To implement innovation in the stream

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ABSTRACT

Innovation is a keyword that is a Gateway to success or failure for any company but actually fact is there is never a structured methodology to implement Innovation in the Stream of Concern's Functioning or working as it is much trickier to confront than imaginative problem deciphering, idea creation or idea management as we can rightly rephrase as innovation is a key for reinvention of the Product as it was said there was no reinvention of wheel but there was a need to renovate the wheel as per Technological and Customer Mindset Evolution.

Apple Inc. an American multinational corporation that designs and manufactures world class consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. The company is best-known for hardware products ranging from Macintosh computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad to Apple soft wares that includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; and Logic Studio, a suite of audio tools. So once the name APPLE pops up, the current generation people are reminded of its super cool products from Apple Inc and along with it none can stop admiring the man behind this Consumer Electronics Giant, Mr. Steve Jobs, the man with maximum charisma, Innovations and the best leadership Quality, Jobs believes in innovation, narrowing down to fineness clearly paying off dividends in market share.

Steve Jobs remains as a source of biggest inspiration for the project team members. So this paper describes about the strategic innovation management by Apple Inc's Father Mr. Steve Jobs. Thereby analyse how his values on innovation have been embedded in Cultural values, Vision of Apple Inc Organisation. Apple Inc is not only a leader in the Consumer Electronic Industry but also a leader in best Software and next generation Computers. The ultimate factor for every business firm to vie and stay alive in an extremely competitive global milieu is innovation. Apple's innovation success can also be attributed to their policy of empowering their employees to experiment and explore. This paper deals in analyzing the organisational innovation systems and various innovation polices made in Apple by Mr. Steve Jobs for their colossal success as leading Consumer Electronic manufacturer in the world, to an extent that Fortune magazine has named Apple most admired company in USA in 2008 and in world in 2009

This study deals the way innovation being handled by Mr. Steve Jobs for Apple on different aspects of organisation such as product development, manufacturing and environment by means of innovative organisational structural impact. Most interesting part of the paper discuss about his culture that demands most from Apple's engineers, scientists, stretches away from borders and recognizes that failure will transpire. His strategy had been the same on innovation since foundation and has paid off.

Chapter 1

Non Stop Innovation - Signature Of Stephen Jobs

Innovation has become a word synonymous to Apple Without question Jobs is very intelligent and was much too intelligent for his school environment. Having been born of two bright parents and then raised in what was essentially a working class environment, so he would have always felt like a square peg in a round hole. Jobs were a bright, hyperactive child who required little sleep, so he must have been somewhat of a challenge to his adoptive parents. In his high school, Jobs approached problems differently when compared to others. He was an inventive thinker.. Jobs did not continue many of the electronics classes in spite of that he with his friend Wozniak kept lessons together in his high school days . His big vision was always is his major strength. His Achilles heel is that he always knows the best. Sometimes he did and sometimes he did not know the best. But he saw and executed the things differently which is the main key to success. If CIP stands for Continuous Improvement Process for most of the Technocrats, for Jobs it would be Continuous Innovation Process

STEVE JOBS' DESIGN PATENTS

Stephen Paul Jobs and Walter Elias Disney shared the most important characteristic among them which is to abandon the work which in some respects might seem to define their careers. Walt Disney despite beginning his career as a cartoonist realized by the late 1920s that he had nothing to do with the drawing of Disney cartoons and is said to have told folks that he couldn't have held down an animator's job in his own studio. Steve Jobs, now a CEO of Apple Computers has held technical positions at HP and Atari in Silicon Valley during the dawn of his time. Surprisingly, Steve Jobs contributions to Apple have never been those of an engineer.

A quick browse in the Google for the patents filed by Apple in recent months reveal that Jobs' name is among the inventors listed on about 12 of Apple filings over the past 30 years (with a 13-year gap in the middle during his absence). This actually proves that the major Apple products would not be the same if Jobs hadn't contributed ideas and refinements. Usually Jobs files for his patent with his other colleagues such as Jonathan Ive, the senior vice president of industrial design, apple computers and a few other less known engineers. Jobs mostly file his patents in the industrial design realm while some of them are for software. He has never filed a patent for the circuitry or other under-the-hood technologies.

