Termal Insulation In Development Engineering Essay

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In the paragraph about the thermal insulation material, we think to consider the production, application, features, the appearance considerations about ecological and health aspect without taking part in one or the other product. Each materials with thermal and acoustic insulation properties have their own particular application in different fields. In the construction of a building, the choice for each insulation materials depends for the final destination, forn the type of construction and also for the preferences of customers and designers. It's need to understand the characteristics and properties of insulating materials more common, to know the specified insulating properties, the ability to water vapor diffusion, the aspects related to the resistance.

A unique compilation, that balances all features, it is practically impossible, also because the enviromental impacts present too different and therefore difficult to compare. The production sources are, are the best source of news, so the completeness of information appears as one of the main criteria that distinguishes the seriousness' of the manufacturer.http://www.casaenergetica.it/foto/404/204/materiali_termici.jpg

Mineral Wool

Mineral fibers or mineral wool are filament ordinary make ​​by natural or synthetic minerals. The term "mineral fibers" appertain generally to synthetic materials comprehend the fiberglass, ceramic fibers and rock stones. Industrial applications of mineral wool include thermal insulation (both as structural insulation and pipe insulation), sift application , sound absorbing, and also is used like base to germination of plants.

Other production techniques using spinning molten rock at high speeds to achieve a compound of thin filaments, that present a diameter from 6 to 10 micrometers containing a binder and an oil to reduce the dust produced during the machining process. Subsequently, the fibrous product is pressed for rolls and panels, this contributes to their excellent thermal insulation and sound absorption.

Fire resistance: the compound is not immune to the effects of a warm fire, but the fire resistance of rock wool is required when is necessary a passive fire protection, injected as protection spray, or in cavity wall and as packaging materials fireproof.

Stone Wool

Natural material product with volcanic and basaltic rock, break up to a similar size, compound of coke fused in a furnace at a temperature of 1500 °C. The fused rocks are directed in a complex machine that present rotating wheels where it is worked into wool.

From the spinning machine is added in the the wool small quantities of resin and oil to binder the fibres together and make them also waterproof.

The wool is shaped in blankets and subsequently cured and compressed. Then it's cut into different sizes and kinds which can be combined to create a sandwich panel for different applications.

Thermal properties: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Rockwool_4lbs_per_ft3_fibrex5.jpg/220px-Rockwool_4lbs_per_ft3_fibrex5.jpg

Thermal insulation

Acoustic insulation

Fireproof

Highly draining

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,040

Fire Resistivity : 700-850°C

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 30

Price: 150,00 €/m^3

esternal wall panel 10 cm > 70,00 €/m^2

roof panel 10 cm > 23,00 €/m^2

Advantage: For the sustainable aspect the stone wool insulation product saves more than 100 times the energy invested in its manufacture, transport and disposal. Abundant availability of the raw material, it is also possible reassemble or recyclable

Disadvantage: need to protection when handling a fiber product, as it can irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Some types of mineral wool are considered a possible carcinogen if there are a prolonged exposure.

Glass woll

The glass wool is obtained to melting a compound of glass and sand, which is subsequently worked in filaments arranged into a texture similar to wool and cut to make rolls or panels.

The glass wool show good acoustic features but is not waterproof and this is motivation because it is not suitable for walls and roofs inverse structure but is perfect for the insulation of all other element of the building.

The panels present the ability to accomodate in the surfaces that need to be isolate.

In addition, the fiberglass its used to protect the discontinuities (lines, edges, protrusions) ensuring the hold in terms of thermal and acoustic insulation.

Fire Resistivity : 230 - 250°Chttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Glass_wool_insulation.jpg/220px-Glass_wool_insulation.jpg

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,040

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 30

Sustainability:

Reuse the recycled glass to produced glass fibers

MINERAL FOAM

The foam mineral it consists entirely of mineral components, such as lime or expanded calcium silicate.When laying the foam panels mineral you need to pay attention because the material tends to absorb water. For this reason the panels in mineral foam are hydrophobic, so as to have more hydrophobic properties. And 'necessary during assembly wear a dust mask. The mineral foam panels are environmentally friendly and completely reusable.http://www.casaenergetica.it/editorcms/image/schiuma%20minerale.png

Fire Resistivity : 700-850°C

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,045

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 115

Price: 250,00 €/m^3

esternal wall panel 10 cm > 95,00 €/m^2

-Synthetic

Insulation materials synthesis, petroleum-based

Polyurethane (PUR)

The polyurethane foam (PUR) is a derivative of petroleum and natural gas usually used for specific goal, for examples the continuous insulation for the supporting beams, the floor insulation as subflooring, the isolation of pipes and water heaters.

