The Process Of Refurbishing Old Tyres Engineering Essay

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Tyres arrive for reconditioning in packs from outside the system to be modelled every 20 minutes (NegExp) on average. 55% of Lorries arrive containing 10 tyres, 10% arrive with 20 & 35% arrive with 15. On each lorry 60% are car tyres, 20% are tractor tyres & 20% are Motor Cycle. All tyres are automatically checked by Quality Control which takes an average of 45 seconds (Avg). After the Quality Control check on average 12% of tyres are rejected as being too poor quality to be used. The remaining tyres are then sent for remoulding which takes an average of 120 seconds (NegExp).

After these separate bays are used for re-cutting the tyre treads for the three types of tyres. All bays can take only a single tyre at any one time. Bay 1 is for re-cutting Car tyres, Bay 2 for re-cutting Tractor tyres & Bay 3 for re-cutting Motor Cycle tyres. The bays are not interchangeable. Recutting a car tyre takes on average 3.5 minutes (NegExp), a tractor tyre takes on average 3.75 minutes (Neg Exp) & a Motor Cycle tyre takes 3 minutes (NegExp).

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The machines used to re-cut the tread of Tractor & Motor Cycle tyres are of an appropriate tolerance. Tractor tyres are cut to a depth following a uniform distribution with a lower limit of 5mm and an upper limit of 8mm. Motor Cycle tyres are cut to a depth following a similar distribution but with a lower limit of 2mm and an upper limit of 4mm. These tyres then leave the system. The machine used to re-cut Car tyres is an old machine with a poor tolerance. The depth of re-cut Car tyre treads follows a uniform distribution with a lower limit of 2.5mm and an upper limit of 5mm. After re-cutting, each Car tyre must go to a measuring station where the tyre tread is measured and this takes an average of 75 seconds (Avg). This is done automatically and does not require a staff team. Any tyre with a depth of less than 3.5mm must have its tyres tread re-cut to exactly 3.5mm. This takes exactly 90 seconds. Each tyre must then be re-measured before leaving the factory.

There are two staff teams, each with three members. They are needed for quality control, remoulding, & re-cutting Car tyre treads only. Remoulding car tyres takes priority over anything else. Re-cutting is least priority.

All queues are on a FIFO basis unless otherwise stated. Assume no staff breaks. Assume no changes of shift. Run the operation for 9 hours

Based on the above scenario:

Build a model of the system as it exists, analyse & understand this model.

Using the existing model as your starting point:

Try to improve throughput and resource use by changing the priorities of the work centres. Analyse & understand this model.

Try to improve throughput and resource use by allowing Bays 1, 2 & 3 to receive any type of tyre.

There is money available for extra machinery. The choice is either to invest in new machinery allowing Car tyres treads to be cut exactly to 3.5mm or Motor Cycle tyres to be re-cut in exactly 1minute. Investigate which would improve throughput.

You Are Required To:

Use Simul8 to model the existing system, using sensible and suitable names and icons.

Use Simul8 to develop and consider the above three scenarios.

Submit a disk or CD containing all your models suitably labelled. (See Cover Sheet)

Produce a management report which must include (also see Cover Sheet)

Appropriate analysis & discussion of existing and alternative scenarios, which addresses the need for improving throughput & resource usage in the scenario.

ACD diagram of existing system.

Summary of Findings

Recommendations (These may be bulleted)

Further Notes

As a guide your report should be in Times New Roman 11pt font.

There is not a fixed word length, but as a guide your report is likely to be around 3,000 - 4,000 words in length, excluding appendices.

680

The tyre recondition is the process in which we take used tyres of different vehicles such as tractors, Motor cars and Motorbikes. As we know tyres lose their condition after sometime so they should be replaced. The old tyres loose the grip and sometimes are enraptured. So need was felt to take steps, every tyre making company has to create a tyre from scratch. In order to satisfy the growing demand of tyres in industry and to speed up the process companies take different steps. But the method that got most popularity was Reconditioning of Tyres. In this process used tyres are brought back to the company. Some tyres that can't be reconditioned are thrown out where as others are sent to the reconditioning plant where they are reconditioned and are available in market as new ones. In this way the demand was satisfied with economical usage. The time to make a tyre was reduced as a result its cost was also affected and reduced. Now we analyse this process in a company where tyres are reconditioned.

