Special Things Of Thease Types Engineering Essay

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Today's low-loss glass fiber optic cable offers nearly unlimited bandwidth and many advantages over all previously developed transmission medi [1]a. The basic point-to-point fiber optic transmission system consists of three basic elements: the optical transmitter, the fiber optic cable and the optical receiver.

A connector is a hardware mounted to the end of a fiber optic cord, light source, or any equipment that sends or receives light signal, which mates to a corresponding hardware to couple light into and out of fiber optic. Fiber optic connectors provide an impermanent connection between two fiber optic components, and can be remove dank reconnected in a new configuration if design.

The inter connection of fiber optics is very important part of an optical system. Because it is the main effect of performance. Interconnection between fiber optics to another fiber optics is doing using connectors or splices .The end of link is maybe optically or manually.

And also connectors are used to connect fiber optics cable with fiber optics device. Such as detector, optical amplifier, optical light power meter need to connect with fiber optics using fiber optics connector. And these connectors are designed to user to do connecting and disconnecting easily .these connectors are create friendly contact between devices and optics with less power loss.

The splices used connect permanently with fiber optics with another fiber optics .they are suitable to indoor or outdoor application. some types of splices are used to temporarily uses for quick testing purposes.

The key of fiber optic inter connection is good alignment of the new cable cores. Because of that light couples from one to another using through the junction. this alignment create change for designers. There is difference between of two fiber cables and coupling light source into fiber cable.

The fiber connectors are unique in that they must make both optical and mechanical connection. They must also allow the fiber cables to be precisely aligned to ensure that connection is robust. Fiber connectors are various methods to achieve solid connections. And also a process to remove surface defects and to improve optical

Performance of the fiber optic connectors. Fiber optic patch cord is

Often polished after termination in today's local area networks (LANs), there are two primary legacy optical fiber connector types (the ST-style and the SC Duplex) and two primary small form factor (SFF) connectors (MT-RJ and LC). All four of these connector types have been in use for several years and have a proven track record for the performance and reliability desired for local area networks. However, there are some significant differences between these connector types. We will discuss about these in following topics.

One of the advantages with connectors is that when connector failure occurs, it can rapidly dealt with since its main cause is often traced to the end-face (also called

The ferrule) or the mechanical section of the connector [1]

The ferrule

In the connector, the element that holds the fiber and provides the alignment positioning is the ferrule. The ferrule is the part of the connector that connects the cable either to another cable, a transmitter or a receiver. Made of either glass, plastic, metal or ceramic, the ferrule is composed of three principal zones: Zone A, which is defined as the core of the fiber where the light travels; Zone B, called the cladding, is the outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light into the core and the buffer coating protects the fiber from damage and moisture as it surrounds the cladding and is normally made of plastic. [2]

http://img.tfd.com/cde/FERRULE.GIFFig1.1

FIBER OPTIC CONNECTOR TYPES

There are types of fiber optics connector for various methods to archive solid connections. Some of types listed in below.

SC/APC connectors

FC/PC connectors

FC/APC connectors

IC connectors

MU connector

straight tip connector (ST)(FIG 2.1)

5685c connector (duplex SC)

FDDI connector (MIC)

Bionic connector

SMA connector

enterprises system connector (ESCON)

duplex connectors(ST)

polarizing connectors

MT multi fib ere connectors

MT-RJ connector

D4style connector

Bionic connectors

MFS/MPO connector

Plastics -fiber connector

E2000 Diamond connector

Fiber -optics connector /pull system

Special connector

3 DISCRIPTION OF FIBER OPTICS CONNECTOR TYPES

ST CONNECTOR

Fig (3.1)

The ST connector holds a single fiber in a standard-sized (2.5 mm) ceramic ferrule. The connector body is made of a plastic composite, and the connector couples using a twist-lock mechanism. This connector type is often found in data communications applications. The ST is versatile, and very popular, as well as comparably cheaper than some other connector styles.

FC Connector ('Fibber 'Connector)

Fig (3.2)

The FC connector holds a single fiber in a standard-sized (2.5 mm) ceramic ferrule. The connector body is made of nickel-plated brass, and features a key-aligned, threaded locking coupling nut for repeatable, reliable coupling. The threaded coupling nut provides a secure connector even in high-vibration environments, although it takes slightly longer to connect, Since it requires turning the connector instead of a simple push and click. Some FC style Connectors exhibit tunable keying, which means the connector key can be tuned to obtain The best insertion loss, or to otherwise align the fiber.

