters will be supplied from a Diesel Storage Tank which will be located on site. Supply pumps will be provided to transfer diesel from the storage tank to the individual day tanks on the power generators and the heater.

The transfer line will be fitted with strainers to ensure that solids contamination of the engine supply does not occur.

Diesel Storage Tank Capacity 200 bbl (approximately)

Diesel Supply Pumps (Gear pumps) 5 m3/hr

Fire water pump

One firewater pump package suitable designed for protection of the process facilities, which include process packages and provide water to firewater monitors. The Firewater pump package comprises with one containerized Diesel Driven Firewater Pump and one electric driven Firewater Jockey Pump in the same container.

Diesel Driven Fire Water Pump

Pump Type Single Stage Centrifugal, Axial Split

Rated Capacity TBA

Differential Head 13.8 bar

Pump Absorbed Power -

Engine Rating -

Fire Water Jockey Pump

Pump Type Centrifugal

Rated Capacity 400 liters /minute

Pumping Temperature -

Differential Head -

Motor Power (abs/Rated) -

Firefighting system

The Fire-fighting system shall be designed for protection of the facilities and shall include two fixed foam systems generally in accordance with NFPA-11, five fixed firewater monitors, six hydrant stations, two mobile foam units, two surface mounted hose reels, one portable ground monitor, all placed at strategic points around the site.

The five fire hydrant stations shall provide 450-litre/minute firewater and shall have 4" galvanized steel wet pipe pillar hydrant with two outlet lever operated valves. Each station shall have a cabinet shall house four lengths of 23 meters long type 3 hose and couplings. The two foam hydrant stations shall provide 450-litre/minute shall have 4" galvanized steel wet pipe pillar hydrant with two 4" outlet lever operated valves. Each station shall have a cabinet shall house four lengths of 23 meters long type 3 hose and couplings.

Two mobile foam units of 150-litre capacity each fitted with foam inductors and supplied with two lengths fire hose.

Portable and wheeled fire extinguishers comprising twelve dry power portable extinguishers, six 5-kg CO2 portable extinguishers, three 9-litre water portable extinguishers and two 60-kg multi-purposes wheeled extinguishers.