The study of the Google Patent Search's records of patents credited in part to Steve Jobs is actually a comprehensive method to reflect some of his failures and accomplishments. It also enables us to learn the techniques employed by him that makes him so successful. Some of the peppy gadgets that we see today such as the iconic computers, MP3 players, and other gizmos sold by Apple from 1998 to the present are a result of the design patents filed by this genius. Ten of such important patents are listed below for discussion.

A QUIET BLESSING

The main competitive edge by the Macs over the Windows PCs is the Apple's power adapters-which are highly compact and sport magnetic connectors. It has an extension cord which is optional. The cable can be wrapped around the little wings. The important factor that makes Macs worth more money than garden-variety Windows boxes is the fact that the CEO is concerned even over trivial necessities such as power bricks. The following one shown here is a patent filed by Jobs and his team of 11 engineers in 2001.

A MANIACAL WORK OF MINIMALISM.

The Apple Remote was debuted at an October 12th, 2005 event and is shown here in a drawing from a patent filed five days earlier. He showed a slide which contrasted the Remote's six options embedded in two unmarked controls against a Windows Media Center remote completely covered by fifteen zillion buttons, and just stood there and beamed. The Apple Remote is quite a very good innovation which is an example of the Jobsian restraint. If the simplest remote in the world is being built by all the consumer-electronics companies they will probably still end up with 3 times the buttons, and about fifty percent of them would have incomprehensible labels.

AN APPARENT OBSESSION.

Many of the Apple's patents that are filed by Jobs revolve around one common idea - A desktop PC with guts in one box and the display panel in the other which is connected by an articulated cable or arm. Such a machine was made by the Apple for about two and a half years between 2002 and 2004 which is the iMac G4. Plenty of evidence is being held by the U.S. Patent Office about Jobs being smitten with the idea, including this patent for boxy a snake-arm iMac that was filed just weeks before Apple stopped shipping the more rounded G4.

A MINOR ENIGMA.

A "handheld portable computing device" was filed by Jobs with 12 of his other engineers from his team in the year 2007. This is the early design that looks like an early iPod Nano with some sort of touch-strip control rather than the iconic click wheel. Such a device is yet to be made by the Apple. It should be noted that the Nano that got released in 2007 turned out to be the squared, square variant-which came out in less than three months after this filing.

A FRICKIN' BOX.

This patent is the most popular iPod Nano box. Even if the design and aesthetics looks good, Apple makes a point in the appearance of the packaging and the product itself. The iPod box is designed in such a manner that it is actually pretty much part of the iPod that we happen to remove during use. Apple has also plans to introduce a unibody aluminum iPod box with an Apple logo that lights up if the business plans are not to have an entirely recycled, biodegradable packaging at some point.

A STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN - THE GENIUS BAR.

The structural tower as can be seen at a San Francisco store of the Apple Computers Mall is the patent filed by Jobs. The store was opened in October, 2005 and since then, Microsoft, having taken note of the Apple Stores' great success, plans its own chain of retail outfits.

EVIDENCE OF TROUBLE.

The Macintosh OS X's spinning beach ball warns the user if the processor is too worked up it will be rotating for abnormally long time and/or be the first warning sign of a crash. This patent was filed by the Apple for the festive status indicator in January 2001, and Jobs was one of two designers to receive credit. It's one of the few good examples of a patent filed by Apple on something that we'd all be just as happy to never see that one again.

A COMMODITY.

The iPod and iPhone cases by Apple are meant for the gadgets that can get scratched very easily. This is actually a patent filed in the year 2002 by Apple for a couple of iPod cases, including this which claims Jobs and 10 others as its inventor.

A POSSIBLE SIGN OF THINGS TO COME.

