The European Worlds Economise Engineering Essay

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The world`s economies recently faced the worst recessions in a decades, the European economy was no exception. Unfortunately the Automotive Industry also bore the brunt of this and there was a huge fall in the sale of automobiles globally. When all thought that they had overcome the global meltdown there was something else that the automotive industry had to deal with which it has been trying to for past few years. This was the problem caused to due emissions. Although the pollution caused due to the automotive emissions is not unknown, the new issue that the industry faces is the emission of CO2. The automotive industry worldwide has been trying to reduce CO2 emissions but there is a long way to go until a complete solution for this problem is found out.

European emission regulations or standards help us determine the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of all the vehicles sold in European countries. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards. All the automotive manufacturers have to comply by the rules or standards set by the governing body and failure to do so results in the payment of heavy fines by the auto manufacturer. Although, the standards are set for all types of road vehicles, trains, barges and non-road mobile vehicles like tractors, but no such standards have been set to seagoing ships or airplanes. The emissions standards change based on the test cycle used: ECE R49 (old) and ESC (European Steady Cycle, since 2000) [1].

The current date European emission standards are the EURO 5 standards which were introduced on October 1 2009. They replaced the older EURO 4 automotive emission norms. The new Euro 5 norms are much stricter than its predecessors. This is evident form the fact that the new limits set for some of the by-products are less as they were in the EURO 4 norms.

Index

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………3

Automotive Emissions………………………………………………………4

Combustion Process…………………………………………………………4

Emissions Control……………………………………………………………………………....8

Air Injection…………………………………………………………………………….8

Exhaust Gas Recirculation……………………………………………………………...8

Catalytic Converter……………………………………………………………………. 8

The EURO 5 Emission Standards………………………………………………………….….11

Summary……………………………………………………………………11

Scope………………………………………………………………………..11

Emission Limits…………………………………………………………….12

Emissions from Diesel Vehicles……………………………………12

Emissions from Petrol/Natural Gas/LPG vehicles………………….12

Proposed Emission Standards for two and three wheeled Vehicles………..13

Emission Standards for trucks & heavy vehicles…………………………...14.

Emission Standards for cars and light vehicles…………………………..…16

The developments to meet the required Standards………………………………………….…23

Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………….…24

6. References……………………………………………………………………………………….25

Introduction

The report provides information on most recent European Regulations for Automotive emissions and it also gives information about the important developments that have taken place to meet these regulations. Also it gives an insight on the EURO 5 as well as EURO 6 emission norms that are going to be introduced in the time to come.

The task of protecting the environment has been underway for some years now. This is can be also be seen in the vehicle and transport sector. Although it has cantered mainly on the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) from heavy goods vehicle exhausts, the problems due top CO2 emissions is also been given a serious consideration. This reduction is the subject of an evolving standard: the Euro standard.

For different type of vehicle, different standards are applicable. The compliance is found out by running the engine at a standardised test cycle. If a vehicle fails to comply with the standards it cannot be sold in the EU, but new standards do not apply to vehicles that already exist on the roads. No use of specific technologies is made mandatory to meet the standards, but the available technology is considered when setting the standards. New vehicle models yet to be introduced must meet the current or planned emissions standards, but minor lifecycle model revisions may be offered with pre-compliant engines.  Frequent policy alternatives to emissions standards are those technology standards which are mandate standards, that generally regulate the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides, particulate matter (PM) or soot, carbon monoxide (CO), or volatile hydrocarbons [2].

1.1 Automotive Emissions:

Although the emissions from an individual car are relatively low, the combined emissions of a number of cars together at a traffic signal or moving along a freeway constitutes to air pollution on a large scale. Hence driving a private car is probably an activity that adds to the already existing pollution during his daily activity. As compared to the engines available in past, engines today are less polluting but still they are not 100% green as expected. This is due to the fact that internal combustion engine produce a lot of residual matter as well as some unburned materials during the working. And this is due to the burning of the fuel that is used to give the vehicle its power for motion. The By-products of the combustion process as well as the evaporation of the fuel itself are the main contributors of the emissions from all types of vehicles.

