Report On Fire Alarm Systems For Different Buildings Engineering Essay

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In this UGBA 2323 Building Services and Equipment II assignment, we are given 4 questions to discuss on fire suppression method, types of fire detector system, alarm systems for both commercial and institutional building; and fire alarm systems for high rise office building. All points above are meant for a safety building where by design of fire detection and suppression system is taken into consideration so that fire protection system is able to prevent building fire and destroyed of properties and human life. In Uniform Building by Law 1984, all buildings are required to have minimum structure integrity based on its functionality.

Fire is the process of combustion involve oxidation occurred rapidly with produce smoke and heat energy. Smoke is the primarily caused of 75% of death compare to fire. Smoke occurs when there is incomplete of combustion. Besides, fire has the needs of high temperature, fuel and oxygen. As oxygen, and fuel being limited, combustion process would be slower.

Generally, source of building fire is results from chemical reaction, static electricity, mechanical sparks and compression of gases. So development of fire will be fastest as fuel properties within the building increased. Fire will spread quickly if the building consist high volume of combustible gases, chemicals, plastic, as well as flammable and combustible liquids. Therefore, fuel load should keep to the minimum as can lessen the volume of material to be ignited. The chances of fire spread, properties loss, and death also can be reduced.

Moreover, indeed minimize the fire sources and fuel loads can prevent building fire. We also can have alternative to install effective fire detection and suppression systems in our buildings. Fire detection systems involve use of smoke, heat or carbon dioxide detector to detect smoke or heat if there is building fire occurred. In fire alarm system, as smoke or high temperature has been detected, it would trigger alarm system to give warning to occupants to escape from building. Concurrently, sprinkler system also can be activated by manually break the glass to allow water spray into the building to minimize the fire spread and smoke.

Last but not least, for next part of this assignment, we would discuss on further details of fire suppression method that can be used beside water, types of fire detector systems that use within a building ( heat, temperature, carbon dioxide and smoke detector) , alarm systems used by commercial and institutional building; and high-rise building fire alarm system.

Fuel

FIRE

Oxygen

Heat

2.0 Discuss Other Fire Suppression Methods:

Generally, fire suppression methods involve water, foam, powder, carbon dioxide and wet chemical. All of the above can be found in fire extinguishers.

2.1 Water Extinguishers

We commonly used water extinguishers in our house. They are use to put out class A fires which are cause by wood, paper, textiles and fabrics. Using this type of extinguishers need very careful and ensure that the water is under extreme pressure, does not scatter lightweight material and spread of the fire.

The standard size of the water extinguisher is 2 gallons. When using this water extinguisher it can cover 30-40 feet. Besides, it can produce the pressure about110 pounds per square inch (psi).

Dry Risers

Dry risers no contain water in the pipes, are installed within a building and provided with a landing valve in the staircase lobby. The riser terminates at the street level in the form of a fire brigade connection as a component of the fire suppression systems. Dry risers have to have fire engine access within 18m of the dry riser inlet box.

The connection enables the fire-brigade to connect the fire-brigade connection either to a street fire-hydrant directly or to a fire-brigade pumper and charge the dry riser with water. The water can then be drawn off at any floor above from the landing valve. Dry risers help to eliminate the long run of hose lines through the building stairways. It also eliminates the danger operation of freezing the standing water in the dry riser.

A dry pipe fire sprinkler system is filled with pressurized air, rather than water. This air holds a remote valve, known as a dry pipe valve, in a closed position. Located in a heated space, the dry-pipe valve prevents water from entering the pipe until a fire causes one or more sprinklers to operate.

Once this happens, the air escapes and the dry pipe valve releases. Water then enters the pipe, flowing through open sprinklers onto the fire. They provide a readily available means of delivering considerable quantities of water to extinguish or to prevent the spread of fire.

Wet Risers

Wet risers are fixed pipe-installations, installed within a building and permanently charged with water under pressure from a reliable water supply source. Hydrant stations are provided to serve an area of 926 square meters.

It is advisable to place it in fire protected areas near each fire escape staircase or lobby so that it can be located easily. Each hydrant station comprises a first-aid hose reel with 20mm diameter rubber-hose about 30-36 m long with a 6 mm diameter nozzle and single or double headed 63 mm diameter landing valve

2.2 Foam Water Suppression System

Foam water systems are provided wherever there are large quantities of liquid hydrocarbons that pose a high fire risk. Foam is an aggregate of water, chemical compounds and air filled bubbles that float on the surface of combustible liquids. They are used primarily to provide a cohesive floating blanket on the liquid surface of the liquid material it is protecting.