Steve Jobs mostly files for his patents on those products which are in their final form and are ready to be fabricated. In the year 2004, a patent for the touch tablet type PC was filed for credited to Jobs and fourteen others. The iPad released recently is the result of this patent.

Thus the readers are left to imagine this innovative wonder wizard he is Harry Porter of Consumer Electronics and his organisation has weaved such a magic that almost Three Fourth of world Apple Users are Apple Fans and the proper salutation should go to the Hero of our Topic Mr Steve Jobs about whom this Paper shall be discussing

Chapter 2

A Genius technocrat to an innovative businessman

Steve Jobs was the unreliable market visionary for the start-up Apple Corporation. As a young entrepreneur he was an arrogant outsider with nearly one fatal flaw - he placed no value on the opinion of others. This led to jobs being responsible for some of Apple's early failures. Jobs delivered to consumers what he wanted, not what they wanted. After being fired by the company he helped found, and possibly having learned from his early marketing mistakes, he came back to lead Apple to huge market success with the fashionable iMac and even more fashionable iPod and MOST ADORABLE SMART Phones called iPhone.

BARE BEGINNINGS:

In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak started Apple computers. The underfunded start-up company was born in the bedrooms and garage of the Jobs family home in San Francisco. The name was inspired by apple orchards where he had a job. Wozniak and Jobs belonged to a loose fraternity of 'wire-heads' that had been put together following the seminal edition of Popular Electronics in 1975. They both thought that computer was the future and went about finding a market edge.

Jobs' strongest influences were in the electronics rather than programming and hence he took a slightly different and more traditional route than Gates and Allen - he decided to make his own computer. Consequently an operating system was developed thus inking the hardware and software. Gates, on the other hand was more interested in the software side and built hardware as and when it was necessary. Gates business model was not dependent on any one hardware manufacturer, so he was able to play one manufacturer off against the other. Apple, in the mould of IBM, was really only interested in software to the extent that it supported hardware sales, therefore, Apple had more trouble expanding than the Microsoft did.

With Wozniak in charge of the technology, Jobs was in charge of parts supply, aesthetics and marketing. He was brilliant at supply, able to negotiate parts on credit. He was a problem in aesthetic department because he insisted that computers look and operate exactly as he wanted them to without reference to users. Throughout the early life of apple when Jobs was there, there were costly aesthetic and user interface mistakes. With some models the cases were too small for too long, and there were arbitrary changes in the interface protocols so that new computers were not compatible with the existing hardware or software, forcing consumers to completely change everything when they bought a new machine. This problem of Jobs foisting his opinion on the market without checking has plagued him right up until recent times. He now seems more willing to take advice.

By the end of 1977, more than 2500 Apple 2 computers have been sold out. Around 24 employees were working in a office which had the space about the size of a room. This led to a feeling that the office looked something like an army camp. In 1978, the office was relocated to a bigger work place where Jobs did his regular round checks. He was a perfectionist and hence he angered many of his workers who called him as a "Rejecter". In 1978, about 8000 computers were sold out and in 1979, 35000 computers have been sold. By the year of 1980, Apple computers went public and Jobs became a super rich guy at an young age of just 25. He had with him $200 million Apple Shares.

THE JOBS INSTINCT

Apple Computers have clearly emerged as the pioneer in the Personal Computer industry. This company definitely has one of the longest tenure and a track record of innovations. Some of its early success such as the one after the multi-vendor "Wintel" standard, people believed that it limited its future which is strongly attributed due to its proprietary and vertical integrated strategy. The potential of Computers was well recognized by Steve Jobs. This made him to be the instrumental brain behind many of the Apple's signature features and success. The approach followed by him does not merely depend on a product-design philosophy steered by committee or determined by market research. His beliefs were relied mainly on the tenacity, patience, belief and instinct. The hardware and software design choices at Apple Computers always wait for his personal nod or veto in which he is heavily involved with. Jobs as a team leader of his team, was responsible in his duties and roles as a team member. He is quite careful in choosing key members of his team where he mainly looks for the excellence in multiplication factor. In his words, "Truly outstanding designers, engineers and managers, are not just 10 percent, 20 percent or 30 percent better than merely very good ones, but 10 times better". The raw materials of those catchy products such as iMac, iPod or iPhone are as a result of contributions of these outstanding engineers.

