There are 5 main objectives of cladding system which are provide enclosure, speed of dry, impose minimal additional dead load, enclose architectural concept, and lastly control internal environment. Cladding system provides enclosure because to make sure it makes some privacy to the users. It also gives speed of dry to the concrete behind the cladding and it will gives some advantages and profit to the contractor. Using cladding system give advantages to impose minimal additional dead load and it will decrease overall weight of the building and any others load. Cladding also give enclose architectural concept and sometimes it gives touch up to building to make building more modern and contemporary. Lastly, it gives internal environment because some of the cladding gives environment to the building and sometimes give characteristic environment which are satisfied by the users.
There are many functional requirement of cladding to meet the objectives of cladding system. Firstly the functional requirement of cladding is strength and stability, it adequate strength to support its own eight between the point of support. It also sufficient stability against lateral and pressure and allow the differential movement in material expansion and contraction like gas, metal and GRP.
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Secondly is exclusion of wind and rain. Common practice is to construct solid cladding system with an outer leaf as rain screen and inner leaf of light weight block for insulation. Material used to seal joint are required to be resilient enough to accommodate movement and vessels weather determination.
In addition, durability and freedom of maintenance are including in functional requirement of cladding system. Cladding system must give minimum frequency and extent of work necessary to maintain minimum functional requirement and acceptable appearance such as masonry, required little maintenance. Glass also give require frequent cleaning and renewal of seal and other than that, sheet metal (bronze, aluminium, stainless steel), oxidation and faded.
Other than that, control of internal temperature is also in functional requirement of cladding system. Some of the cladding is function as a solar energy and solar gain through gain panel to give energy or electricity to a building. Some of that cladding also use as a thermal system which can be control and can be achieved by deep recessed window used in conjunction with external verticals fins. Other than that, it uses transparent external louvers and sometimes used of a special solar control glass in cladding system.
Moreover, fire resistance also in functional requirement in cladding system. The lining materials used for insulation are from the non-combustible material and non-conductor electricity for to make sure the fire cannot be easily to going through cladding when there are burning. Other than fire resistance, thermal properties also include in functional requirement in cladding system. Addition insulation for thermal properties also needs to be provided by lining of the cladding material to make sure it more confident about safety during fire.
Lastly will be sound insulation as a thing must be in functional requirement in cladding system. It used of resilient pad to prevent sound originating within the structure to be transferred vertically through cladding members. So users from up and down floor cannot easily hear what u said. Airborne sound can be prevented by utilising double glazing panel to window area.
A client requires a road that required little maintenance with reasonable non-skid properties. With the aid of the diagram, suggest a type of road and the construction methodology for the proposed road.
From that statement which is required little maintenance with reasonable non-skid properties, I would suggest using rigid pavement (concrete) as a type of the road. From a characteristic of rigid pavement it shows that it only need low maintenance to fix the road which using rigid pavement and reasonable for non-skid properties.
The general methodology for rigid pavement construction is implicating placement, consolidation, finishing, curing and jointing in fast succession. First step which is placement involves any equipment or method used to area the express PCC on the desire surface at the desire thickness. In during the screeding process, excess portions of the roughly place PCC are cut off in order to take the slab to the necessary high. This is usually done by dragging a straight edge across the slab at the required high.
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Second step, consolidation implicates any means use to throw out undesirable vacancy. Consolidation is the process of create the freshly placed PCC into a more even and solid mass by get rid of undesirable air vacancy and causing it move along potency obstructions such as reinforcing steel. Consolidation is usually accomplished using long, slender vibration rod called vibrators. Vibrators work by rotating an eccentric weight which induces the entire vibrator to move back and forth. This movement excites particles within the PCC mass; bring on them to move closer together and better flow around block. Vibrators can be interpreted by the amount of energy give to the surrounding PCC mass. This energy delivery is defined by two processes. First, the amount of energy produce by the vibrator is comparable to the size and speed of the rotating the weight. Usually, the size is constant and the speed is variable. Second, the energy sent from the vibrator to the surrounding PCC mass is related to paver speed (the faster the paver runs, the less time vibrator has in a certain volume of PCC) and the vibrator sport within the PCC mass. All of these factors together cover and control the size and shape of an effect zone. This effect zone is usually conical in shape and varies in size rely on the prior mentioned factors.
