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Technology is rapidly changing. Great applications are in demand of high performance computing and secure maintenance of resources and the inventory in place. Among the rapidly growing technologies RFID and parallel computing are the budding technologies which are satisfying the user requirements. There is tremendous scope for the lot of improvement of the applications developed by using these technologies. RFID can be used for tracking of the inventory even the human beings in critical cases. There are different types of tags and readers available. Active and passive tags are taken up in this paper. Also different readers are available on the basis of the mechanising how they read. Among them are optical and mobile RFID and are explained in brief. Parallel computing different architectures and memory mechanisms are explained in brief. Also has given the statistics for the usage of the parallel computing across the industries is given.
As requirements of human community are growing and growing technology needs to be uphold those requirements. Radio frequency Identification (RFID) and parallel computing are one of those technologies. This has been evolved to maintain large amount of the stocks that are growing in the large inventories day by day. Not only the inventory management but also it is useful for maintain of objects securely. In fact it has lot of advantages and disadvantages on the basis of the applications used. Parallel computing is the other technology which is finding the applications and implementations in across the sectors these days. In this assignment RFID and parallel computing technologies are explained in brief. In the RFID technology a brief introduction is explained. Then the functioning of RFID system, tags and readers of the RFID system are explained. Also in different advantages and disadvantages of tags are explained. Different standards used in RFID technology across the world are given in brief. Emerging technologies in RFID like optical RFID and mobile RFID are explained in brief. How the RFID is going to effect the business and society are explained in detail in subsequent sections of RFID. A brief details and introduction of the parallel computing is given in 3.1. Different types of the possible architectures of the parallel computers are taken up in the next session. Also management of memory in parallel computing has taken up. Also different effects of parallel computing on business society are explained.
2. Radio Frequency Identification (RF ID) Technology
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that facilitates the tracking of objects. It is very useful in inventory tracking. In this technology there are three components namely reader, a transceiver with decoder and a transponder (RF tag). This technology works in conjunction with the IT infrastructure of any organization. It improves the management of any company. It is quite useful in case of inventory management.
RFID is one of several technologies collectively known as Auto-ID procedures. This technology is mainly used for identifying objects automatically. RFID functions are now integrated in passports and will even find their way into health cards. In subsequent sections functioning of RFID, different standards used in technology, upcoming technologies are explained.
Functioning Of RFID
RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. There are generally three types of RFID tags: active RFID tags, which contain a battery and can transmit signals autonomously, passive RFID tags, which have no battery and require an external source to provoke signal transmission, and battery assisted passive (BAP) which require an external source to wake up but have significant higher forward link capability providing great read range.
The reader emits a radio signal that activates the tag and reads and writes data to it. As products are shipped, received or stored, the information (encoded on a bar code like tag) can be read and received by the reader, which is attached to a computer. RFID has been integrated into the EPC (Electronic Product Code) global network and uses the EPC. The EPC is a unique number that identifies a specific item in the supply chain. The EPC is stored on a RFID tag, which combines a silicon chip and a reader. Once the EPC is retrieved from the tag, it can be associated with dynamic data such as the origin of an item or the date of its production. Much like a Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) or Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), the EPC is the key that unlocks the power of the information systems that are part of the EPC global Network.
Automatic identification (auto ID) technologies help machines or computers identify objects by using automatic data capture. RFID is one type of auto ID technology that uses radio waves to identify, monitor, and manage individual objects as they move between physical locations. Although there are a variety of methods for identifying objects with RFID, the most common method is by storing a serial number that identifies a product and its related information. RFID devices and software must be supported by an advanced software architecture that enables the collection and distribution of location-based information in real time. Coming section a brief description about the different types of tags and readers are explained.
Tags And Readers
RFID tags are small devices containing a chip and an antenna that store the information for object identification. Tags can be applied to containers, pallets, cases, or individual items. With no line-of-sight requirement, the tag transmits information to the reader, and the reader converts the incoming radio waves into a form that can be read by a computer system. An RFID tag can be active (with a battery) or passive (powered by the signal strength emitted by the reader). Different features of active and passive tags are mentioned below.