The Polyurethane indicates a wide family of polymers in which the polymer chain is composed of urethane.

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,030

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 35

Price: 195,00 €/m^3

esternal wall panel 7 cm > 20,00 €/m^2

wall floor 10 cm > 30,00 €/m^2

Disadvantage: Health problems in case of a fire. During a fire release hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and isocyanates, which is very poisonous.

Panels Flexible coatings : The panels in rigid polyurethane foam are produced with different shims and with different types of cover, organic like paper and inorganic (aluminum, mineral fibers) .The main uses of polyurethane panels with flexible coatings are to produce pipelines and to insulated walls floors and roofs

The panels in rigid polyurethane foam used to produce for sandwich panels.The main uses of rigid polyurethane foam with hard cover are: straight and curved sandwich panels for roofing, sandwich panels for walls, cold storage, insulated doors.

The block in rigid polyurethane foam can be produced like molds, mixed in concrete block, after than can be cut in sheets of various thicknesses to create complex shapes. The particular technology used in the process allows to realize density foams that present particular features for the industrial applications.

The main uses of blocks and slabs of polyurethane are,refrigeration industry, modeling industry and obviously thermal and acoustic insulation.

Polystyrene (PS)

Polystyrene (PS) is obtained from benzene and ethylene, in turn, derived from oil and methane. The more propellant used for the expansion of the polystyrene is the liquid CO2.

Polystyrene a plastic material widely present to realize consumer product.

Products made from foamed polystyrene are in all objects, for example packing materials. The extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) has a very low water absorption and is therefore used for the application in a humid environment, such as walls and floors of the basement floors.

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,040

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 17

Price: 190,00 €/m^3

roof > 114,00 €/m^2

wall floor > 32,00 €/m^2

Foams: Polystyrene foams are good thermal insulators used often used as insulation materials for the constructions .

Blanket panel: Its used for producing consumer product because is a economical plastic. Polystyrene have an important role in biomedical research and science. The products for the medial fied are made by injection molding, and often sterilized post-molding.

Disadvantages: the material present a slow biodegradation and is considered like a waste for the environment.

Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)

Rigid and tough, closed-cell foam. Widely used like panels for building insulation and packing material. Sheets are commonly packaged as rigid panels.

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) : 0,032 / 0,038 (depending on the density of the EPS board).

Volumic Mass ρ [kg/m³] : 17

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 30-70.

Price: 110,00 €/m^3

roof > 22,00 €/m^2

external wall > 39,00 €/m^2

The sintered expanded polystyrene (EPS) is composed of benzene and ethylene, which are petroleum based and natural gas and is composed of granules of polystyrene expanded using heat.

The rigidity of the panel in expanded polystyrene (EPS) along with a lightweight plaster can go into resonance and reduce noise reduction.

Extruded Polystyrene Foams (XPS):It present closed cells, improved higher stiffness and reduced thermal conductivity. Extruded polystyrene material is also used in crafts and architectural models.

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0.029 / 0.039 Depending of bearing strength/density

Volumic Mass ρ 28-45 kg/m3.

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 80-250. More suitable to wetter environments than EPS.

Insulating material from vegetal

Cork

The cork is a plant tissue that covers stem and the roots of woody plants. The most widely used commercially is produced by the cork is composed by a hydrophobic substance impermeable and fire resistance.

The cork insulation is presented in granules (used as the background, mixed with cement) or in panels (<12 cm single-layer,> 12 cm-layer). The bulk granular cork insulation is used in cavity walls, roofs, and floors. The panels of cork insulation will still be applied in the perimeter walls and partitions, in flat roofs and ground water, in ceilings, attics, floors and subfloors. It is resistant to insects and fungi has excellent thermal characteristics but is not suitable for the subflooring. The cork insulating material is a fairly expensive, for this reason we prefer the use of wood fiber.

Sustainability: easy to recycled, The bark his the cellular structure consisting of myriads of tiny, 14-sided cells, each imprisoning a microscopic volume of air. The cork present million of these minute cells separated by an impermeable resinous membrane. Is a natural softly material because present air cavity inside the cells. This is the reason of the light cork structure buoyant and resistant to the penetration of moisture. Cork panels burn slowly when subjected to a flame but it does not produce toxic gases.