ANALYSIS

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The process starts from collecting the used tyres. That process is done with the help of scrap dealers located at various parts of the world or Country. After that they are brought to the Reconditioning Plant. Here they are brought in Boxes which contain 5- 10 tyres. Some stats have been gathered to demonstrate a process. Lorries after every 20 minutes reach to the reconditioning plant of tyres. These Lorries contain packed packets of tyres which are remoulded. The Lorries which bring the tyres 55% of them contains 10 tyres. The remaining 35% of the Lorries can be divided further into two groups. 35% contain 15 tyres and the remaining 10% contains 20 tyres. We can easily determine by the stats that most of the Lorries which come to Recondition Plant contain 10 tyres.

Now we should take into considerance the type of tyres each Lorry is bringing to the Recondition Plant. The stats show us that 60% of the tyres which each lorry brings are of Motor Cars. The remaining 40 % is comprised of 20% tyres of Tractors and an equivalent amount 20% of Motorbike Tyres. By looking at the stats one can easily imagine that the most numbers of tyre which are brought to the recondition plant are of Motor cars. The demand of Motor Car is increasing day by day all over the world. So due to the fact the spare parts related to them get an equivalence importance. The tyres are fundamental which play role in the efficiency and mileage of the car. The demand of the tyre is increasing day by day due to increase in the number of purchased Motor cars. The stats provided to us also give a clear picture of the demand of Motor Car tyres in the world.

The next process in the Reconditioning of tyres is the selection of tyres which can be remoulded. The tyres are passed through a section known as Quality Control. Quality Control operates automatically and checks all the tyres so that they can be separated from the poor quality or out of shape tyres. Quality Control is very sensitive and intelligent section. It works on its own and on labour is required for this to complete the process. Quality Control on average takes time of 45 seconds to complete the task. As a result of selection in Quality Control Almost 12% of the tyres are rejected. Rejection is done on the basis of poor quality or the tyres which are inappropriate for the Reconditioning. By doing this a huge quantity of tyres are available for remoulding process which reduces the cost and time to make each tyre.

The next step in the process of Reconditioning of tyres is the remoulding of tyres. The tyres which passed the Quality Control check are then sent for remoulding. This process takes a time period of almost 120 seconds. The time taken by the tyres to reach this point can be calculated by taking difference between the present time and arrived time. This is the last process where the tyres are monitored and after this they are sent to the Cutting Section.

The tyres after the above process reach Cutting section. This section is further divide into three sections. These sections are known as bays. Each of the bays is used for the re- cutting of the tyre treads. The property of each bay is that there should be only one tyre at a particular moment. So that problems can be avoided without any difficulty because if there are many tyres at a moment it will be difficult and mess will be created. The Bay 1 is used for re-cutting of Car tyres and to cut each tyre it requires an average time of 3 minutes and 30 seconds. The Bay 2 is used for the re-cutting of Tractor tyres and to cut each tyre it requires an average time of 3 minutes and 45 seconds. The last and Bay 3 is used for re-cutting of Moto Cycle tyres which require an average time of 3 minutes. The most important point to remember is these Bays are not interchangeable. The re-cutting Process of the tyres finishes at this point. Now they are sent to the next Department where they are assembled again.

These Bays comprised of different sections. The machines used to re-cut the treads of Tractor & Motor Cycle tyres are of an appropriate tolerance. We will first discuss the Bay 2 and Bay 3 as they have an appropriate tolerance. They don't have to report back unless that is in the limits prescribed. The Bay 2 which is used to re-cut the Tractor tyres uses Uniform Distribution. Tractor tyres are re-cut using uniform distribution with a lower limit of 5mm and Upper limit of 8mm. The lower limit defines the tyre can't have inner depth less than 5mm and greater than 8 mm. The Bay 3 which is used to re-cut the Motor Cycle tyres also works on the same principle of Uniform Distribution. Motor Cycle tyres are re-cut using uniform distribution with a lower limit of 2mm and Upper limit of 4mm. The tyres can't be less than 2mm in depth and not more than 4mm in inner depth. At this particular moment the tyres from these two Bays leave the system. Now Bay 2 and Bay 3 are ready for the new tyre to start the process again.