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\emissions source.jpg

Fig1: Typical sources of emissions in a car.[6]

1.2 The Combustion Process:

Both the frequently used fuels i.e Diesel and Gasoline (Petrol) are mixtures of Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are the compounds that contain both Hydrogen atoms and Carbon atoms together. When the fuels burn, these atoms are involved in chemical reactions that result in combustion. Air or oxygen is also involved in the combustion which assists the overall process. The process can be further divided in to complete or pure combustion and incomplete combustion.

In a "perfect" engine, all the oxygen present in the air would convert all the hydrogen in the fuel to water and all the carbon in the fuel to carbon dioxide. Nitrogen in the air would remain unaffected. But in reality, the combustion process cannot be "perfect," and automotive engines emit several types of pollutants. As seen below the typical combustion process and the perfect combustion process are different.

"Perfect" Combustion:

FUEL (hydrocarbons) + AIR (oxygen and nitrogen) = CARBON DIOXIDE + water + unaffected nitrogen.

Here we can see that there are no unwanted unburned particles or gases, but water and some amount of Nitrogen.

Typical Engine/Regular Combustion:

FUEL (hydrocarbons) + AIR (oxygen and nitrogen) = FUEL + AIR UNBURNED HYDROCARBONS + NITROGEN OXIDES + CARBON MONOXIDE + CARBON DIOXIDE + water.

It is evident that the unwanted by-products like unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxides (CO), carbon dioxides (CO2) are the primary culprits that contribute to the pollution in the air. All these particles have adverse effects on the human beings, like cancer and respiratory disorders. Hence a control over these is a must to prevent air pollution.

Emission Trends over the years have change drastically and this can be seen from the charts below. The individual NFR sources that make up the grouped road transport sector group contribute significantly to emissions of a number of pollutants, including NOx, NMVOC, CO, PM2.5, PM10 and certain POPs.

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\emission trends1.jpg

Fig : EU27 emission trends in the sector group 'road transport' for NOx, NMVOC and CO in Gg between 1990 and 2008 (index year 1990 = 100), for PM10 and PM2.5 between 2000 and 2008 (index year 2000 = 100)[9]

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\emission trends2.jpg

Fig shows the EU27 emission trends in the sector group 'road transport' for the priority heavy metal Pb between 1990 and 2008 (index year 1990 = 100)[9]

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\emission trends3.jpg

Fig shows the EU27 emission trends in the sector group 'road transport' for the POPs (total PAHs and PCBs) between 1990 and 2008 (index year 1990 = 100)[9]

2 Emissions Control

A number of technologies were introduced to reduce the overall emissions of vehicles. Technologies to detoxify the exhaust form an essential part of emissions control systems all over the automotive industry. Some of the techniques are as mentioned below.

Air Injection:

This was the first type of emission control system to be developed and was used to inject air into the engine`s exhaust ports. This provided oxygen to burn the unburned hydrocarbons and partially burned hydrocarbons. It was later used to help the working of the catalytic converter i.e. its oxidation reaction and to reduce the emissions from a cold start engine.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation:

It included a system that routed a certain fixed amount of exhaust into the intake tract under a specific operation condition. As the exhaust neither burned nor supported combustion it simply diluted the air/fuel charge to reduce peak combustion chamber temperature. It was mainly seen in vehicles in the United States and Canada in 1973.

Catalytic Converter:

It is a device that was placed in the exhaust pipe itself, which converted hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and NOx into less harmful gases. It used a catalyst for this which was a combination of platinum, rhodium and palladium.

