The Cling Process Paper Recycling Engineering Essay

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It is proven that paper is the most common occurring solid waste. According to U.S Environment Protection Agency, recycling of paper waste saves energy and water as well as decrease the production of greenhouse gases. Given that paper production results from wood pulp which comes from trees, recycling paper will reduce cutting down trees. It is said that recycling of one morning newspaper daily, could save 41,000 trees from being cut down and thus reducing our carbon footprint considerably.

Process of Paper Recycling

The pulp processing

Called grinding or pulping, the principle of this step is to break the bonds uniting the cellulose fibres together and to separate the main pollutants (plastics, metals ...).

The operation takes place in a pulped. There are two kinds: vertical pulped operating material and discontinuous horizontal pulped operating in continuous flow.

Waste paper is mixed with water and some additives, and then crushed. The aim is to separate the fibres, but be careful not to split the impurities in subsequent steps of the process.

The clean-clean paste

These operations are removing impurities through tools screen room (or filtering) and cyclone. On the one hand, the screening can separate impurities according to their size, on the other hand, the hydro cyclones are used to separate items according to their density. With the cyclone, the material is rotated rapidly, the most dense being placed on the periphery and less dense in the centre. The pulp is thus cleared of its impurities.

The flotation deinking

The deinking can remove the ink particles from paper pulp. This operation uses the principle of flotation.  Air bubbles pass through the pulp in which are sticking and ink particles to the surface. The foam thus created containing the ink particles are removed by suction or overflow. Once compressed and dehydrated, these foams are becoming de-inking sludge.

Laundering

The bleaching of pulp is obtained either by dilution with a paste of higher whiteness (virgin pulp and waste paper after high quality) or by chemical bleaching, by adding hydrogen peroxide.

Types of paper product that is recycled

Newspapers

Shredded paper

Phonebooks

Cardboard

Magazines

Computer paper

Envelopes

Junk mail

Construction paper

Benefits of recycling

Manufacturing virgin paper takes 40% more energy than using recycled paper.

2/3 acre of commercial forest can be saved by using recycled newsprint instead.

14% of landfill space can be spared by recycling.

Recycle reduces emission of sulphur dioxide.

Less fossil fuel is used.

Most paper can be recycled up to 8 times.

Saves Money: By using the sheet of printed on the other side as scratch paper for grocery list, children drawing and others, we reduce the need to by new printer paper. Business with online billing facilities saves money on billing paper and envelopes. Money is saved also on postage fees by both business and customer.

Environment: It is known that recycling saves trees but it also reduces the greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide. With more trees available to release oxygen, the concentration of carbon dioxide. By keeping paper out of our landfill, the chances of it releasing ink toxin in the soil and ground water is even reduced.

New Products: On recycling paper, many products can be made out of it.

Namely:-paper bag, cereal boxes, tissue paper, egg cartons, newspaper, stamps, paper towels, phonebook, business cards, calendar, notebooks insulation, stuffing moulded paper products and lastly even good quality paper.

Disadvantages of recycling paper

Collection inconvenience and cost: Sometime recycled paper are more expensive than origin paper due to the extra cost the manufacturer has to pay for triage, transporting the paper to-from and the recycling process. In countries where paper collection is carried out, the recycling centre may ask that the newspaper be sorted (i.e. the glossy paper is separated from the non-glossy one). Furthermore, there is the fact that sometime customer at times need to travel/transport the recyclable to the centres. In our era of rush, not everyone has the time to travel to the centre and therefore the work is left undone.

With new technologies, news and information are easily available on net; TV and even radio, the decline in the purchasing of newsprint have been noted. With this decline in the purchase of newsprint, there is less availability of newsprint to be recycled.

Recycling of paper spare more trees for the long term survival of our environment as well as our own survival by producing healthy oxygen for breathing. And it can also be use as an alternative to fossil fuels.

Metal Recycling

Aluminium (Al) can recycle

Aluminium can is the most abundant metal on earth and it was discovered around the 1820s century. Apart from being a durable metal, Al is also said to be a sustainable one as it can be recycled over and over and over again to give new can. Making new Al can from Virgin material uses 95% more energy than when manufacturing it from recycled can.

