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1. One of the key elements in the development process of a country is efficiency in production of electricity by an effective energy platform, which can suit the present context locally and internationally, as electricity has become the centre of gravity of the development process. In this scenario, energy production has become one of the key issues in SRI LANKA more than ever now, as SRI LANKA was able to eradicate terrorism setting a very good foundation for accelerated development. At present SRI LANKA uses hydro and fossil fuel as the main power generating platforms and biomass and coal power in a limited capacity. These power-generating systems are affected by variations in weather patterns and prices of crude oil respectively. The increasing oil prices have a severe effect on the cost of production of exports thus affecting competition in the international market. Further, investors are hesitant to invest in the SRI LANKAN economy due to the high cost of electricity and most importantly, electricity prices have a greater weightage in the cost of living for the people of the country.
2. In this context, this paper will analyse the importance of nuclear energy as a low cost, environment friendly and effective means of producing electricity to meet an ever increasing energy demand in SRI LANKA. In order to provide a firm basis for this paper, the author has consulted the relevant authorities of Sri Lanka Atomic Energy Authority and Sri Lanka Electricity Board.
3. The aim of this paper is to examine the potential of use of nuclear energy to meet future demands in SRI LANKA.
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
4. Discovery of radioactive elements such as radium in the early 20th century and the neutron by James Chadwick in 1932 were milestones in the development of nuclear science. The works of Frederic, Irene Joliot-Curie and Enrico Fermi during the 1930s led to an increase in the effective use of radioactivity. The discovery of nuclear fission in late 1930s by a number of GERMAN and AUSTRIAN scientists further developed the understating of nuclear science. Many scientists in countries like the UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, FRANCE, and GERMANY requested support from their respective governments for nuclear fission research, on the eve of World War II.
5. In 1942, the first man-made reactor, known as Chicago pile-1 was established and the Manhattan project of UNITED STATES let to create world first nuclear weapon which was used in HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI in JAPAN. After World War II, scientists of USA and USSR had acquired and developed new nuclear technologies, which released waste heat that could be used for production of electricity and the feasibility of using nuclear energy for civilian proposes became more pragmatic. But nuclear reactors also produced plutonium, which can be used for nuclear weapons. This situation forced the national governments to keep a very strict control over the nuclear plants under classification.
6. Developments in nuclear science were rapidly carried out in countries like the UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, CANADA and USSR over the period of late 1940s and early 1950s. History was created when electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor at the EBR-1 experimental station in USA on 20 December 1951. This station initially produced 100 KW of electricity. In 1953 then USA President Dwight Eisenhower highlighted the need to develop peaceful uses of nuclear energy by his famous "Atoms for Peace" speech at the United Nations. In 1954, USSR's Obninsk nuclear power plant became the world's first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a power grid. Then in 1956, Calder Hall nuclear power plant in UNITED KINGDOM became the world's first commercial nuclear power station with an initial capacity of 50 MW. In 1957, USA opened her first commercial nuclear power plant in Shippingport, Pennsylvania.
7. The nuclear capability of nuclear power plants increased dramatically from 1 GW in 1960s to 100 GW in late 1970s and 300 GW in late 1980s. Nevertheless, since late 1980s the rapid development was slowed down mostly due to nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl in USSR in 1986 and the pressure created by anti-nuclear power groups on national governments. However, due to the increasing oil prices and environment pollution by oil electric generation plants, the importance of nuclear power to meet the large energy demand was highlighted in many counties to keep the tempo of the development process.
8. Nuclear power plant creates it power from energy released by the nucleus of an atom via nuclear fission. This fission divides the atom with kinetic energy and releases gamma radiation and free neutrons. The ingredient for a nuclear power is uranium, which is a relatively common element on Earth. After the uranium is mined, the first step is to enrich it using various techniques to a condition this uranium, commonly known as "Yellowcake" which can be used as nuclear fuel. The above mentioned nuclear chain reaction is controlled automatically or manually as this system causes more and more fission. A cooling system controls the heat from the reactor; the thermal energy is used to produce electricity. Then this fuel is delivered to nicer plant and after usage, spent fuel is deliver to a reprocessing plant. (I do not know what the word nicer means in this context.Perhaps you should check it.)
NUCLEAR POWER USAGE IN THE WORLD AND IN ASIA
9. As the centre of gravity of world's economy is shifting towards Asia, a boom of nuclear energy can be clearly identified as presently 112 nuclear power reactors are operating in six counties of the region and 37 units are under construction. A significant growth of nuclear power plants can be identified in CHINA, JAPAN, INDIA and SOUTH KOREA. In CHINA a "nuclear park" is under construction with over US $ 175 billion in 130 Km2 as Chinese electricity demand has been growing at more than 8% per year. At present in CHINA, 27 nuclear power plants are under construction and 120 plants are planned over the next 20 years. INDIA signed several civilian nuclear power agreements with USA, UK and FRANCE to develop 30 nuclear plants within the next 20 years. At present, seven nuclear plants are being constructed and three of them are situated close to SRI LANKA in South India. PAKISTAN has two two nuclear plants in operation and one is under construction. The BANGLADESH Atomic Energy Commission has signed agreements with RUSSIA to obtain two 1000 MW nuclear plants by 2020. At present BANGLADESH has one operating research reactor. Further, INDONESIA and THAILAND have finalized their feasibility studies on development of nuclear energy. SINGAPORE, which opposed the concept of nuclear energy for a long time, is now in the process of developing infrastructure for a nuclear plant.