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\Basic controls for emissions.jpg

Fig 3: Basic emission control

Emissions of pollutants from heavy good vehicles like trucks, cargo trailers and similar heavy duty engine vehicles with weight over 4 tons were subjected to the ever increasingly demanding European directives by the way of Euro norms, since 1988. This was observed as Standard 0 was assigned for the maximum rate of NOx at 14.4 g/kWh, while the EURO 4 norms that was made compulsory from 1st October 2006, had rate at 3.5 g/kWh. Whereas the EURO 5 emission norms envisages a rate at 2.0 g/kWh which is significantly less than the EURO 4 standards. Also the standards currently in force enabled the reduction of polluting emissions from heavy duty vehicles to be reduced by 70% as compared to the EURO standard 0, while EURO 4 further permitted reduction in the emissions of about 35%. Hence to meet the EURO 4 standards various installations like particle filters where installed on all types of vehicles, while the current EURO 5 norm imposed the use of NOx catalytic converter. [3]

C:\Users\Gautam M\Desktop\Report Gautam\Powertrain Reports and ppts\Emissions Report\emissions.jpg

Fig 2: Change in the permissible limits for various emission by-products for diesel engines.

As seen from the above chart the overall limits for all the by-products were far more than what they are in the current EURO 5 norms. These further reduce in some cases when we change to the yet to be introduced EURO 6 standards.

The NOx and PM emission standards for diesel and gasoline or petrol cars have been different from the EURO 1 norms till the EURO 5 norms. This can be seen in the image below.

Fig 3: Comparison between the NOx & PM emission standards for diesel and petrol cars [4, 5]

3 The EURO 5 Emission Standards

Euro 5: reduction of pollutant emissions from light vehicles

The European Union introduced stricter limits on pollutant emissions for light road vehicles. The limits we specially targeted towards the emissions due to Nitrogen particulates and oxides.

3.1 Summary:

In view to reducing road vehicular pollution the Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament, introduced common requirements for emissions from motor vehicles and their specific replacement parts (EURO 5) standards. Some measures to improve the access to information on vehicle repairs and promoting the rapid production of EURO 5 compliant vehicles were also laid down.

3.2 Scope:

The Regulation included vehicles of a variety of classes and categories viz. M1, M2, N1 and N2 with a reference mass limit of 2 610 kg. This included passenger vehicles, vans, and commercial vehicles used for transport of passengers/goods or certain specific uses like emergency vehicles or ambulances having either positive-ignition engines (petrol, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas or LPG) or compressed ignition (diesel engines). Apart from these the vehicles used for the transport of passengers or goods with reference mass of about 2 610 kg and 2 840 kg were also to be included.

To reduce the impact of road vehicles on the environment and health, the norms covered a wide range of pollutant emissions: carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons and total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). Also the tail pipe emissions, evaporative emissions and crankcase emissions were covered by the standard.

3.3 Emission Limits:

There were specific limits set for each type of pollutant emission and for the types of vehicles as mentioned.

a) Emissions from Diesel Vehicles:

Carbon monoxide : 500 mg/km

Particulates: 5 mg/km (with 80% reduction of emissions as compared to EURO 4)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx): 180 mg/km (20% reduction of emissions than EURO 4)

Combined emissions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides: 230 mg/km

b) Emissions from Petrol vehicles or Natural gas or LPG run vehicles:

Carbon monoxide: 1000 mg/km

Non-methane hydrocarbons: 68 mg/km

Total hydrocarbons: 100 mg/km

Nitrogen oxides (NOx): 60 mg/km (25% less than in EURO 4standard)

Particulates (only from lean burnt direct injection petrol vehicles): 5 mg/km (This limit did not exist in the previous version i.e. EURO 4)

In the case of LCVs (light commercial vehicles) and vans or mini trucks intended for goods transport, the Regulation included three categories of emission limits, that depending on the reference mass of the vehicle :under 1 305 kg, between 1 305 kg and 1 760 kg, and over 1 760 kg. The limit applicable to the last of the three categories was also applicable to the goods transport vehicles i.e. category N2.