It extinguishes a fire by smothering and cooling the fuel, such as liquid surface, and prevents re-ignition by preventing the information of combustible mixtures of vapour and air over the liquid surface.

Foam will also cool the fuel and surrounding equipment involved in the fire. Foams are supplied in concentrates that are appropriately proportioned into water supply systems. They are then aspirated with air to produce the foam bubbles.

2.3 Halon/Haloalkanes

Halon is a halogenated compound that contains elements from the halogen series - fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. According to the different elements, Halon can form into two types there are Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) and Halon 1301 (CBrF3).

Halogen will replace the hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon compounds such as methane or ethane to become non-combustible gases. Except for Halon 1310, bromotrifluoromethane, most halogenated hydrocarbon compounds are corrosive when moisture is present. Halon will also break into corrosive and toxic by products in the presence of a sustained electrical arc.

Halon systems are gradually phasing out due to this system will cause environmental impact to ozone depletion. Some of the prime reasons to eliminate the use of Halon system are that the facility may be constantly manned with a relatively low fire risk. Other facilities may have a very low combustible load and can be supplemented by highly sensitive fire detection means, such as a VESDA (Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus) fire detection system.

2.4 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) System

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a non-combustible gas that can penetrate and spread to all parts of a fire, diluting the available oxygen to a concentration that will not support combustion. CO2 systems will extinguish fires in practically all combustibles except those which have their own oxygen supply and certain metals that cause decomposition of the carbon dioxide; CO2 does not conduct electricity and can be used on energized electrical equipment.

It will not freeze or deteriorate with age. Carbon dioxide is a dangerous gas to human life since it displaces oxygen. Concentrations above 9 percent are considered hazardous, while 30 percent or more are needed for fire extinguishing system. Carbon dioxide systems are generally ineffective in outdoor applications since wind effects and dissipate the vapours rapidly. It has a vapour density of 1.529 and therefore will settle to low points of an enclosure. For fire extinguishment or inserting purposes CO2 is stored in liquid form that provides for its own pressurized discharge.

Disadvantages of CO2 system

CO2 systems have disadvantages, such as the expelled CO2 gas presents a suffocation hazard to Humans in the exposed area. All such areas would require strict access control. Besides that, CO2 gas is considered a 'greenhouse' gas and may in the future be considered an environmental concern. Fixed CO2 systems require a large storage area and have considerable weight which limits their benefit offshore. At last, Deep seated fires may not be fully extinguished by a gaseous fire suppressant agent.

2.5 Dry Chemical Extinguisher

Dry chemical extinguishers are also commonly used. Regular dry chemical extinguishers have a sodium bicarbonate base and are effective on Class B and C fires which are cause by the flammable liquids such as petrol, oil, paints and flammable gasses. Multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers have a monoammonium phosphate base and are effective for Class A, B, and C fires.

Both types of dry chemical extinguishers are nontoxic. Both should be inverted monthly to prevent caking. The capacity of dry chemical extinguishers is approximately 10-20 second discharge time. The range is about 8 to 12 feet. This extinguisher can produce 175-250 psi pressure when using.

2.6 Other Types of Extinguishers

Compare to water and dry chemical extinguishers, carbon dioxide, halon, and foam extinguishers are becoming less common. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers are used primarily on Class C fires and are also effective on Class B fires. They have limited use on Class A fires because of reflash potential.

The theory of suppress fire by carbon dioxide extinguishers is displace the oxygen into carbon dioxide, it is because oxygen is the basic need of a fire, deprived the oxygen, the buildings fire will be extinguished Halon Extinguishers are best used on Class B or C fires. Halon is a clean agent and is nontoxic when used in low concentrations or in non-confined areas. However, halon extinguishers are being phase out due to halon will cause environment impact. Foam extinguishers are less common use because foam extinguishers are used for special applications.

At last, we need use non-combustible materials in concealed spaces inside a building, such as the spaces over suspended ceilings, under raised floors, within pipe service ducts, etc. Besides that, can also install automatic fire detection and suppression systems in these uninhabited spaces to deprived oxygen, replace it using another gas (carbon dioxide, halon) or cover by the fuel (foam, dry chemicals). Compartmentation also is a method to break up the continuous of a fire spread.

Table below is shown the types of fire suppression systems suitable to be used for typical application.