- Have high power and battery requirements, so they are heavier and can be costly.
- Can be read from a long-range distance of more than 100 feet.
- Are ideal for tracking high-value items over long ranges, such as tracking shipping containers in transit.
- Are smaller, lighter, and less expensive (and therefore more prevalent) than active tags
- Can be applied in high quantities to individual items and reused.
- Can only be read from a short-range distance of approximately 5-10 feet.
As every technology has the standardization, this RFID also got some standardization. There is no global public body that governs the frequencies used for RFID. In principle, every country can set its own rules for this. The main bodies governing frequency allocation for RFID are: USA: FCC (Federal Communications Commission), Canada: CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission), Europe: ERO, CEPT, ETSI, and national administrations etc.
Low-frequency (LF: 125-134.2 kHz and 140-148.5 kHz) (LowFID) tags and high-frequency (HF: 13.56 MHz) (HighFID) tags can be used globally without a license. Ultra-high-frequency (UHF: 868-928 MHz) (Ultra-HighFID or UHFID) tags cannot be used globally as there is no single global standard. In North America, UHF can be used unlicensed for 902-928& MHz (±13 MHz from the 915 MHz center frequency), but restrictions exist for transmission power. Readers are required to monitor a channel before transmitting this requirement has led to some restrictions on performance, the resolution of which is a subject of current research. The North American UHF standard is not accepted in France as it interferes with its military bands. For India, China and Japan, there is no regulation for the use of UHF. Each application for UHF in these countries needs a site license, which needs to be applied for at the local authorities, and can be revoked. For Australia and New Zealand, 918-926 MHz are unlicensed, but restrictions exist for transmission power.
These frequencies are known as the ISM bands (Industrial Scientific and Medical bands). The return signal of the tag may still cause interference for other radio users. Some standards that have been made regarding RFID technology include:
- ISO 14223/1 - Radio frequency identification of Animals, advanced transponders - Air interface
- ISO/IEC 14443: This standard is a popular HF (13.56 MHz) standard for HighFIDs which is being used as the basis of RFID-enabled passports under ICAO 9303.
- ISO/IEC 18000: Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management
- ISO 15693: This is also a popular HF (13.56 MHz) standard for HighFIDs widely used for non-contact smart payment and credit cards.
- ASTM D7580 Standard Test Method for Rotary Stretch Wrapper Method for Determining the Readability of Passive RFID Transponders on Homogenous Palletized or Unitized Loads
- ASTM D7434, Standard Test Method for Determining the Performance of Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Transponders on Palletized or Unitized Loads
- ISO 18185: This is the industry standard for electronic seals or "e-seals" for tracking cargo containers using the 433 MHz and 2.4 GHz frequencies.
- EPC global - this is the standardization framework that is most likely to undergo International Standardization according to ISO rules as with all sound standards in the world, unless residing with limited scope, as customs regulations, air-traffic regulations and others.
- ASTM D7435, Standard Test Method for Determining the Performance of Passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Transponders on Loaded Containers
There are different alternative RFID technologies are upcoming based on the different type of reader like optical reader, reader that is installed on the devices like mobile. In the following section a brief note is mentioned about the optical and mobile RFID is explained.
Optical RFID (OPID) is an alternative to RFID that is based on optical readers. Applications for optical RFID tags may be found in future supply chain scenarios. The main advantage in comparison to traditional RFID tags is their low price and the usually employed offline preaggregation of data to the class level.