FROM CRISIS TO INNOVATION: THE JOBS FORMULA

One of the earliest products in Apple Computers product line was the Apple 1 computers which were crude and eventually only 200 were sold to the byte shop. Of the 200, only 150 were actually sold to the public. This was followed by the Apple 2 which was born as a result of idea of Wozniak. This computer included much needed features such as a keyboard and a screen connection as well as Wozniak's newly invented floppy disk drive. This product was taken to a trade show but it was given quite a bad location. On top of that it was coupled with amateurish displays and sales material which proved a severe blow to sales and became very slow. The efforts to raise the capital and funding by both went fruitless. However repeated efforts by Jobs lead him to find a venture capitalist, who, gave them with the capital, credibility, and a new location to work out in return for 30 per cent of the company. Their task was to get ready for the next trade show. At this time Jobs began reverting to type by showing characteristics that would eventually get him fired from Apple. He was hard to please, seeing himself as an artist and visionary more than a businessman. Jobs would make lots of changes during projects, which in fact made difficult for apple to meet deadlines and sometimes lead to technical challenges.

Steve Jobs made three major efforts in Apple to develop a more powerful business-oriented PC to complement the Apple 2 computer: the Apple III, Lisa and Macintosh. It should be noted that even before the IBM PC was released, these efforts were already kick started by Jobs. The Macintosh system emerged as the most successful PC in the product line. Some of the components such as the 16-bit processor, GUI and system software were acquired from its Lisa predecessor. The Mac PC was finally introduced in January 1984 after many delays using the infamous "1984" Super Bowl television ad that linked IBM PC users to an Orwellian nightmare.

Most businesses and individuals wee offered their first opportunity to take advantage of menu-based user interface by the Macintosh. Later computer users took the features such as WYSIWYG high-resolution display, and various other innovations were taken for granted. The adoption of this PC was slowed down due to its high cost and certain key features were lagging such as the hard disk drive, color display and application software.

The Apple computer achieved an unique differentiation with its Macintosh, and from 1989-1993 enjoyed increasing market share and revenues. However, we should note that the Apple's revenues peaked in mid-1995 just prior to the introduction of Windows 95, and for two years its revenues, market share and profit margins resembled an uncontrolled freefall. We can infer that the Apple's decline during the mid-1990s has two popular explanations. The first explanation is that which focuses on its standards strategy, which unlike all rivals eschewed licensing and joining the "Wintel" alliance of PC makers. The second explanation makes a reference to a combination of strategic and operational errors - particularly in product design and inventory management - which would have made it impossible for Apple to compete even as a Wintel PC maker.

THE GO-IT ALONE STANDARDS - A UNIQUE STRATEGY

With regards to the standards strategy in the PC industry, the Apple remained unique by the mid-1990s. The Apple computers did not license its software to buy out hardware components such as Microsoft where it sold the MS DOS to buy the intel compatible chips from its rival, the Intel. As an operating system vendor, unlike Microsoft it did not offer its OS to other companies in an attempt to get the widely adopted standard. Internal debate that rose over these licensing questions wracked Apple from 1985-1994.

Apple started licensing comparatively weak companies to make clones by the end of 1994. However, within two years the clones captured about 20% of the Mac market even though Apple refused to license strong competitors such as Gateway 2000. At the same time the Mac's share of the overall PC market declined. In the summer of 1997, Apple unilaterally ended cloning when Steve Jobs took over as interim CEO, citing the failure of clones to attract new users.