Granules of cork can also be mixed into concrete to improve a lower thermal conductivity, lower density and good energy absorption.High Resistance to fatigue:

Density 117 (Kgm3)

Compressive strength 152 (kNm2)

Bending Strength 140 kN/m3

Expanded Cork (panel form)

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 100

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 10

Granulate Cork (Bulk Form)

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 120

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 9

Price: 340,00 €/m^3

roof 10 cm > 47,00 €/m^2

external wall 10 cm > 119,00 €/m^2

Wood wool

The wood fiber is made using sawmill residues, crushed and broken down into wood fibers which are then compacted to make the panels moisture resistant are used some hydrophobic substances, and of the adhesives to make the material stable. It is common use for packaging or for various construction products like slabs for decking, rood slabs or insulating panels, or combined with cement to produce a mixed boards. The panels in wood fiber have good characteristics of thermal and acoustic insulation and a good capacity for heat accumulation, which in the summer results in a good level of delay in the way of heat from outside to inside. The wood fiber panels are used for the insulation of cavity structures in wood and masonry, coats, linings, flat and pitched roofs and floors.

Sustainability: environmentally friendly material. The cellulose component typically around 80% of the total) contains over 90% post-consumer recycled material, Sequesters CO2 during tree growth.

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 80

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 100

Price: 175,00 €/m^3

roof 10 cm > 30,00 €/m^2

floor 4 cm > 22,00 €/m^2

Cellulose Wadding

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 400

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 2

The cellulose fiber is derived from recycled newspaper ordinally handle with a brew sustances as aboric acid to endue a good fire resistance and get result inoffensive the fungi. The paper is shredded and mixed with boron salts in order to make the material flame retardant and pesticide: by this procedure are produced flakes that can be pressed into granules. As a insulation present a low-thermal-conductivity, the cellulose is used in wall and roof cavities to separate thermally and acoustically.

The cellulose fiber can also be used in panels, mixed with a 15% of polyester fiber which contributes to stiffen the material. The cellulose fiber in flakes is used in the recovery work, to isolate the cover, or to insulate the walls in empty box, by blowing the material in the cavity of air. The cellulose fiber is also used to isolate the newly built houses with wooden frame. The laying of the cellulose fiber is extremely easy and is inexpensive, also the cellulose fiber does not contain harmful substances.

Cellulose insulation is produce utilizing recycled paper and is now a preferable material for building insulation because is considered ecofriendly. Cellulose insulation is available as a dry state or use with a spray device to use for timber frames.

Thanks to its characteristics of diffusion is particularly suitable both for interior walls that for external ones. It allows you, while insulating thermo acoustically, perspiration of the walls. Being a bulk material to be used for blowing can be injected into cavities of multi-layer walls, a characteristic that makes it ideal in the insulation of walls in existing buildings as part interventions of restoration.

The dry cellulose was used to insulate old homes pushing inside the cavity the cellulose and replenish all the wall using different holes.

The cellulose can be apply also like a spray method used in the new construction adding water mixed to the cellulose and additive as a chlorine.

Thermal and acoustic insulation are used to insulated pipes and wiring fix in the wall, leaving few air pockets. Noise reduction is achieved with cellulose that can be completely grout the cavities to avoid the sound diffusion.

Sustainability: Cellulose insulation is growing in popularity, because can be composed with high percentage of recycled paper fiber adding just a small quantity of fire retardant and additive.

Hemp Wool

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 22

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 2

The insulating panels are produced by treating the fiber hemp with boron salts to improve the fire resistance and also an appropriate treatment to avoid mould proliferation. Have excellent thermal and acoustic properties, are breathable and hygroscopic don't contain toxic substances, risk to health it during processing, either during the useful life of the material. The panels and rolls of fiber hemp are used in the realization of cavity walls, roofs of (inserted between the rafters or beams above), of coverings (with load-bearing strips, if the panel is low density, or without battens if the panel has high density and walkable), suspended ceilings, or underlay for reducing impact noise.

Hemp insulation is used in breathing wall construction, ventilated roofs and and floors.

The high density and high flexural are important property for ease of installation, particularly in timber frame walls and between rafters. The high density combined with the sound damping properties of natural fibres results in good acoustic performance.

Flax wool

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 30

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 1

Cost:

The insulation products in flax fibers are made from organically grown plants, working with non-polluting and low energy demand. For the production of insulating panels, the fibers are treated with boron salts and in some cases with the addition of a support made of polyester fiber. The linen fiber is a material with outstanding thermal and acoustic insulation, is highly breathable and hygroscopic, and does not contain substances harmful to health.The soft panels are used to isolate thermally and acoustically hollow wooden construction, for internal coats, coats for external air supply for ventilated roofs, for partition, for slabs. The rigid panels in linen fiber are used for sound insulation of floors floating. The fibres of the flax are admixture with natural starch and processed with borax to improve the endurance against bugs and against the fire.