After the EURO 5 standards were enforced the Member States were made to refuse the approval, registration, sale and introduction of all those vehicles that did not comply with its emissions limits. A time limit allowance of about 12 months was given for all the goods transport vehicles in the category N1, classes II and III, as well as category N2. As EURO 5 came into force on 1st September 2009 for the approval of vehicles and will be applicable from 1st January 2011 for the registration and sale of new types of vehicles. But the yet to be introduced EURO 6 standard will be brought in on 1st September 2014 for the approval of vehicles, and for the registration and sale of vehicles from 1st January 2015. [7]

http://www.volvotrucks.com/SiteCollectionImages/VTC/Market/About%20us/Environment/Euro4Euro5/335x240_NOx.jpg

Fig 4: dramatic decrease in NOx and PM necessary to meet the Euro 4 and especially Euro 5 legislations [10]

3.4 Proposed Emission Standards for two and three wheeled Vehicles

The Euro 5 emission limits for L-category vehicles and Euro 6 limits for motorcycles have the same nominal values as the Euro 5 emission limits for passenger cars (M1). The standards for motorcycles, passenger tricycles, and heavy on-road quadricycles were based on the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), used as an alternative cycle under current emissions regulations. Without the proposed new standards, the share of on-road transport hydrocarbon (HC) emissions attributable to L-category vehicles will increase from 38% in 2007 to 62% in 2020 as per the findings of Emissions inventory projections. This projected increase in the proportion of HC emissions from L-category vehicles could be attributed, in part to increasingly stringent emission standards for passenger cars, commercial vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles. [8]

3.5 Emission Standards for Trucks and heavy commercial vehicles

Trucks and heavy commercial vehicles with SCR technology were made to meet the new emission limits in the new stage, Euro 5, which came into effect in 2009. From October 2009 all new trucks registered in the UK and the EU were equipped with engines which have exhaust limits to the new Euro 5 legislation. Whilst Particulate Matter (PM) limits remained the same as for the Euro 4 (0.03 g/kWh), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) limits were reduced by some 43% - from 3.5 to 2.0 g/kWh. An example of the same is the new technology implemented by MAN trucks in which they have the same NOX limits as Euro 5; however, PM limits are reduced by a further 33% (to 0.02 g/kWh). Also their engines were EEV compliant (Enhanced Environmentally-Friendly Vehicle).

The emission standards were applicable to all motor vehicles with a "technically permissible maximum laden mass" over 3,500 kg, equipped with compression ignition engines or positive ignition natural gas (NG) or LPG engines. The following table enlists the emission standards and their implementation dates.

EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m-1)

Tier

Date

Test

CO

HC

NOx

PM

Euro I

1992, < 85 kW

ECE R-49

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.612

1992, > 85 kW

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.36

Euro II

1996.10

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.25

1998.10

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.15

Euro III

1999.10, EEVs only

ESC & ELR

1.5

0.25

2.0

0.02

2000.10

ESC & ELR

2.1

0.66

5.0

0.10 

0.13a

Euro IV

2005.10

1.5

0.46

3.5

0.02

Euro V

2008.10

1.5

0.46

2.0

0.02

Euro VI

2013.01

1.5

0.13

0.4

0.01

a - for engines of less than 0.75 dm3 swept volume per cylinder and a rated power speed of more than 3000 min-1

Table shows the EU Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines, g/kWh (smoke in m-1)[11]

Tier

Date

Test

CO

NMHC

CH4a

NOx

PMb

Euro III

1999.10, EEVs only

ETC

3.0

0.40

0.65

2.0

0.02

2000.10

ETC

5.45

0.78

1.6

5.0

0.16 

0.21c

Euro IV

2005.10

4.0

0.55

1.1

3.5

0.03

Euro V

2008.10

4.0

0.55

1.1

2.0

0.03

Euro VI

2013.01

4.0

0.16d

0.5

0.4

0.01

a - for gas engines only (Euro III-V: NG only; Euro VI: NG + LPG)

b - not applicable for gas fuelled engines at the Euro III-IV stages

c - for engines with swept volume per cylinder < 0.75 dm3 and rated power speed > 3000 min-1

Table shows Emission Standards for Diesel and Gas Engines, ETC Test, g/kWh [11]

3.6 Emission standards for Cars and Light Trucks

European Union emission regulations for new light duty vehicles (passenger cars and light commercial vehicles) were specified in the Directive 70/220/EEC with a number of amendments adopted through 2004. In 2007, this Directive was repealed and replaced by Regulation 715/2007 (Euro 5/6).