10. One of the most interesting indications on the interest in nuclear power comes from none other than oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United Arab Emirates as they have identified the importance of nuclear power, which has many applications. Further, developed counties such as United Kingdom, United States of America, Russia, Japan and Finland have strengthened their nuclear plants with modern technologies. Meanwhile, Italy has reactivated its nuclear power plant, which was decommissioned after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl in Ukraine.
SRI LANKA'S ENERGY SYSTEM
10. Sri Lanka's main energy sources consist of hydro and fossil fuel while other power sources like wind, biomass and minor hydro projects contribute, in a lesser degree, to the national power system. The following chart shows the power sources in Sri Lanka from 2003 to 2009.
Total grid capacity
11. As Sri Lanka is blessed with a number of rivers starting from the highlands, a number of dams have been constructed since independence to generate hydroelectric power. Hydroelectricity contributes nearly 45 percent of the total power capacity of Sri Lanka. Dams such as Victoria, Kotmale, Rantembe, Randenigala, Samanalwewa, Bowatenna and Uda Walawa are the lifelines of production of hydroelectric power in Sri Lanka. Currently Moragahakanda and Upper Kotmale dams are under construction. Further, cabinet has approved the hydroelectric power project in Broadlands area, which is situated near the area where Kehelgamu oya and Maskeli oya meet. Theses hydroelectric power stations provide 38 MW to 210 MW to the national grid. However, due to exhaustion of water resources, Sri Lanka finds it difficult to develop an extensive hydroelectric power capacity.
12. Thermal power stations generate the greater part of the power requirement of Sri Lanka, which is 48 percent of the total power generation. Thermal power stations utilise diesel, gas or other fuel to operate. Kerawalapitiya, Kelanitissa, Hela Danavi, APC power station and Colombo port power station can be mentioned as examples. As the demand for power increase 8 percent each year Sri Lanka is in the process of introducing coal power to the national grid by constructing coal power plants at Norochcholi and Sampoor, with a total capacity of 1,900 MW.
13. Apart from above mentioned power-generating sources, a wind power plant has been constructed in the HAMBANTOTA area with a capacity of 3 MW. The development of wind power stations in Sri Lanka has become difficult due to poor accessibility to potential areas and the infrastructure is not suitable to transport the large equipment needed for wind plants. Further, high costs of development of these plants in the initial stage have made them uneconomical to the government.
ENERGY CRISIS IN SRI LANKA
14. Sri Lanka depends heavily on hydroelectricity and thermal power for the generation of power. As hydroelectricity and thermal power are based on constant rainfall and crude oil prices respectively generation and supply of electricity at an economical price for consumers has become a major problem. At present the most prominent government organizations in the energy sector in Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Electricity Board and Sri Lanka Petroleum Corporation are running at a large loss. Sri Lanka spends nearly Rs. 160 million on fossil fuel for power generation daily and one-third of the combined export earnings of the past years was spent on the import of crude oil even when the price of a crude oil was below U S $70 a barrel. The movement of oil and oil prices will continue to be unpredictable and mostly sensitive to the political environment in oil producing counties, mainly in the Middle East. Since Sri Lanka does not have any proven indigenous fossil fuel resources, the price of electricity will always be a dependent variable according to changes in oil prices in the world and therefore affected directly and adversely.
15. In the years 1995 to 1996, Sri Lanka experienced its worst ever energy crisis due to the drought. Power cuts were imposed ranging from five to ten hours each day, which highlighted the vulnerability of dependence on hydroelectricity power, which is very unpredictable mostly due to the changing weather patterns in the context of climate change in the world. Further, Sri Lanka has reached its peak in the production of hydroelectric power as most of the water resources are being utilized.
16. At present, Sri Lanka has focused its attention on the use of coal as a method of power generation, since coal is relatively cheap in price and due to the greater availability of coal in the world compared with oil. However, the main constraints on coal power generation is the adverse effecton the environment as it generates carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas that causes climate and global warming according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air. Further, coal can cause acid rains, lung cancer and dust nuisance as Sri Lanka has a very limited geographical area.(You might also consider this possibility. The paddy lands of the north central and northern sri lanka are due east of norochcholai, as are also a great number of irrigation tanks.carbon fall out and acid rain could play havoc with the rice crop and the tanks.)
