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27% of CO2 annual emissions in the UK come from non-commercial buildings i.e. Homes (reference 1)
Aims of the project
The aim of the project is to create sustainable design to retrofit the Mill, According to BREEAM:Ecohomes guidance. But not all of parts are applicable to improvements of an already existing structure. Main focus will be on CO2 emissions prior to retrofit and after applying improvements to the building. The other topics will be touched as well, but not in depth. As sustainable buildings are eco-friendly they benefit both society and individual consumer. The main aim is to reduce CO2 emissions in sustainable way using ecologically friendly materials and technologies.
To perform site investigation and analysis of the building from sustainability point of view using SAP 2009 (Standard Assessment Procedure) implementing RdSAP (Reduced Data Standard Assessment Procedure used for existing buildings where in-depth survey cannot be performed)
Propose use of insulation materials the roof, walls, floors and windows that would reduce annual CO2 emissions.
Materials installation method to reduce Global Warming Potential (usage of foamed or un-foamed)
Improve current energy use in the building by introducing renewable energy sources. Research of alternative energy sources: wind, solar, hydraulic that would be feasible for reducing external energy income.
Look into possibility of introducing Ventilation systems, would it be Sustainable or would it increase annual CO2 emissions.
Propose alternative heating solutions and possible application of it in the design.
Apply recycled materials where possible during retrofitting.
Waste management during construction and storage of produced recyclable and un-recyclable waste.
Management of the construction process and building maintenance (home user guide)
There is large variety of literature available for guidance of the design for new developments as Code for Sustainable Homes by BREEAM providing detailed guidance to the engineers for improvement of their domestic dwellings design in reducing Carbon Dioxide emissions throughout a whole building life, starting in design stage and ending in with dismantling. Majority of books cover topics such as land use, construction processes, site location etc. and majority of them are not applicable to refurbishment but more tailored to new developments. Unfortunately much smaller guidance is given in UK for improvement of existing structures as it is much more constrained field of study where all cases are unique and feasibility of techniques used in new developments comes into question. BREEAM ECO:HOMES is currently considered the guidance for refurbishment of existing structures in UK, but "There is no specific guidance to refurbishment. The standard approach, using SAP2005 should be followed" is said and majority of sections cannot be improved in already existing structure. In addition EcoHomes requires SAP 2005 evaluation, rather than newer available SAP 2009 which will be used for new BREEAM Domestic Refurbishment design guide, which is scheduled to be published in May 2011. For the purpose of this project SAP 2009 incorporating RdSAP will be used as it analyses amount of variables and environmental influences on the structure.
There are other guides available as well for existing buildings, for example LEED 2009 For existing buildings: Operations and Maintenance, it offers large variety of improvements for residential building day-to-day life management and implementation of newest technologies, but unfortunately it mainly focuses on the quality of life and materials used, and the Environmental issues that arises with it, but not the CO2 emissions. The only areas where CO2 emissions were even mentioned were for ventilation in order to maintain low CO2 inside of the structure while providing minimum outdoor rates and refrigerators GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential). The other guide by USGBC is LEED for Homes, unfortunately it has the same focus on CO2 emissions as previously mentioned guide, but it also includes reference to Energy performance optimisation, where insulations and HERS Index which shows the energy efficiency is included. But there is no comprehensive guide available for refurbishment or evaluation of existing buildings.
Riverside court, Victoria Rd, Saltaire, Shipley BD18 3LX
The center of this research is a mill that is being used as an apparent complex. It has 97 apartments, grounds, car park and access to Leeds and Liverpool Canal and River Aire. It has been erected in 1907-1909 (Age band B). In addition it is situated in World Heritage site in Saltaire. (reference ). The Riverisde Court is Grade Two Listed Building, as a result external and aesthetical changes must be kept minimunm.
This building represents a majority of historical buildings in the city centres where external architectural changes must be kept minimum to preserve the herritage and buildings with changed purpose.
