The Basic Principal And Concept Engineering Essay

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The basic principal and concept of the project was to store the electrical energy by giving of mechanical inputs to the system and also improve the storage system and as well as the outputs of the system. The main construction and working of the project was the system inputs are implemented with the help of hand powered mechanism by without using of any power sources like power supply or batteries.

Fig 1: The block diagram of mechanical storage system

2.2 The Problem Investigation:

The main investigation of this project was implementation of hand powered mechanical technology and also improving the electrical storage system efficiency.

The aim of the investigation was to find out the best methodologies for reducing of the electricity usages and minimizing of the electricity supply and maintenance costs. With the help of natural kinetic energies converted the mechanical energies into an electrical energy and also improve the storage technologies for providing the power when ever its required.

The investigation of hand powered mechanical inputs as well as different types of energy generations and storage systems.

Utilize the natural kinetic energies

Improving of the storage system efficiency

2.2 The Background Design Information

The mechanical storage of electrical energies conducted with the help of small electrical generators like dynamos and small storage systems like either capacitors or batteries. The working principal of the project was consisting mainly the generation of hand powered mechanical energies and storage of electrical energy system.

2.2.1 Mechanical Energy Generation:-

The basic concept of the energy generation system was by giving of some hand powered mechanical inputs to the system, the energies are induced and it will store into the storage system.

Fig 2: The block diagram of mechanical energy generation system

These types of system are basically implemented with the help of wind up technologies like by rotating of hand crank shafts the energies are induced with the help of dynamo and it will store into the storage system.

2.2.1.1 Windup Technology

The working of the windup technology was implemented with the help of hand powered mechanical inputs to the system. It was constructed with the help of hand crank shafts for rotating of the generators either in clockwise or in anticlockwise directions. The windup technology system was connected to the clockwork mechanism for implementing of the energy generations.

Fig 3: The block diagram of windup technology

2.2.1.2 The Clock Work Mechanism

The clockwork mechanisms mainly consist of a gearbox system for generating the rotations of the system in either direction. It was holding the steel plate with the generator attached, with the help of generator underneath. When the applying of windup technology the gears was rotating and voltages are will be generates. [Lawton, G. Sept, 2004]

Fig 4: The block diagram of Gear Box Mechanism

2.2.1.3 The Dynamo

The dynamos are also known as an electrical generator. The generator requires spinning rotors to generate energies. With the help of hand powered rotations the spinning of the rotor was generated. The rotor was made up of copper turnings which produce magnetic fields to the system. The fixed magnetic field generates electricity in accordance with faraday's law of induction. The generated energy can be sent from the winding mechanism to the storage system.

Fig 5: The block diagram of Dynamo

2.2.2 Electrical Energy Storage System:-

In the energy storage system, with the helping of storage devices energies are going to store and utilising when ever it's required. The possible applications of storing the energies are widely used in capacitors and batteries. The main aim of the storage system was to store the input energies for much more time and utilising those energies for whenever it's required. The electrical storage systems are widely used in the following applications.

Capacitor Storage System

Battery Storage System

Flywheel Storage System

2.2.2.1 Capacitor Storage System

The capacitor was an electronic device, which are used to stores relatively small amount of electrical energies. The higher powered capacitors have raised the possibility of the applications. The double layer capacitor looks to have the capability to support such functions as power stabilisation systems.

The capacitors consist of two conducting plates separated by an insulator called dielectric. The energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance C farads, when subjected to a potential difference of V volts, is given by

Fig 6: The block diagram of Capacitors

W = ½ CV2 , Where the capacitance can states C = Aε/d = AK/d

A = Plate Area ε = Permittivity of Dielectric

D = Plate Separation K = Dielectric Constant

The energy density given by UE = ½ KE2

2.2.2.2 Battery Storage System

The battery storage system was a process of storage of chemical energies, A cell consists of two electrodes and it connected externally a circuit was created, allowing the reactions to occur. At the anode electrodes are generated in an oxidation reaction, and they flow through the external circuit to the cathode, where they are consumed in a reduction reaction. The electrolyte allows the flow of charge between the two electrodes internally.

Fig 7: The block diagram of battery

The overall capacity of a cell was essentially the number of electrons available from it. Because a cell has a fixed voltage, it energy capacity was usually quoted not in watt-hours but in ampere hours. The energy id deducible from this, using the fact that power in watts was given by the product of current in amps and voltage in volts. The capacity of an individual cell may range.

2.2.2.3 Flywheel energy storage system

The kinetic energies may also be used to store the energies. The flywheel storage system was a process of high rotational speeds and then uses the electrical energy generated during spin-down as the power source. The reciprocating engines contain flywheels to smooth the pulsed output of the pistons and provide stable power. With the advent of advanced composite materials with high tensile strength, and the development of stable magnetically suspended bearings, flywheels may now be made with significantly higher operational speeds. These in turn open a new field of opportunities for flywheel energy storage.

The moment of inertia I of a spinning body was analogous to its mass when moving in a straight line. For a thin disk of mass M and radius R it can be shown that.

I = ½ MR2, The energy stored in a rotating disk can be shown in KE = ½ I ω

Fig 7: The block diagram of Flywheel Mechanism

2.3 The Basic Calculations

The charge 'q' stored on the plates of a capacitor proportional to the applied voltages, and the constant of proportionality defined as the capacitance,

Q = C V

The Electric Field Strength E = V/d

The Electric Flux Density D = a/A

The absolute permittivity 'ε' if there was no dielectric between the plates, the dielectric constant 'K'. If there was nothing between the plates at all ε = ε0 permittivity of free space.

The dimensionless relative permittivity of the medium, and it was given by εr = ε/ ε0

K = ε = D/E = q/AE = CV/AE = Cd/A

C = A ε/d = AK/d

Energy Stored in a Capacitor:

The work done adding a small charge 'dq' was given dw = V dq

W= ∫V.CdV

W= ½ CV2

Energy Density of a Capacitor

The volumetric energy density UE of a capacitor was given by

UE = ½ CV2/AD = ½ V2/Ad (Aε/d) = ½ ε(V/d)2

UE = ½ εE2 = ½ KE2

2.4 The Design Specifications:-

Win-up Specifications:

The wind-up system was required to provide the power supply 9 volts

The Dynamo Specifications:

The dynamos required to produce the power generation 6 to 9 volts

The Capacitor Specifications:

The LED's Specifications:

The minimum speed and brightness 2.3years

The medium speed and brightness 1 year

Stepper Speed 2LED's/sec to 2revolution/sec.

LED Current = 24ma pulses, LED Voltage drop = 3.2 at 24ma.

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