FEASIBILITY OF USE OF NUCLEAR POWER IN SRI LANKA
17. Sri Lanka has recognized the importance of having a proper mix of energy generating platforms in order to maintain energy security as a condition for a rapid development. Therefore, Sri Lanka has taken steps to incorporate nuclear power in the country's energy mix. In order to visualize the nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka, the Power and Energy Ministry has empowered the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) of Sri Lanka to take necessary measures to enhance the human resources development in the field of nuclear power. The president has appointed a steering committee under the leadership of Prof. K K Y W Perera and Prof. W Abeyewickrama, Chairman, AEA and representatives from the Ministry of Power and Energy, Ceylon Electricity Board, University of Moratuwa, Ministry of Technology and Research, Ministry of Foreign affairs, Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources, Geological Survey and Mines Bureau and other intellectuals in relevant fields of specialization to conduct a pre-feasibility study on electricity generation using nuclear power. They mainly consider the requirement of nuclear power as an option for the energy crisis in Sri Lanka, considering socio, economic, environmental issues, and current trends of the world energy balance.
18. A important exploration for uranium was carried out in 1979 with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) except the area in Jaffna peninsula and North West. Nearly 870 samples of soil were analyzed for uranium and results indicated that four area such as Rakwana, Mahaweli-Maha Oya-Kalminai, Arugam and Kala Oya as potential area for uranium mineralization. As this project was not followed up due to security reasons prevailing at that time, Atomic Energy Authority of Sri Lanka now hopes to continue further research. Further, the availability of thorium in the beach sands in Sri Lanka has been known since 1900 and Monazite is found in heavy mineral sands at Pulmoddai and much higher concentration are located along the beach from Panadura to Beruwela. Monazite is the main source of the radioactive metallic element thorium. Thorium can be used as nuclear fuel through breeding to fissile uranium, and thorium is used in Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactors.
19. India has established the world's first safe nuclear reactor in its revolutionary design of "Thorium Breeder Reactor" which can produce 600 MW of electricity for two years with no refilling and practically no control maneuvers and it is claimed that this reactor is far more economical and safer than any power reactor in the world.
Advantages of nuclear power
20. Following advantages can be obtained from nuclear power.
a. Nuclear reaction generates a much higher volume of power than other power generation platforms.
b. One of the biggest advantages of nuclear power is that nuclear reaction does not produce greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and chlorofluorocarbon.
c. Nuclear power plants use uranium as the fuel and fission reaction of a small amount of uranium generates a large amount of energy.
d. Nuclear fuel is inexpensive and easy to transport and a single nuclear power plant can produce a large amount of power.
Disadvantages of nuclear power
21. Following are the disadvantages of nuclear power:
a. Nuclear power plant requires a large capital and 10-15 years are taken to build a single power plant.
b. Radioactive waste after fission is very dangerous to the environment and it remains so for thousands of years. These nuclear wastes needs professional handing and should be kept isolated from the environment.
c. Although modern nuclear power plants have a very sophisticated structure, still there is a possibility for an accident to happen. The consequence of an accident will be devastating for human beings and nature.
d. Nuclear power plants can be good targets for terrorist attacks and such attacks will have catastrophic effects.
22. A developing county like Sri Lanka requires sound energy platforms with a balanced energy mix, as energy security is vital for the growth of the economy. Dependence on hydroelectricity and fossil fuel power has shown limitations as these power sources are very vulnerable to factors such as weather and oil prices respectively and since Sri Lanka has signed the Kyoto protocol to take steps in order to stop emission of greenhouse gases it is not suitable to introduce coal power plants as a long term measure to meet Sri Lanka's growing energy demands.
23. Nuclear power as an economic source of energy has been introduced since late 1940s, and the rapid development of nuclear technology in USA and former USSR helped to establish commercial nuclear power plants in the world as the generating capacities of these nuclear plants grew very rapidly over the years. Although, nuclear technology was limited to the developed counties in the beginning, as the economic equilibrium shifted to the Asian region with the rapid development, Asian counties have focused their attention on exploiting the capabilities of nuclear power. China and India are the foremost counties in this regard and many have followed.
24. As Sri Lankas' power generating platform is largely based on fossil fuel, a large expenditure has to be borne by the nation to import crude oil which is a very limited resource in the world and the government is compelled to sell electricity to consumers at a much lower price than the actual generating cost of electricity as the production price is not affordable by the average citizen of Sri Lanka. Further it is important to mention that Sri Lanka's use of water resources to generate electricity has reached its peak being used to its maximum capacity.
25. Past explorations have indicated that Sri Lanka has thorium deposits in the beach sands in Pulmoddai area and monazite, which is the main source of the radioactive metallic element thorium on the beaches between Panadura and the Beruwela areas. Thorium is being utilized in fast breeder nuclear reactors very effectively. As Sri Lanka was able to eradicate the terrorism, we have a golden (Incomplete)