In the face of this severe financial pressure, Steve Jobs changed the company's business strategy and focused on improvements in operational efficiency. The efficiency of handling downtime and meltdown were so good that competitors were awestruck once he released following statements, "We've had one of these before, when the dot-com bubble burst. What I told our company was that we were just going to invest our way through the downturn that we weren't going to lay off people, since that we'd taken a tremendous amount of effort to get them into Apple in the first place - the last thing we were going to do is lay them off." Thus as expected time the downtime was over with money pumped in R&D stream there were many superb Products in the pipeline thus competitor were greeted post economic meltdown with shock surprises and that's Jobs' way Two targets in one shot motivating the people and turning off the competition

Chapter 3: jobs- a man with innovative leadership Quality

The aim of the work is to analyse the leadership style of the apple's CEO Steve jobs through the analysis of the articles and works connected with his business activity; it is also necessary to contemplate on the way his leadership style and ideas can be applied for our Understanding. First of all, it is widely known fact about Steve Jobs is that he may always supposed to be the central personality within the company, he is a icon and cult-like personality, and thus Apple may be seen as 'personality-driven'. However, the question arising here is whether it is good or bad, is it really that Jobs is a cult, and how personality driven companies may become profitable and successful. Answer can be Known from History of Apple Inc When it had six CEOs through the period of 1977-1985, it became evident that it lacked both marketing and technological zeal and the CEO which the company needed had to combine the knowledge and vision of the future technology and convert it with extraordinary marketing skills . Thus, one of the peculiarities of Jobs' leadership style is that he sees the core company's Technological advancement through a marketing prism. Jobs was able to restructure the company and return it to the normal performance through Research and development of new innovative products and trigger them to customer with an excellent launch pad which were always popular in the Market because of his superb Marketing skill-set. 'Apple became renowned for bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings. Thus once it became a Household brand then it ventured in to other Consumer Electronics Products and it almost started sweeping the Market shares in absolutely all the areas it entered in.

This can be substantiated with its mission statement

BRAND FANATICISM AND RADICAL CUSTOMER DEVOTION

Steve Jobs had based the leadership culture of the Apple Company on brand fanaticism and radical customer devotion. Though Jobs is and was highly criticized for his leadership style, but his achievements in nurturing apple cannot be neglected rather it has been a case study or he has been taken as a Role model CEO by most of other Industry, to an extent that Job Style became a Management Mantra or rather a system of Management. They have become revolutionary. It has been because Mr. Jobs the perfectionist and we should also include that he, in the past has been described sometimes as being intimidating by several publications. (Harvey, 2001) Another important peculiarity of Jobs' leadership is that he does not see only Consumer Electronics Products, but far beyond giving it a emotional feel from Customer point of view. As present day Apple Products have millions of potential Customers even before Launch of Product Thus is the luster of brand Apple that has been solely because of Innovative trend set up in the Apple under Mr. Steve Jobs. He has been quoted as highly demanding both towards himself and towards his employees. His target deadlines often seemed impossible to be met, but is constantly moving, moving towards continuous improvement in all spheres of his work. (Erve, 2004).

One more remarkable characteristics of Jobs' leadership style thus is his ability to combine zeal and fear for his employees, who often state that they are afraid of him, but for any business, especially for the large companies, it is essential that the employees have the same vision of reality with the head of the company; this often defines its success, no matter in what economic zone the concern works.

The present work has been designed for the discussion of the relevant leadership ideas to be applicable to the all sort of business, based on the example of the Apple's CEO Steve Jobs, who is considered to be one of the most prominent leaders in the Global business circles. It has become obvious fact and evident that Apple Inc is able to achieve success and profits under Jobs. He has concentrated his focus on minimum products with awesome quality. The push behind the some astounding innovation from Apple is a result of their corporate policies that insists on respecting individual ideas with strong urge in its employees establishing a research system that develops product with originality and innovation embedded with high class Secrecy and Trust that is expected of all the Apple Employees by its most inspiring CEO Mr. Jobs.