Fire Suppression System

Typical Application

1. Portable Extinguishers

Offices

Warehouses

Switchgear

All plant areas

2. Hydrants (if fire brigade available)

All process and utility areas

Hydrocarbon storage areas

Warehouses

Offices

3. Hose Reels

Process areas

Warehouses

Offices

Accommodations

4. Firewater monitor

Process areas

Hydrocarbon storage areas

Hydrocarbon loading areas

5. Wet pipe sprinklers

Offices

Accommodations

Warehouses

6. Dry chemical systems

Kitchens

Loading or unloading racks (mostly when water system is uneconomical or unavailable)

7. agent systems

Aircraft operations

(fixed wing and rotary)

8. Dry pipe sprinklers

Warehouses

Critical cable vaults

Cooling towers

9. Water spray or deluge

Process vessel cooling

General area coverage

Pumps

Critical or high value transformers

10. Foam water deluge and monitors

Hydrocarbon spill potentials

Truck and rail racks (loading and unloading)

Ship docks

Pump stations

11. CO2 systems

Electrical switchgear facilities

Gas turbine enclosure

Communication panels or racks

12. Halon Substitutes

Critical computer assets or operations

3.0 Discuss Types of Fire Detector Systems:

In the market, there are various type and brand of fire detector. Fire detector is different with fire fighting; fire detector is source of signal to allow people run off from dangerous, but fire fighting is the apparatus to extinguish the fire. It is important that make sure the fire detector is functional, because when there is urgent period, it can save human's life and properties.

Basically, fire detector's price is depending on the brand, sensitivity, and types of detector. And also, fire detector's size is flexible, there is option between large size and small size, it is depend on users' preference. There are few types of detectors in market which I will discuss or roughly brief here.

3.1 Smoke Detector

Basically, smoke detector is a small size device which used to give signal after smoke is discovered. Smoke detectors size or shape can be adjustable according to users' preference. When fire is occurred, smoke will released and cause people hard to breath. Therefore, when the smoke is reached to the smoke detectors, the device will send signal to people surrounding and brigade nearby.

Smoke detector can be categorized into two types, which are by optical detection or by physical process such as ionization method or even the combination of both methods to increase the sensitivity to smoke. Although the combination between the two methods is much costly, but it can perform better.

Optical smoke alarm or also known as photoelectric smoke alarms sense smoke by using the light scatter principle. They have very fast response to the visible smoldering smoke. When smoke enters the optical chamber across the path of the light beam, some light is scattered by the smoke particles, which directing it at the sensor and, therefore, the alarm will sounded. Usually, it is much expensive if compared with ionization method.

Ionization detector can detect the particles of smoke that are very small in size. Ionization smoke detectors used an ionization chamber and a source of ionization radiation to detect smoke. There is a small amount of americium-21 in the ionization detector; the americium-241 is a radioactive element which is a good source of alpha particles.

Figure : Optical Smoke Detector

Optical Smoke Detector

Optical chamber

Cover

Case moulding

Photo diode

Infra red LED

How the ionization smoke detectors work?

An ionization chamber consists of two plates with a voltage across them, along with a radioactive source of ionizing radioactive (americium-241). The alpha particles that generated will ionize the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the within the chamber. During the ionization process, the result will be a free electron with negatively charge and an atom which is positively charge.

The negative electron then attracted to the positive voltage, while the positive atom will go to negative voltage. The electronics in the smoke detector sense the small amount of electrical current. When the smoke enters the ionization chamber, it will disrupt the electrical current. The smoke detector senses the drop in current between the plates since the smoke attach to the ions inside the detector; thus, the detector will set off the alarm.

3.2 Heat Detector

As the name indicates, heat detectors sense the presence of fire as the ambient temperature exceeds a predefined value or the rate of temperature goes up in sudden. Normally, the heat detector consist a conductor which is attached to a spring-loaded plunger. As the temperature of the surrounding rises, the conductors either melt or expand to release the tension of the spring. Once the spring is released, it will complete a switch circuit which intimates fire is occurred. Therefore, the detector will send signal to people by sound horn.

3.3 Carbon Monoxide Detector

As we know, fire occurred due to the chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen under desired temperature. The results are visible light, heat, and as well as smoke which contain carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and etc. Carbon monoxide detector is the device to detect the amount of carbon monoxide.

Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourless compound produced by incomplete combustion. It is very dangerous to people or even our precious earth, because carbon monoxide is identified as one of the sources that disrupt the earth's ozone layer. Also, it is carcinogenic. Therefore, carbon monoxide detectors are invented to measure their levels over time and produced signal sound before the carbon monoxide is accumulate in environment.

4.0 Discuss Commercial and Institutional Building Alarm Systems:

Prior to commercial and institutional building, fire alarm systems are an importance system to save human lives and prevent property loss. Same like other type of building, this type of building alarm systems are start form smoke detectors. Smoke detectors were primarily the main indicator for alerting the occupants of a building to a fire.