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Now we will be discussing and analysing the working of Bay 3. The machine which is used to re-cut the Car tyres in Bay 1 is an old machine with a poor tolerance. The basic principle of Bay 1 working is same. It also works on the principle of Uniform Distribution. In Bay 1 Car tyres treads follow a uniform distribution with the lower limit of 2.5mm and an upper limit of 5mm. After re-cutting each tyre is send to the Measuring Section in Bay 1. This requires an average time of 75 seconds. The process is carried out automatically. Therefore no staff will be required to do the task. The Measuring Section measures the inner depth of the tyre which should be in the limits prescribed. The defaulted tyres which have a depth less than 3.5 mm are sent back to the station to make it 3.5mm. This takes exactly time of 90 seconds. After this the tyre is again sent for remeasure in the Measuring Section. Each tyre is measured again and again until it satisfies the condition of 3.5mm depth. When it satisfies the limit, it is now ready to leave the system. Now Bay 1 is ready for the new tyre.

The Bay 1 requires 2 staff teams as well. Each staff team consists of 3 members. These 2 teams are needed in Quality Control Section of the Bay 1. The Quality Control Section assures the remoulding and re-cutting of the tyres. In this section remoulding takes priority over the other process taking place. The priority of the recutting process is the least due to the fact that the tyre will only leave the recutting process if it has satisfied the limit of 3.5mm. After that it's the responsibility of the system to quickly remould it first before recutting the new tyre. After all this process the tyre leaves the system.

CONCLUSION

Now we will be discussing about the whole Reconditioning of the Tyres. The first impression of the scenario says that the Bay 1 will produce more accurate tyres for cars and will be consuming more time but ensuring the accuracy. If one wants to have the accuracy he should work according to Bay 1 principles. Bay 2 & Bay 3 will have production far greater than the Bay 1 but quality can't be assured. Because there are no stats provided for the Measuring section. But it is mentioned that Bay 1 is an old Machine. If supposition is made that Bay 2 and Bay3 are new machine having very intelligent software working which ensures the re-cutting to be accurate and satisfying the limits than without any doubt Bay 2 and Bay 3 are the best among the 3 Bays because their production is greater and quick than the Bay 1 and consuming less time during process making it cost efficient. Cost and Production are two main principles in any industry.

IMPROVIZATIONS

We have to improve the above mentioned process by making some of the improvements. The improvisations will be made using the existing model as starting point. They are as following:-

Try to improve throughput and resource use by changing the priorities of the work centres. Analyse & understand this model.

Try to improve throughput and resource use by allowing Bays 1, 2 & 3 to receive any type of tyre.

There is money available for extra machinery. The choice is either to invest in new machinery allowing Car tyres treads to be cut exactly to 3.5mm or Motor Cycle tyres to be re-cut in exactly 1minute. Investigate which would improve throughput.

FIRST IMPROVIZATION

Now we have to improve the existing model by using the throughout and resource and changing the priorities of the work centres. Let us start from the beginning; the tyres are brought to the Reconditioning Plant in Lorries which arrive at an average time of 20 minutes after one another. The Lorries which arrive at the System can be divided into three categories on the basis of tyre quantities. 55% of Lorries arrive with 10 tyres, 10% Lorries arrive with 20 tyres and the remaining 35% of the Lorries contain 15 tyres each. The stats further show that on each Lorry 60% are of Car types, 20% are of Tractor type and the remaining 20% belongs to Motor Cycle tyres. These tyres are checked automatically by System which requires an average time of 45 seconds. The selection is done on the basis of quality and condition of tyre. The Selection Centre rejects about 12% of the tyres. After this tyres are sent to the next section where they are remoulded and it takes an average time of 120 seconds. We can further improve the system by making the Selection Centre more sensitive and quick. Thus reducing the error factor and increasing the production. The use of staff would not be recommended at this stage because it will increase the cost and reduce the production as well.

The tyre treads are then moved to the Re-Cutting Section. The Re-Cutting Section Comprise of 3 Bays namely Bay1, Bay 2 and Bay 3. The Bays process only a single tyre at any single moment. Bay 1 is used for re-cutting of Car tyres with an average time of 3 minutes and 30 seconds. Bay 2 is used for re-cutting of Tractor tyres with an average time of 3 minutes and 45 seconds. The last Bay 3 is used for re-cutting of Motor Cycle Tyres at an average time of 3 minutes. The important aspect about the Bays is that they are not interchangeable. The Bays performance can be improved by making the process quick and intelligent. The use of Modern Technology will help to reduce the consuming time. Human resource can't be use here as well because it will reduce the time and increase the cost. But we can make these machines much accurate by monitoring them throughout each process in the Bays.