For the purpose of this project the mill will be evaluated in by using EcoHomes while introducing improvements to sustainability of this delling.
The mill has two wings, they will be called West wing (WW) and East wing (EW) for the ease of description.
WW has 6 floors total: Groud floor, 1-4floors and attic. Also it has pitched roof consisting of 2 pitches.
EW has 5 floors total Groud floor, 1-4floors, pitched roof consisting of3 pitches.
The roof pitch is the same on both wings, but is asymethrical with smaller angle facing south, which could potentially offer larger aera for Solar pannels.
Assumptions for the design:
West Wing (assumed average heights):
5thfloor (Loft)= 3m2
4th floor= 3.5 m2
3rd floor= 3.5 m2
2nd floor= 3.5 m2
1st floor= 3 m2
Ground floor = 3 m2
East Wing (assumed average heights):
4th floor (Loft)= 3 m2
3rd floor= 3.5 m2
2nd floor= 3.5 m2
1st floor= 3 m2
Ground floor = 3 m2
Assumed dimentions of Double glazes timber windows with air gap used:
Type1 (used in 1st floor) = 1.75*1.5=2.625 m2
Type 2 (used in 2nd, 3rd and 4th)= 1.5*2=3 m2
Type 3 (used in Ground floor and 5th floor)= 1.5*1.5=2.25 m2
Number of windows:
Assumed dimentions of Entramce doors:
Main entrance = 9mX9m
4x Secondary entrances = 3mX3m
Data to use in SAP 2009 For Assesment Prior to Refurbishment, for ease of reading document SAP2009 is advised to be consulted:
Data / Assumptions
Calculations and Comments
Currently the Dwelling has:
WW Total area= 15x11+14x60=1005m2 (for Ground, 1st and 2nd floors)
WW Total area= 14x71=994m2 (for 3rd, 4th and 5th (loft))
EW Total area= 57x22=1254m2
Limestone Wall thickness=0.9m
For calculation of Floor area in SAP, only heated floor area is considered i.e. area has to be reduced by the thicness of the wall.
WW Floor area Ground, 1st and 2nd floors = 1005-(60+1+11+15+71)*0.9=862.8 m2
WW Floor area for 3rd, 4th and 5th (loft)= 994-(71+15+71)*0.9= 852.7 m2
EW Floor area= 1254-(10+57+22+57)*0.9=1122.6 m2
Floor Area (m2)
Assumed Storey height
Total floor area=
No chimneys, flues and flueless gas fires
Intermittent fans tare used in kichen and bathrooms
All windows and doors are not draught stripped and all areas inside are heated.
Number of fans should be equal to number of flats multiplyed by two= 97*2=194 fans
Steps 12 to 19 of SPA 2009 are not applicable
Riverside court has two sheltered sides, one by Salt mill, the other by New Mill. They fullfill the requirements in SAP 2009 Chapter 2.5 Page 11.
Assumed only natural ventilation in the building
Heat loss and heat loss parameter
Thermal conductivity (k) Limestone 1.33 W/(m.K)
Limestone density assumed 2560 kg/m3
Thermal bridging details are not available
Values taken from Approved Document L1A Of building regulation of Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings.
Doors and windows have similar structure of timber frame and air filled double glazing with 116mm gap
U-value = 2.7 W/m2K
For Ground floor heat loss through the earth, limestone value is used, as it was main building material during that time, also the same thickness of 0.9m is assumed
Roof height is assumed 2.5m and pitch angle facing south 27 degrees
Roof cross-section assumed :
For west wing
East wing uses the same pitches, only has three ridges instead of two.
Clay tiles are used and timber finish inside.
Assumed U-value by table S10 in SAP2009 =0.68
U-values for external limestone wall, as it is solid wall:
Thermal transmitttance of 0.9m Limestone
(U)= 1/1.477=0.6769 W/m2K
For windows reduced U value has to be used(reference Chapter 3.2)
U=1/[(1/U-value)+0.04] U= 1/((1/2.7)0.04)=2.44 W/m2K
Heat capacity per unit area€ € «-value=10-6*thicness of layer(mm)*density(kg/m3)*specific heat capasity (J/kg*K).