 Emission standards for light-duty vehicles were made applicable to all vehicles category  like the M1, M2, N1 and N2 with a reference mass not exceeding 2610 kg (Euro 5/6). EU regulations introduced different emission limits for compression ignition (diesel) and positive ignition (gasoline, NG, LPG, ethanol) vehicles. Diesels had more stringent CO standards but were allowed higher NOx. Positive ignition vehicles were exempted from PM standards through the Euro 4 stage. Euro 5/6 regulations introduced the PM mass emission standards, equal to those for diesels, for positive ignition vehicles with Direct Injection engines. [12]

Tier

Date

CO

HC

HC+NOx

NOx

PM

Compression Ignition (Diesel)

Euro 1†

1992.07

2.72 (3.16)

-

0.97 (1.13)

-

0.14 (0.18)

Euro 2, IDI

1996.01

1.0

-

0.7

-

0.08

Euro 2, DI

1996.01a

1.0

-

0.9

-

0.10

Euro 3

2000.01

0.64

-

0.56

0.50

0.05

Euro 4

2005.01

0.50

-

0.30

0.25

0.025

Euro 5

2009.09b

0.50

-

0.23

0.18

0.005e

Euro 6

2014.09

0.50

-

0.17

0.08

0.005e

Positive Ignition (Gasoline)

Euro 1†

1992.07

2.72 (3.16)

-

0.97 (1.13)

-

-

Euro 2

1996.01

2.2

-

0.5

-

-

Euro 3

2000.01

2.30

0.20

-

0.15

-

Euro 4

2005.01

1.0

0.10

-

0.08

-

Euro 5

2009.09b

1.0

0.10c

-

0.06

0.005d,e

Euro 6

2014.09

1.0

0.10c

-

0.06

0.005d,e

* At the Euro 1..4 stages, passenger vehicles > 2,500 kg were type approved as Category N1 vehicles

† Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits

a - until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits)

b - 2011.01 for all models

c - and NMHC = 0.068 g/km

d - applicable only to vehicles using DI engines

e - 0.0045 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure

Table shows EU Emission Standards for Passenger Cars (Category M1*), g/km[12]

Category†

Tier

Date

CO

HC

HC+NOx

NOx

PM

Compression Ignition (Diesel)

N1, Class I

≤1305 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

2.72

-

0.97

-

0.14

Euro 2, IDI

1998.01

1.0

-

0.70

-

0.08

Euro 2, DI

1998.01a

1.0

-

0.90

-

0.10

Euro 3

2000.01

0.64

-

0.56

0.50

0.05

Euro 4

2005.01

0.50

-

0.30

0.25

0.025

Euro 5

2009.09b

0.50

-

0.23

0.18

0.005e

Euro 6

2014.09

0.50

-

0.17

0.08

0.005e

N1, Class II

1305-1760 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

5.17

-

1.40

-

0.19

Euro 2, IDI

1998.01

1.25

-

1.0

-

0.12

Euro 2, DI

1998.01a

1.25

-

1.30

-

0.14

Euro 3

2001.01

0.80

-

0.72

0.65

0.07

Euro 4

2006.01

0.63

-

0.39

0.33

0.04

Euro 5

2010.09c

0.63

-

0.295

0.235

0.005e

Euro 6

2015.09

0.63

-

0.195

0.105

0.005e

N1, Class III

>1760 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

6.90

-

1.70

-

0.25

Euro 2, IDI

1998.01

1.5

-

1.20

-

0.17

Euro 2, DI

1998.01a

1.5

-

1.60

-

0.20

Euro 3

2001.01

0.95

-

0.86

0.78

0.10

Euro 4

2006.01

0.74

-

0.46

0.39

0.06

Euro 5

2010.09c

0.74

-

0.350

0.280

0.005e

Euro 6

2015.09

0.74

-

0.215

0.125

0.005e

N2

Euro 5

2010.09c

0.74

-

0.350

0.280

0.005e

Euro 6

2015.09

0.74

-

0.215

0.125

0.005e

Positive Ignition (Gasoline)