Unlike most other RFID chips (which use radio frequencies of 0.125-0.1342, 0.140-0.1485, 13.56, and 868-928 MHz), optical RFID operates in the electromagnetic spectrum between the frequencies of 333 THz (3.33×1014 hertz, 900 nm), 380 THz (788 nm) and 750 THz (400 nm). The tag information is communicated to the reader by reflecting the read request. Parts of the incoming signal are filtered by the tag in a well-defined way as it is sent back to the reader. On the reader's side, the tag data can be deduced by analyzing the pattern used for filtering. As an alternative to reflection mode, active circuits can be used, replacing awkward RFID antennae with photovoltaic components and IR-LEDs on the ICs. Regarding privacy, optical RFID provides much more protection against abuse than RFID based on common electromagnetic waves. This is mainly because line-of-sight is required for malicious read out. Such an attack can easily be prevented with low cost optical RFID sight blockers.
Mobile RFID (M-RFID) can be defined as services that provide information on objects equipped with an RFID tag over a telecommunication network. The reader is installed in a mobile device such as a mobile phone or PDA. This completely new approach is different from current implementations of ordinary RFID: Now the readers are mobile and the tags are fixed, instead the other way around. M-RFID has some major and obvious advantages over RFID: No wires to fixed readers are needed anymore and several mobile readers are enough to cover a whole area, instead of using many fixed readers.
The basic components are always a reader and a tag. Mostly the reader is in some way attached to a back-end database which stores more information on the item to which the tag is attached to. The connection to the database is mostly made by the device which holds the reader and which is able to connect to a local (wireless) network and/or the Internet. Various players like the Near Field Communication Forum (NFC), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and EPC (Electronic Product Code) global are involved in developing M-RFID solutions. The main focus is on supporting supply chain management. But this application has also found its way in m-commerce. The customer in the supermarket can scan the Electronic Product Code from the tag and connects via the internet to get more information. ISO/IEC 29143 "Information technology - Automatic Identification and Data Capture Technique - Air Interface specification for Mobile RFID interrogator" is the first standard to be developed for Mobile RFID.
The Impact Of RFID Technology On Business
RFID can be used in a variety of applications which gives the tremendous changes in the businesses such as, Access management, Tracking of goods and RFID in retail, Tracking of persons and animals, Toll collection and contactless payment Machine readable travel documents, Location-based services, Airport Baggage Tracking Logistics etc. RFID combined with mobile computing and Web technologies provide a way for organizations to identify and manage their assets. High-frequency RFID or HFID/HighFID tags are used in library book or bookstore tracking, jewelry tracking, pallet tracking, building access control, airline baggage tracking, and apparel and pharmaceutical items tracking. High-frequency tags are widely used in identification badges, replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. These badges need only be held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. The American Express Blue credit card now includes a HighFID tag. In Feb 2008, Emirates Airline started a trial of RFID baggage tracing at London and Dubai airports.
The Impact Of RFID Technology On Society
RFID technology largely effects on society. As this can used in case of shipping container tracking, truck and trailer tracking in shipping yards. By using these essentially commodities supply can be controlled. Logistics & Transportation is a major area of implementation for RFID technology like Yard Management, Shipping & Freight and Distribution Centers are some areas where RFID tracking technology is used. Transportation companies around the world value RFID technology due to its impact on the business value and efficiency.
3. Parallel Computing
All the computing in the olden days is used happen in serial manner. Software and the applications developed are written in serial computation. Features and events that occur frequently in the serial computing are mentioned below.
- Single computer has single Central Processing Unit
- A applications is written in series of instructions
- All the instructions executed serially and execution of multiple instructions is not possible.
Now a day's applications are growing bigger and bigger. Execution of these on the single serial computer takes lot of time. This in turn gives poor performance to the user. In order to give the user high performance and to do computation fast parallel computing is required.
- Programme runs on multiple CPUs
- Application can be broken into independent parts those can be solved simultaneously.
- Each independent set broken into the separate set of instructions
- All the instructions related to each independent part executes separately on separate CPU.
Computing resources may include multiple CPUs or computers connected through network or the combination of both.
Computer architecture can be classified on the basis of two theories
1. Von Neumann Architecture. It is based on the theory proposed by the Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. In early stages all computer system are followed this theory to design the computers. According to this theory it has memory, control unit, Arithmetic logic unit, I/O devices. Single memory is used to store the programme and data .