For the third step is finishing implicate any outfit or procedure use give desirable surface characteristic. Finishing implicate all processes and outfit use to create the ending surface finish and texture of fresh PCC. Generally, finishing can be dispart into floating and texturing. For floating is a flat surface is run across the PCC in order to remove high and low sports, embed larger aggregate particles under the surface, remove slight imperfections and to solid the mortar at the surface in arrangement for texturing. Floating can implicate a number of different tools and may involve multiple passes over the same surface. For texturing, after floating, fresh PCC is usually quite soft. In order to create a slip resistance surface for traffic, a rough pattern is usually be taught by dragging a broom, rough-textured item, or tined instrument across the surface. Typically, texturing is dividing into following two categories which are microtexture and macrotexture.
For the forth step which is curing is the enforcement of satisfactory moisture and temperature in PCC as it sets and crust such that the desired properties can expend. Curing refers to the maintenance of proper moisture and temperature within a PCC mass as it sets and crustes such that the desired characteristics of strength, durability and density can develop. The desired characteristics of strength, durability and density are linked to the extent of hydration within the PCC mass. The extent and rate of hydration rely on two critical construction-controlled parameter where moisture and temperature.
Lastly, jointing implicate all those proceeding use to insert deliberate discontinuities in the pavement and seal them accurate. This section produces generic information of these six steps and may any related deliberation. Specifics of how they are all in constant form and slipform pavement are shown in the next two sections.
Describe the performance and specify the material that can be used to fill the void of disused structures, e.g: culvert, redundant sewer cellar and basement and also for soil stabilization, e.g: bridge abutment tunnel stabilization and embankments.
Based on the above statement, material that suitable to fill the void of disused structures and also for soil stabilization is an aerated concrete. Advantages of using aerated concrete are highly workable, low density material incorporating up to 50% entrained air. So it easily can float in water because a density of aerated concrete is lower than water. Aerated concrete are among the good material which is used on water. Aerated concrete also generally self-levelling, self-compacting and may be pumped. There are criteria which are not other material have it.
Other than that, aerated concrete risk of plastic shrinkage or settlement cracking is significantly lower than that of normal concrete. So the aerated concrete tougher than others concrete and not easily to be broken. Moreover, aerated concrete are foamed concrete is ideal for filling redundant voids such as disused fuel tanks, sewer systems, pipelines, and culverts. What we can say, aerated concrete is material that can fill the space left by other material during the process of building structure. Lastly, aerated concrete has tended to be a good thermal insulation. Because of it, fire cannot be easily spread to other place. Aerated concrete also cannot get hot to easily if sunlight hit aerated concrete.
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There are four applications for the aerated concrete which are unwanted voids, disused structure, higher structural stabilisation, and insulating fill. For unwanted voids, aerated concrete will be use in making pipelines, services ducts and shafts, and bridge arches or subways. Aerated concrete has characteristic which it can floating on water, so the aerated concrete is only concrete which has features. Application for disused structure can use only at culvert, redundant sewer, cellar and basement. For application like higher structural stabilisation, it only use in bridge abutment, tunnel stabilisation and embankment. It because aerated concrete has most stable so it easily stable on water and stable on the ground.
Briefly describe the activities involves in external works at the start of the contract
An activity that in involves external work at the start of the contract is drainage. Drainage is the nature or made in removal of surface and sub surface water from a region. Many agricultural soils need drainage to increase product or to emaciate water supplies. Drainage system is an important element in a building. Every single building must have a proper drainage system in order to keep the occupants of that building comfortable. The function of drainage is to collect the surface water and foul water of a building and flow it to some other places. Local water authority has the power to determine the type of sub surface drainage system.
There are a few types of sub surface drainage system to be used for a domestic usage. According to Fred Hall and Roger Greeno, among the two (2) of it are the combined and separate drainage system and partially separate drainage system. Combined drainage system use a single drain to convey both of surface water and foul water. Combined drainage system will reduce the cost of installation and it has high cost for sewerage treatment plant. For separate drainage system, it conveys the surface water into the surface water sewer or a soak away and it also convey the foul water into the foul water sewer. Separate drainage system has higher installation cost compared to combined system. But it reduces the maintenance cost of the sub surface drainage system.
For partially separate drainage system, rainwater mostly conveyed to the surface water sewer. Local water authority may permit an isolated inlet connection to reduce site cost and for convenience. Figure below shows the operation of partially separate drainage system:
Inlet A is connected to inspection chamber. Rodding point is shown at B. Rain water down pipe or waste pipes are connected to drain by using back inlet gully. The bend/trap provide useful reservoir to trap leaves, these seal preventing from air contamination. A yard gully (similar to road gully-smaller) is solely collecting surface water connect to drain. Rain water shoe only connect to rainwater pipe to surface drain. Soil and vent pipe or discharge stack connected to foul water drain rest bend at base (135Â° bends-centre-line radius at least 200mm).