Sustainable: Low embodied energy is natural, non-toxic and bio-degradable material. Suited to a breathable construction insulation, present good sound insulation. Transpiring owing to its fibre composition benefiting the building, the flax fibre is robust, and can absorb up to 12% of its own weight in water, and its strength increases by 20% when wet. It also dries in few time, and is a anti-static material.

Insulating materials from animals

Sheep wool

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,040

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 28

Water Vapor resistance (μ) : 2

Sheep's wool slabs and rolls are made from wool with a polyester binder and treated for fire and insect resistance. Wool is suitable for use as insulation between rafters, joists and timber in timber 'breathing' wall construction. Sheep's wool present optimal hygroscopic features that avail of the different temperature to moderate the season's conditions. Sheep Wool Insulation present different range of products to suit a variety of applications. The thickness and density of the insulation will vary depending on its intended application: thermal insulation applications in buildings, acoustic underlay applications, packaging products, membranes and accessories will minimise air leakage from the living space into the building elements. Wool fibres are hygroscopic by nature and will have a moisture weight content of up to 35%, dependent on the relative humidity of the surroundings. Assimilating the humidity, the wool way out the heat, increasing the temperature in the near ambients. Obviously liberating this moisture in a hot seasons, the wool produce a cooling effect.

Risk and Safety: Is a reliable material, it's possible to use and work with them without requiring no protective equipment to cover the skin. Wool does not support combustion because present inside a few quantity of humidity and will switch off itself when the fire flame is removed. The wool is a much safer material than artificial products because does not release poisonous.

Sustainable: Is a natural fibre, renewable and sustainable because source of raw material and present a low carbon footprint. At the end of its useful life, Premium can be reused as insulation, recycled into other wool products or buried where it will eventually biodegrade.

Advanced thermal insulation

Vacuum insulation Panels (VIP)

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,004

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3:

Water Vapor resistance (μ) :

The vacuum insulation present a panels composed by porous acid silicon covered with a plastic film metallized that consent to preserve the vacuum. It is a product that is born insulating low refrigerating industry to minimize the thicknesses .

The thermal conductivity of these panels is about one tenth that of conventional insulating materials because 2 cm of V.I.P. panel have the same insulation properties of a polystyrene panel of 20 cm of thickness.

Advantage insulation material are not easy to realize compared the polyurethane types or mineral wools, and accurate quality control in the process of realizing the membranes is important if a panel is to preserve its vacuum for a long time.

The Vip panels can't be cut but is produced in required format and it require a admits of dimensional tolerances minimum 1 ± 1 mm) in order to avoid losses in the connections panels causing an increase of thermal conductivity.

The vacuum insulation panels are made to order and you have to take special care in installation to avoid destroying the protective film and avoid undermining the vacuum, since it will increase the thermal conductivity. It's preferable to the application in sandwich panels with outer layer made ​​of various materials including slabs of polystyrene or plastic for the thermo-acoustic insulation. In this way you can ensure a more robust and limit damage during transport and construction, avoiding accidental perforations. Can be applied directly to the existing external wall surface. No protective equipment required to install. Does not produce any dust o fibres.

Disadvantages: No renewable, no bio-degradable ,depend by fossil material. It' s expensive and reducing insulating capacity slowly over time. If vacuum seal is broken, panel is useless.

Gas-filled Panels

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :0,004

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3: 1

Water Vapor resistance (μ) :

The insulating panel known as (GFP) . GFP is constituted essentially by hermetic bags that can assume a variety of shapes and sizes . Gas as the argon for an effective level of thermal resistance, using a microscopic cellular structure containing inside a gas at low conductance such as argon (Ar), krypton (Kr) or xenon (Xe).

Aerogels

Thermal Conductivity (λ [W/mK]) :

Volumic Mass ρ kg/m3:

Water Vapor resistance (μ) :

Aerogels are produced by the extraction of liquid from a gel component through supercritical drying, and replaced by air. It is known for being one of the less dense and lighter materials worldwide because 99.8% of its volume consists of air-filled spaces.

Then the most remarkable value is a thermal conductivity of 13 mW/mK for commercial products, the lowest thermal conductivity of any known solid. These features would improve the building insulation making huge savings of energy up to 50% of heat loss and therefore energy supplying for heating. Not only this, it also provides the creation of new architectural solutions.