The totally different Leadership quality in Jobs made him a messiah in the Market as he always chose a path seldom taken by so called Market leaders and as goes the famous quote , "Winners don't do different things but they do things quite differently" also his famous quotes goes "Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower". He always wanted his Employees to have a Focus on the things they do and always laying utmost significance on the quality rather than in the quantity.

Chapter 4- Apple's Evolution Of Innovation In Technology

The Research stage and the Design stage function as integrated environment, a symbiosis which has been generating maximum efficiency of innovation. The product development activities of Apple Inc are clearly distinguished based on products application and also in to fundamental research. Apple has been more innovative in cascading technologies from high end products to a totally new set of applications that is never before in market Kind of Products. Apple has been highly successful in translating innovations into a High Class Product and Markets it with such a hype that Competitors are blown off the Track and they are almost out of the Race. Thus it achieves a perfect balance between engineering, market research, sales and development. This sweep through in the Market is solely due to the CEO level stance on innovation that is imbibed in to the heart and Soul of the Apple Corporate Employees. This Culture can be explained in more detail by taking few Quotes of Steve Jobs that depicts the Corporate Culture which is reflected in their Products

INNOVATIVE DESIGNà "Design is the fundamental soul for an artificial creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service

Steve Jobs always used to stress importance of the design and he always made no compromise in aesthetic quality of the Product and he use to be tough as an Engineer and his level of Toughness Increased as he grew on to become a best entrepreneur and later on the world wide admired CEO. The Man used to be so focus oriented that he came with a Public statement as follows:- "It comes from saying no to 1,000 things to ensure we don't get on the wrong track." Thereby ensuring the Quality is never lost in the Process of Innovation, Research and Development. If not for their Design the Apple I pod wouldn't have been world famous, as we know even though the Mp3 Player Technology was originally of Creative Inc but Apple's best in the world design group had carved out a Product called iPod that was a Trend setter and revolution in the Music Industry. And term evolution is a right word as same Apple came out with Miniature model called iPod Nano fitting in smallest jeans packet, Thus are the words of Jobs Highly Innovative, Motivating and had depth with right meaning

PERSEVERANCE à "I'm convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance."

These words depicts a very good secret of success of Apple which generally has some failed Products Like Apple Newton (A PDA phone) though it was flop in Market unless there was an Element of Perseverance in whole Apple team not necessarily only in its CEO, and world saw that The Apple Inc was able to deliver a Smart Phone called iPhone that is being widely used all over the world at present. Currently it is Ranked No1 by the Customer in Smart Phone Business

FOCUS VALUE, NOT DOLLAR VALUE à "Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have".

Time Apple rolled out the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R&D. As Mr. Jobs said the following way, it's not the quantity of money that is being spent on R&D. It's about the people that company is having matters, more than that is how those people are led is what counts and above all how much the concern gets back. Thus was the Clarity of Thoughts embedded in the employees of Apple Inc in the and that defined and distinguished the Cultural value of Apple Inc with rest and the Credit would rightly be unto Jobs again.

sTRIVE TOWARDS eXCELLENCE success FOLLOWSà "We don't get a chance to do that many things, and hence one should be really excellent".

Quality is always more important than quantity as Steve justified in an Interview a really catchy phrase that was "One home run is much better than two doubles" and he always felt to maintain Excellence the basics ought to be right and he always wanted to own and control the primary technology in everything he did "

References

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  3. Bass, BM & Avolio, BJ 1994, Improving Organizational Effectiveness throughTransformational Leadership, Sage Publications
  4. Benezra, Karen & Jennifer Gilbert 2002, .The CEO as brand: their names are synonymous with their companies. products . and that presets a slew of unique challenges., The Chief Executive,
  5. Burrows, P 2006, .Steve Jobs. magic kingdom., Businessweek Online, available from <http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/sep2005/tc2005096_1655_tc210.htm?campaign_id=nws_techn_sep16&link_position=link11> (accessed 02 April 2007)
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