LC Connector (Lucent Connector)

Fig 3.3

The LC connector holds a single fiber in a 1.25mm ceramic ferrule, half the size of the standard SC ferrule. LC connectors are examples of small form factor connectors. The smaller ferrule allows for a smaller housing and thus a smaller connector. Small enough that two LC connectors yoked together take up about the same port space as an RJ-45. The connector body is made of molded plastic, and features a square front profile. An RJ-style latch (like that on a phone jack) on the top of the connector provides easy, repeatable connections. Two LC connectors may be clipped together to form a duplex LC. The small size and push-in connections of LC connectors make them an excellent choice for high-density fiber applications, or for cross Connects.

MU Connector

Fig 3.4

The MU connector holds a single fiber in a ceramic ferrule. MU connectors are small form

Factor connectors that emulate the design of the larger SC connector. The MU exhibits a square front profile and a molded plastic body that provides simple push-pull latching connections.The MU connector is well suited for high-density applications.

MTRJ Connector (MT ferrule, Registers Jack latch)

Fig 3.5

The MTRJ connector holds a pair of fibers in a monolithic ferrule made of a plastic composite. The ferrule is held inside a plastic body that clips into a coupler with an intuitive push and click motion, much like the copper RJ-45 jack. The fibers are aligned by the pair of metal guide pins in the end of the ferrule of a male connector, which join into guide pinholes on the female connector inside the coupler. The MT-RJ connector is an example of a duplex small form factor connector. Having the pair of fibers held by a monolithic ferrule makes it easy to maintain the polarity of connections, and renders the MT-RJ ideal for applications such as horizontal fiber runs in facility Cabling.

D4 Connector

Fig 3.6

The D4 connector holds a single fiber in a 2.0 mm ceramic ferrule. The D4 connector's body is similar In design to the FC connector, except for the smaller ferrule, and a longer coupling nut. Properties and Applications of the D4 are likewise comparable tote fc.

E2000 Connector

Fig 3.7

The E2000 connector holds a single fiber in ceramic ferrule. E2000's are small form factor

Connectors with a molded plastic body similar to that of an LC. The E2000 also exhibits a

Push-pull Latching mechanism, and integrates a protective cap over the ferrule, which acts

as a dust shield and Shields users from laser emissions. The protective cap is loaded with

an integrated spring to ensure Proper closing of the cap. Like other small form factor connectors, the E-2000 connector is suited for High-density applications.

Bionic Connector

Fig 3.8

The Bionic connector features a cone-shaped tip, which holds a single fiber. The dual conical faces ensure proper mating of the fibers in a connection. The ferrule can be made with either ceramic or stainless steel. Its rugged design allows the bionic connector to be used in military applications.

MTP Connector ('Multiple 'Terminations, 'Push-pull latch)

.fig 3.9

An MTPâ„¢ connector can house up to twelve and sometimes more optical fibers in a single, monolithic ferrule. The same style of monolithic ferrule provides a basis for other connectors, such as the MPO. The MT-style connectors save space by providing at least twelve potential connections with a single ferrule, replacing up to twelve single-fiber connectors. MTPâ„¢ connectors provide an intuitive push-pull latching mechanism for easy insertion.

MPO Connector

Fig 3.10

The MPO connector houses an MT ferrule, and so can provide for upwards of twelve fibers in a single connector. Like an MTPâ„¢, MPO connectors operate with a simple push-pull latching mechanism mend intuitive insertion. MPO's may be polished falter at an 8o angle.

The SMC connector

Fig 3.11

The SMC connector holds multiple fibers in an MT ferrule. The SMC has been submitted for review asana industry standard connector. SMC connectors easily terminate buffered or non-buffered ribbon fiber. A variety of connector configurations exist, depending on the needs of the application. For instance, the SMC has three different body lengths available, depending on size considerations. The plastic molded body uses side-mounted lock ingle to hold the connector in place.

Angled Polished Contact (APC) Structure

There are two types of cutting structures for APC connector, namely "Slope" and "Step".

.

4 The special things of these types

The MPO connector houses an MT ferrule, and scan provide for upwards of twelve fibers in a single connector. Like an MTPâ„¢, MPO connector operates with a simple push-pull latching mechanism mend intuitive insertion. MPO's may be polished flat or at an 8o angle. The SMC connector holds multiple fibers in an MT ferrule. The SMC has been

Submitted for review Asian industry standard connector. SMC connectors easily terminate

Buffered or non-buffered ribbon fiber. A variety of connector Configurations exist, depending on the needs of the application. For instance, the SMC has three different body lengths available, depending on size considerations. The plastic molded body uses side-mounted locking clips to hold the connector in place.

5 Fiber optic connector structure

Most fiber optics is made by ferrate a connector body. an epoxy materials and stain relief boot .most connectors use to hold the fiber and provide alignment .the most popular ferrule is a 2.5mm diameter. This is the standard. There some product of connectors physical description in the below..

FC connector

â- Material: zirconium sleeve, plastic flange.