«-value for external wals and ground floor
Area of the roof:
West wing: (5.589+3.533)(perimeter of one pitch) *2 (number of pitches)*60(length of the wing)=1094.64m2
East wing: (5.589+3.533)*3*57=1559.862 m2
Total Area =sum(1559.862; 1094.6)=2654.462 m2
Assumed community heating
No tank manufacturers data is available and for storage of hot water 110 liters and 0.0152 loss factor kWh/litre/day is assumed as per secion 4.3 in SAP 2009
Not insulated primary pipework and cylinder thermostat
Internal Gains (human activities)
No low energy light is assumed
Correction factor as a result is =1
Overshading is More than average as the mill is resting behind Salt Mills which are slightly higher than Riverside court and blocks majority of the sunlight coming from east, south and west is blocked by New mill.
For gain from pumps and fans there is no applicable data in Table 5a, as a result these gains will be ignored
Building sides south, south west and west have more than 60% covered in shades due to obstacles as seen in the map below.
Number of windows for area calculation of glazing on each side needs to be counted: as building is not positioned paralel to any of the axes, sides will be anotated as shown below:
GPS readings show Latitude of 53.84â-¦N
For calculations following Table 6a in order to determine solar radiation on vertical surfases
Fx(m) = Rhtov(±) Sh where Rhtov(±) = A + B cos(±) + C cos(2±)
A = 0.702 - 0.0119 (¦€ - ¤) + 0.000204 (¦€ - ¤)2
B = - 0.107 + 0.0081 (¦€ - ¤) - 0.000218 (¦€ - ¤)2
C = 0.117 - 0.0098 (¦€ - ¤) + 0.000143 (¦€ - ¤)2
¦€ €€ latitude ¤ - solar declination during the month
Analysis has to be performed for each month for each type of glazing. But as the only thing varying between the types of windows in the area, it is acceptable to count as one and the same type, it would not influence the calculations. Transmittance factors and frame factors taken from tables 6b and 6c.
Internal temperature (heating season)
Assumed community heating scheme with gas boiler and responsiveness ratio 1
Energy and CO2 Emissions SAP 2009
To evaluate CO2 Emission rate provided worksheets provided in http://www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2009/SAP-2009_9-90.pdf were used to create excel spreadsheet shown below, using formulas provided and incorporating data from Riverside court.
Prior to refurbishment CO2 Emission rate is:
For increasing the quality of refurbishment, in each part of SAP analysis CO2 apart the ones dependant on building dimensions and location will be tried to be reduced.
The Mill that we are dealing with already exists; as a result it limits the potential thermal insulators. If it has cavities in the wall design, then it could be filled with foams or fibres. External cladding or internal insulation or dry lining could be used. Unfortunately in the mill only internal insulators can be used and to reduce environmental impact proposed insulants should have an `A` grading
To reduce global warming from blowing agent emissions that arises from the manufacture, installation, use and disposal of foamed thermal and acoustic insulating materials.
The Heat Loss Parameter is a statistic that combines the impact of both external surface area, insulation value of construction and airtightness. Rewarding a lower value for Heat Loss Parameter encourages increased levels of insulation and airtightness.
These photos were taken on 24th November 2010 with thermocamera to check heat loss throush the building envelope and see where the focus of improvement should be centered. During the time the photos were taken the temperature was +2 Degrees Celcium. During investigation of the site it has been noticed that extternal walls have signifficant heat loss as well as windows and doors. As can be seen in pictures the temperature shown varies through out them, that can be ecplained by wind influence as well solar exposure.
Heating/boilers, heat pumps
Areas of Possible improvement
Surface water run-off
River court Mill
Health and well-being
BREEAM for non-domestic refurbishment is now under development, The scheme is due to be launched in May 2011.