Lifecycle of Aluminium can

Al cans are collected at sorting centres, supermarket collection site and are transported to local scrap processing companies (if available) or otherwise exported to Al companies in forms of briquettes or bales. Through a burning process, the can are discarded from their decoration and shredded to pieces which are then loaded into melting furnace, where they are in turn mixed with virgin Al. The molten Al is then poured into ingots, these ingots of Al is fed into mills which reduces their thickness. This metal is then coiled and shipped to can makers who in turn send it to Beverage Company to be filled. Again the cycle is renewed by the consumption and discarding of these cans by consumers. Al recycling is not time consuming, since the can needs only to be sent to recycling depot, processed, recycled and back to the shelves in about one months

Uses of Al Recycle products

Al is used in many industries namely: manufacturing packaging, cars and airplanes. Among all these the beverage industry uses the highest quantity of Al in the form of drink can.

Benefits of Recycling Al cans

Environment Benefits

If all Al produced were recycled, there will not be any need for extracting more from mines.

For every pound of Al recycled equal to 4 pounds of raw bauxite ore is saved.

Doubling Al recycling rate, millions of tons of pollutants can be cut out of our biosphere.

Economic Benefits

Al industry pays for empty cans loads of money is made out of it. This money can be donated to organization and even the community. Some people are even able to sustain themselves by selling the collected Al Can to metal industries.

The recycling process is cheaper, faster and more energy-efficient.

Having a high market value, Al continues to provide for an economic incentive to recycle.

Community Benefits

Local projects and funds are earned from selling cans to recycling companies. It is a win-win situation, considering that by recycling cans not only funds are collected more space is available at the landfill.

Disadvantages of recycling Al cans

The same drawback that appears in paper recycling is repeated here, i.e. the issue of sorting and transporting the Al can. The use of truck to carry these particular can will emit more pollutants thus adding on to the harm caused to the environment. Furthermore the use of other substances to clean the cans before recycling, alters the quality of the aluminium thus the metal obtain is to be used for specific project.

Apart from helping our economy and enhancing our lifestyle, metal recycling is also an innovative way to design new car parts as well as building structure. The more we recycle, the lesser is the need for mining the ore thus reducing pollution.

Municipal solid waste recycling-Mauritius

Recycling household waste was practically inexistent some 4years back. 2007 saw the birth of an NGO, Mission Verte. It's aim is to arouse awareness amongst the population regarding the benefits of sorting and recycling our domestic waste and encouraging the composting of our kitchen organic waste as well as recycling the trash which can be recycled.

Mare Chicose, Mauritius' sole landfill was in danger of being drown under the pressure of the ever increasing daily waste which it receives. To relieve our landfill, several projects have been proposed, each with a degree of risk to the environment pertaining to the activities that will be carried out. Therefore the proposition of tackling the problem at the source was the most favourable.

Mission Verte, came up with the idea of having bins with different compartment for plastic, paper, and beverage cans at strategic collection site. These site need to be accessing to the public.

http://www.expatmauritius.com/pop_recycling.asp

GLASS RECYCLING

Glass recycling is the process of taking old glass product and processing them into new products. When glass produced from its raw materials, many fossil fuel emission are its by product. Not every glass is eligible to be recycled. Recyclable glasses are namely:

Beverage containers

Food Jars

Glass recycling Process

Sorting

Glasses come in three different colours: clear, green and brown. It is advice to sort glasses by its colour and by the presence of a "G" logo, proof of its recyclability.

The process of retraining of the glass The glass is a material that retrains endlessly: it is sufficient to sort out and to grind the glass collected to get the "calcin", that is remnants of glass that, added to the sand, sodium carbonate and the lime, will serve to manufacture new packings. Heated to more of 1500°C, the calcin can take all wished shapes and can become again a bottle or a jar in glass.

Decolorisation and dyeing: sometimes to obtain glasses of desired designed, it has to go through glass decolorization. It is initially oxidised then different chemicals is added to obtained the desired color

Lastly the molten glasses is them moulded according to the shaped desired

Environmental benefits of recycling the recycling of glass is a gesture that has many benefits to the environment. It allows not only to make savings in raw materials, water and energy, but also to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. Thus, the substitution of 10% of raw materials in the kiln verrier by of the cullet fact earns 2.5 % of the energy needed to merge. One tonne of recycled glass and remelted allows you to avoid the emission of 500 kg of DUCTION.

Disadvantages of glass recycling

Risk of cuts and injuries due to broken glasses and shards

Low cash return since the demand is low as well as not many company indulge in glass recycling

Efficiency, more energy and effort is needed

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