The Machines used to re-cut the tread of Tractor tyres and Motor Cycle tyres are of an appropriate Tolerance. The tyres are re-cut following a Uniform Distribution. Tractor tyres are re-cut under uniform distribution with a lower limit of 5mm and Upper limit of 8 mm. The Motor Cycle tyres are re-cut under the principle of uniform distribution with a lower limit of 2mm and an Upper limit of 4 mm. The Machine used to re-cut the Car tyres used at Bay 1 is old and has a poor tolerance. It also works on the principle of uniform Distribution. Car tyres are re-cut under uniform distribution with a lower limit of 2.5 mm and an Upper limit of 5 mm. Car tyre from here are moved towards the Measuring Section where the depth of the tyre is measured. This require an average time of 75 seconds. If the tyre depth is less than 3.5 mm, it is sent back to make that 3.5 mm. This process takes time of exactly 90 seconds. Each tyre must then be remeasured to ensure the limit is satisfied before leaving the System. Bay 1 has 2 staff teams, each consisting of 3 members. The duty of each team is to ensure the quality control, remoulding and re-cutting. Remoulding process takes priority over any other process. Re-cutting has the least priority. This can be improved by monitoring the re-cutting of Car tyres, So that the possibility of rejecting the tyre from Measuring Section could lower. This will save time and reduce cost per tyre. The production from Bay 1 will also increase.

SECOND IMPROVIZATION

We can improve the above scenario in another way as well. In this improvisation we will be targeting our Bays. We will make sure that any Bay can re-cut any type of tyres. This improvisation can be done in 2 ways. Firstly, there should be change among the Machines intelligence. The machine should re-cut the tyre according to the instructions passed to it. The process of sending instructions can be manual or automatic. We will be requiring a team of 3 members, each member at the front of each Bay. He will tell the bay which uniform distribution it has to follow by pressing there of the buttons located at front. This process can also be done by using weight sensors. This will automatically communicate with the Machine to define the Uniform Distribution Limits. By doing so we can increase the production and can reduce cost per tyre.

In this improvisation the role of Measuring Section will be enhanced and will require improvement. Because now it will be measuring different depths, so it has to be in direct communication with the re-cutting Machine to avoid any problems. If this will not be taken into considerance, it will be a huge problem and mess will be created. Second Improvisation has its own benefits and drawbacks as well. But surely it will improve the above scenario and will be cost effective with increase in Production.

THIRD IMPROVIZATION

The system can be improved by purchasing new Machines as well. In the third improvisation we will be purchasing new Machines but we have a limitation about the funds. Therefore we have two choices to follow either we can purchase a new Machine for re-cutting of tyres which will re-cut the Car tyres exactly 3.5mm or a new machine for re-cutting of Motorcycle tyres in exactly 1 minute. By looking at the stats we can easily determine that the tyres coming for reconditioning mostly belong to Motor Cars. The Bay 1 which we are using for re-cutting of Car tyres has an old Machine and requires more time and cost. This is affecting the cost per unit of each tyre and decreasing the profit ratio. Whereas the Motor Cycle tyres are already cut in a new Machine at Bay 3, it is already consuming less time than the other Bays.

The stats clearly ask for improvement in the Bay 1 where Car treads are re-cut. When we will improve the Bay 1 machine it will affect the total production and cost of each car tyre as well. The time required to complete the re-cutting process will reduce. As a result the production will increase. This improvement will be more positive and effective than the others. It will increase the profit and production.

SUMMARY

The Tyre Reconditioning process is very important to meet the rising requirement for tyres in the Automobile industry. The reconditioning process helps by producing huge amount of tyres for the industry in less time. As we have discussed the Reconditioning Plant in detail and how it can be improved through various steps. We have learned that if the Tyre reconditioning process is efficient and producing accurate results then huge amount of time and money can be saved.

This will ultimately result in good profit and large amount of production.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Some of the important steps that should be taken to improve the quality and production of Tyre Reconditioning Plant are as under:

Machines should be replaced or improved after an average time of 5-10 years.

Maintenance of Machines should be carried out properly.

New Technology should be introduced to improve the performance of the Machines.

Trained and Highly Qualified Staff should be hired to reduce members from the teams.

Quality Checks should be monitored and Time efficient Machinery should be used.

TYRE RECONDITIONING PLANT

BAY 1

Leaving

Section

Selection

Centre

BAY 3

BAY 2

Quality

Control

Section

Measuring Section

Re-Cutting Section

ACD Diagram of Tyre Reconditioning Plant