2. Flynn's taxonomy. Parallel computers can be classified mainly on the basis of Flynn's taxonomy. According to this theory important components instruction and data are the deciding factors for the classification. On the basis of this there are four categories.
1. Single instruction Single data
2. Single instruction Multiple data
3. Multiple instruction Single data
4. Multiple instruction Multiple data
There are different memory architectures that can be followed in the parallel computer technology. Shared memory is one of those architectures. In shared memory architecture all the processors present in the system has to access the single memory. In this also there are two classification Uniform and Non uniform memory access architecture. In uniform memory access architecture all the processor will have the same access time. Non uniform memory architecture has different access time for different processors. Main advantage of the memory architecture is data sharing between the tasks will be very fast. It has major disadvantage also that there will not be any scalability between CPUs and memory. Unlike in the shared memory, distributed memory architecture each and every processor has separate memory. But this system requires common computer architecture. Memory address for the each processor will be different and there is concept of the global address space. Main advantage of this architecture is memory scalable. There will not be any memory coherence in this architecture. Disadvantage is developer is responsible for details associated with data and communication. One more architecture for the parallel computing is hybrid memory architecture. It implements concepts of both shared and distributed. This is one of the most widely used architecture in this type of computing.
There are several types of programming models available for parallel computing. Some of them are mentioned below.
- Shared Memory
- Message Passing
- Data Parallel
The Impact Of RFID Parallel Computing On Business
On the basis of parallel computing there is tremendous improvement on the different types of business. Fig. 1 shows the uses of parallel computing by different sources. It clearly shows that most of the business is using the parallel computing technology to explore the different advantages. Use of this parallel computing also spread across the industries. It has shown in the second part of Fig.1. It is clear from fig.1 that most of the information services and researchers are using the parallel computing.
Here are some of the applications which were used in the regular life of human beings which are developed for the useful n Large-scale three-dimensional electromagnetic calculations. Also parallel computing can also be used for developing of medical image applications. By using these application patients can be served effectively in case of neurosurgery. It is because of the accuracy required by a neurosurgical procedure, tracking intra-operative deformations.
The Impact Of Parallel Computing On Society
It saves time and/or money. Using more resources task will shorten its time to completion, with potential cost savings. Parallel clusters can be built from cheap, commodity components.
It also solves larger problems. Many problems are so large and/or complex that it is impractical or impossible to solve them on a single computer, especially given limited computer memory. "Grand Challenge” is one of them. It requires PetaFLOPS and PetaBytes of computing resources. One more problem is web search engines/databases processing millions of transactions per second
It provides concurrency. To demonstrate this considers the example of access grid. By using this people from anywhere in the world can interact with each other and they can do meetings and also share the work. Also this facilitates them to work virtually.
By using Parallel computing there is optimum utilisation of non local resources. Like computers present in local area network and wide area network. SETI@home uses over 330,000 computers for a compute power over 528 Teraflops (as of August 04, 2008). Folding@home uses over 340,000 computers for a compute power of 4.2 peta flops (as of November 4, 2008)
Every technology has their own advantages and disadvantages. This is true for the technologies taken up in this case study. But for the maintenance of heavy inventory or the luggage at airports RFID is much more useful. By using mobile RFID most of the applications and equipment can be put under the scanner. Also can be trace back the details of inventory or the RFID tagged things very easily. By using Parallel computing there is large increase in the performance of the computing time. Also it is useful for so many medical applications.
1. Introduction to Parallel Computing
2. Grand Challenge - Wikipedia Free encyclopedia
6. Project - Caiman High Performance Parallel and Distribute Computing
7. RFID - The Technology
8. RFID Technolofy and Applications - Cambridge University Press
9. Welcome to Using RFID -RFID
8. Mobile RFID device for shoppers Boost store sales
9. Wireless, Mobile, RFID , Financial Services, Govern anent health technologies Events expos and forums - Toronto Ottawa
10. Circuit - Optical RFID test Circuit - Circuits designed by David A Johnson, P.E.