N1, Class I

≤1305 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

2.72

-

0.97

-

-

Euro 2

1998.01

2.2

-

0.50

-

-

Euro 3

2000.01

2.3

0.20

-

0.15

-

Euro 4

2005.01

1.0

0.1

-

0.08

-

Euro 5

2009.09b

1.0

0.10f

-

0.06

0.005d,e

Euro 6

2014.09

1.0

0.10f

-

0.06

0.005d,e

N1, Class II

1305-1760 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

5.17

-

1.40

-

-

Euro 2

1998.01

4.0

-

0.65

-

-

Euro 3

2001.01

4.17

0.25

-

0.18

-

Euro 4

2006.01

1.81

0.13

-

0.10

-

Euro 5

2010.09c

1.81

0.13g

-

0.075

0.005d,e

Euro 6

2015.09

1.81

0.13g

-

0.075

0.005d,e

N1, Class III

>1760 kg

Euro 1

1994.10

6.90

-

1.70

-

-

Euro 2

1998.01

5.0

-

0.80

-

-

Euro 3

2001.01

5.22

0.29

-

0.21

-

Euro 4

2006.01

2.27

0.16

-

0.11

-

Euro 5

2010.09c

2.27

0.16h

-

0.082

0.005d,e

Euro 6

2015.09

2.27

0.16h

-

0.082

0.005d,e

N2

Euro 5

2010.09c

2.27

0.16h

-

0.082

0.005d,e

Euro 6

2015.09

2.27

0.16h

-

0.082

0.005d,e

† For Euro 1/2 the Category N1 reference mass classes were Class I ≤ 1250 kg, Class II 1250-1700 kg, Class III > 1700 kg.

a - until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits)

b - 2011.01 for all models

c - 2012.01 for all models

d - applicable only to vehicles using DI engines

e - 0.0045 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure

f - and NMHC = 0.068 g/km

g - and NMHC = 0.090 g/km

h - and NMHC = 0.108 g/km

The table shows EU Emission Standards for Light Commercial Vehicles, g/km[12]

4 The developments to meet the regulations

All the automotive industry players geared up to meet the emission standards of the EURO 5 regulations. They made significant changes to their engines, vehicle aerodynamics and all other aspects of their vehicles to comply with the new standards.

Electrification has been the topmost preference when it comes to reducing the emissions considered by most of the vehicle manufacturers. To meet a goal of 98 grams of CO2 per kilometre by 2020, Christian Maloney of the German office of consulting group McKinsey & Co recommends plug in vehicles. Other considerations towards the reduction of the emissions are the introduction of Hybrid Vehicles like the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Toyota Prius. These vehicles have both the Internal combustion engine as well as an electronic (BATTERY-MOTOR) run engine. This helps reduce the emissions considerably.

Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional or advanced fuels are also been considered for a large scale production to help ease the burden on conventional fuels as well as reduce the emissions. They are generally, materials that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. While conventional fuels include fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), and it also includes other nuclear materials such as uranium. Alternative fuels include biodiesel, bio alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, and other biomass sources among others.

 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologies have also helped tremendously to bring down the emissions. Other technologies that have equally contributed are Thermal Management Strategies, Sensor Technologies, Particulate Filters, Engine/Fuel Management, Enhanced Combustion Technologies, and Crankcase Emission Control Technologies.

5 Conclusions

The challenges to meet decreasing emissions levels require the use of more complex fuel injection systems and other alternate powertrain techniques. Fuel needs to provide the correct level of detergency protection to ensure that old, current and future FIE systems operate as designed. Therefore, any successful engine must satisfy the severe requirements of future EURO 5 engines and beyond whilst protecting all the vehicles already in the market. This report enlists the current automotive norms i.e. EURO 5 and the developments that have been brought to meet the standards, at the same time it also gives a brief idea about the yet to be introduced EURO 6 emission standards. The data shows that appropriate steps have to be taken to cater to the requirements of yesterday, today and future vehicles. Care should also be taken to ensure that all known harms are carefully considered. As said by David Di Girolamo, Head of JATO Consult "The marked reduction in average CO2 emissions is a consequence of changing buying habits and in particular, the downsizing to smaller, more economical cars, driven by scrape incentives and recessionary uncertainties" the current norms have been instrumental for the changes that are now seen in the overall emissions.[13]

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