â- cylindrical sleeve types (internal diameter: 2.5mm).

â- M8 metal threads locking system.

SC connector

â- Material: zirconium sleeve, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT).

â- Cylindrical sleeve type (internal Diameter: 2.5mm).

â- Push-pull structure.

â- Single mode, multi-mode, simplex or Duplex types available.

â- Available colors: blue for single mode SC/PC, green for SC/APC, gray for Multi-mode SC/PC.

ST connector

â- Material: zirconium sleeve, polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT).

â- Cylindrical sleeve type (internal Diameter: 2.5mm).

â- Insert-pull locking system.

â- Single mode, multi-mode, simplex or Duplex types available.

â- Cap color: red.

LC connector

â- Material: zirconium sleeve, Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT).

â- Cylindrical sleeve type (internal Diameter: 1.25mm).

â- Insert-pull locking system.

â- Single mode, multi-mode, simplex or duplex types available.

â- Available colors: blue for single Mode, gray for multi-mode.

MU Adapter

â- Material: zirconium sleeve, Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT).

â- Cylindrical sleeve type (internal Diameter: 1.25mm).

â- Insert- pull coupling system.

â- Single mode, multi-mode, simplex or duplex types available.

â- Color: brown. Duplex MU connector

MTRJ connector

â- Push-pull & insert-pull locking System.

â- Available colors: black and gray

6 Assembly methods of fiber optics connectors

common fiber connector assembly -

The most common assembly techniques using for fiber cable and suitable connector. The cable most often joint into the connector. Epoxy gives good tensile gap to the connector to prevent moving within connector body, maintain good connectivity with alignment.

2 .hot melt connector -

Thos connector widely used in North American telecommunication systems. His prepared end of fiber optics is inserted in to the connector ferrule. The cable is loaded on to the connector holder and placed in few minutes. Then it soften the epoxy around the fiber cable and epoxy

3 epoxy connector-

This connector also called clamp connector has been widely used for speedy cable telecommunication systems. The time connector get crimped, insert a compressed around fiber cable. The epoxy less approaches is a technology that is not limited to one connector type.

4 automated polishing-

All fiber connector polishing machines are designed for accuracy, easy set up and product efficiency.

5 fluid jet polishing-

This is other techniques for shaping and polishing small surface areas of complicated optics made of brittle materials.

7 Connector testing

C:\Users\pcz\Desktop\EPD07024_F_001.gifFig 7.1

There are many testing instruments for testing connectors like in the above figure. The below figure shows simple testing instrument. This procedure is adequate a inspect connector. Handheld device measured loses, optical powers ,light source etc. The basic test measured the attenuation of the fiber cable with connectors by compare between the power through the connecter like the shown in the figure. [1]

C:\Users\pcz\Desktop\OFSTP-14.jpgFig 7.2

8 Maintaining connectors-

Dry cleaning

Fig 8.1

Dry cleaning is an efficient technique for removing contaminants, such as light dust particles and oil from hands and is often considered the Technique of choice in a controlled manufacturing environment-where speed and ease of use are important factors. This cleaning method Is also widely used in outside-plant applications, yet is sometimes not sufficient enough to completely remove all the types of contaminants that can be found in this difficult environment. One of the drawbacks to the dry cleaning method is that the dust particles found on the Connector end-face can scratch the surface of the connector, causing signal loss and permanently damaging the connector as the dust is removed. Some dry cleaners can also create electrostatic charges on the end-face, which continues to attract particles floating in the air.

Advantages Disadvantages

Convenience of readily available tools can possibly create electrostatic charges

Fast and easy Not effective in removing all contaminant

Types

Possible cost consideration

Wet cleaning

Fig 8.2

One of the main active elements of the wet cleaning method is the solvent used and selecting the right one, along with an effective and reliable drying is essential for effective wet cleaning. The main purpose of using the wet cleaning method is to raise dust and [1]Contaminants from the connector's end-face, which avoids scratching the connector. The most widely-known solvent in the industry Is the 99.9% isopropyl alcohol (IPA), which is effective for removing a large majority of the contaminants; yet some of them-such As matching gel and most lubricants-are quite resistant and can leave soil residue.

Hybrid cleaning

Hybrid cleaning (also called combination cleaning) is a mix of wet and dry cleaning methods. The first step in hybrid cleaning is to clean the connector end-face by using a solvent and then to dry any remaining residue with either a wipe or a swab, depending on the type of connector being cleaned. fig 8.3

Reference page

[1] Fiber optics by Abdul al-assai

2 [1] [2, pp. 5,6,7] communication specialist pvt ltd in 2006

3 Optical networking best practice handbook by john r. Vacca

4 Optical fiber connect types terminal technologies by tyco electronics

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