Aerogels are good thermal insulators since they nullify the three methods of heat transfer: radiation, convection and conduction. In general, the gases are very poor heat conductors and the silica aerogel is particularly good in this point. This is one of the most important features of the material since it becomes several times more insulating than the best thermal fiberglass currently in the insulation materials market.

In addition to its low thermal conductivity, aerogels shows a wide range of characteristics that make of it an interesting material for the construction industry:

• Optical properties

• Acoustic properties

• Catalytic properties

Advantage: Processed by natural materials, present a optimum insulating value for relatively little thickness. Very good thermal, electrical and sound insulator is available in sheets or panel is Impermeable and fire proof, can be applied directly to the existing external walls surface.

Disadvantage: No renewable, no bio-degradable, Protective equipment required to install (mask), New product, little known of possible problems.

However, silica aerogels have very poor mechanical properties. Although they have a very strong structure - supporting up to 4,000 times its own weight -, pressing an aerogel piece with some firmness causes a depression permanently.

Another disadvantage of the aerogel is the vulnerability to the liquid water. Whereas the adsorption of water vapour by the silica does not spoil aerogels, the contact with liquid water can harm them quickly. So, the waterproof protection is required if the aerogels are used in any building component.

Thermal insulation in development

Vacuum Insulation Materials(VIM)

a material of new conception made ​ a closed-cell structure under vacuum with a total thermal conductivity of less than 4 mW / (mK). The panel is easily used on site and can be cut and adapted on site without the ruin of low thermal conductivity. Pierce the VIM with a nail or similar would only result in a thermal bridge local, without loss of low thermal conductivity.

Gas insulation Materials (GIM)

The Gas Insulation Material (GIM) is a material develp by the panel VIM but present inside a gas at low conductance. It is a new technology in develop to improve thermal insulation using different gas combined with a polymeric film to create a device with exceptional thermal insulation properties. The structure inside present a homogeneous micro cells with gas as argon (Ar)m krypton (Kr) or xenon (Xe) with an overall thermal conductivity of less than 4 mW/(mK) in the pristine condition.

Nano-Insulation Materials (NIM)

Development from VIP panel, the NIM is the nano insulation materials, where the pore size into the material is reduce and arrive to 40 nm or below for air. The NIM that present a small nano structure with an total thermal conductivity of less than 4mW/(mK) in the normal condition.

Dynamic Insulation Materials(DIM)

Product of new conception developing that has a dynamic capacity of insulation (DIM) the thermal conductivity can be manipulated to suit your requirements. This may be done by controlling the thermal conductivity through the use of gas in different concentrations inside of the pores or through the thermal conductivity latex solid state.

The models studied using two different methods:

- Thermal conductivity Phonon

- atom lattice vibrations

- Thermal conductivity for free electrons

This in order to study possible changes to the thermal conductivity from very low to very high making a DIM with dynamic properties. The thermal insulation of adjustment ability of DIM to give these materials a lot of potential. However, first of all it must be proved that those fades robust and practices can be produced.

Natural Insulation Material

Material

type

application

λ[W/mK]

C

ρ [kg/m³]

μ

Hemp

mat

Horizontal cavity

0,040

612

22

2

Cellulose Wadding

Bulk

cavity

0,070

1.800

400

2

Wood Fibre

mat

Horizzontal

0,040

2.088

80

100

Wood Wool

panel

plastering

0,100

1.800

400

4

Sheep Wool

mat

Horizontal Cavity

0,040

1.730

28

2

Flax Wool

mat

Horizontal Cavity

0,040

1.600

30

1

Cork Foam

Panel

Floors, walls, ceilings

0,040

1.800

100

10

Cork granulato

Bulk

Horizontal and vertical cavity

0,040

1.800

120

9

Mineral Insulation Material

Material

type

application

λ[W/mK]

C

ρ[kg/m³]

μ

Stone wool

mat

Horizontal Cavity

0,040

900

30

1

Glass Wool

mat

Horizontal Cavity

0,040

900

30

1

Compact glass wool

Panel

Floors, walls, ceilings

0,040

900

100

1

Sintetic insulation Material

Material

Type

application

λ[W/mK]

C

ρ[kg/m³]

μ

Expanded Polystyrene

Panel

intercapedini orizzontali

0,035

1260

25

50

Expanded Polystyrene /graphite

Panel

pavimenti, pareti, soffitti

0,031

1260

35

50/100

Extruded Polystyrene

Panel

pavimenti, pareti, soffitti

0,035

1260

35

80/230

Polyurethane

Panel

pavimenti, pareti, soffitti

0,030

1260

35

80

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