Before that, only an individual calling the fire department may have resulted in minimal loss of property and life. Today fire alarm systems have evolved into complicated networks. With more recent advances, fire alarms have improved diagnostics which only aid in the reliability of the alarm system.

Even though current smoke detectors and heads are ore sensitive to detecting fires and heat than systems from even as recent as 2005, improvements are constantly being made from the development of addressable heads to touch screen or touchpad panels. These advances have allowed owners, monitoring agencies and fire departments greater ability in responding to true alarms instead of false alarms.

An addressable head is a recent development in fire detection and locating. Before addressable heads, fire alarm panels would merely display the general location of the fire by identifying a generic zone. For small business owners with only a couple of thousand feet of space, this may be satisfactory, however, for a larger space such as a storage facility, school, assisted living or hospital facility, this can literally be a life saver.

There are several other components available to a commercial facility. Indicator appliances, part of many fire alarm systems, help identify whether a building is occupied. Many times this particular feature would be useful, especially in a school or assisted living facility. Electromagnetic door holders can be very effective with regards to securing or isolating sections of a building, thereby slowing the advance of a fire. The manner in which an electromagnetic door holder functions is when an alarm is activated, the electromagnetic contact holding the door open is de-energized, which in turn causes the door to swing freely shut.

Many alarms panels are available with touch panels or touchpad screens. By simplifying the user interface in this manner, it allows companies to train their employees about the understanding of the use of the fire alarm and security systems quickly and efficiently.

Commercial and institution fire sprinkler systems are not consider as fire alarm systems, but its objective also same like fire alarm systems that is extinguish the fire in order to minimize property loss and lives. Until now, there are about six different types of fire sprinkler systems used nowadays, wet pipe, dry pipe, deluge and pre-action and foam water. The two most popular installed sprinkler systems in commercial building are wet pipe systems and dry pipe systems, because these two systems are the simplest in function and easy to install therefore it is more reliable and easy to operate

Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most favorite type to have installed for several of reason. These systems are the simplest in function and therefore it more easily to operate than other type of system.

As predicted, when the area's temperature reaches beyond a pre-set level, the affected sprinkler head releases allowing the flow of water. The cost of a wet pipe system is also usually the most cheaper to have installed and maintain. Dry pipe systems are same in operation with only difference in input. Air is filled in the part of lines that heading to the fire sprinkler heads. When the temperature at each area head exceeds the pre-set limit, the sprinkler head is activated.

The air filling the line is excluded, then replaced with the water supply pushing in behind. The proposed idea of a dry pipe system is to allow for freezing temperatures and greatly decrease the risk of damage of water line due to freezing. A system such as this type can be ineffective in extinguishing a fire due to the delay of water reaching the sprinkler head and extinguish the fire. Increased cost of installation and maintenance, as well as difficulty, can be a negative aspect to installing this type of fire suppression system. Deluge systems and pre-action systems are alike to one another because both are activated by some type of fire alarm system.

Deluge systems are placing at where the threat of fire spreading rapidly is a worry. Deluge sprinkler systems, when activated water will simply sprays from every sprinkler head simultaneously instead of only one sprinkler head activation. Pre-action system can basically be a combination of wet, dry and deluge systems. The benefit of a pre-action system is that it can send a trouble alarm should some problems occur without activating a sprinkler head. Several of this type of fire sprinkler system can also be installed for operation only when the temperature at a sprinkler head has exceeded the pre-set level and a fire alarm is activated as well, essentially serving as a ascertain.

Foam water and "water spray" systems are usually installed where flammable materials are located and sensitive equipment. A combination of foam and water helps to hold back the fire while the second system sprays water in a particular spray pattern. These last two systems are not compulsory for the majority of commercial building. Contain only any of these fire sprinkler setups is insufficient.

Every commercial or institution could benefit from investing in a new fire alarm control system or updating the existing alarm system. At a bare minimum, an inspection and proper maintenance needs to be performed annually. In many cases particular industries, such as restaurants or food related facilities, hospitals and schools are generally required by law to have an inspection done more frequently. Along with an inspection, fire suppression systems are also required to be inspected. Even though the components and fittings of a fire suppression system may not have been activated, the parts do receive wear and tear in certain conditions and need to be adjusted periodically.

5.0 Discuss High Rise Office Building Fire Alarm Systems:

Fire alarm system, it is designed to detect the presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. Besides, it is use to notify the occupants to evacuate from the building in the event of fire or other emergency services. The different from the high rise is high rise building can occupy more people and limited exit doors. This is because high rise building is defined by the building reach to 35 meters or greater in height. So the fire alarm system for high rise must be more highly reliable.

Fire alarm control panel or fire alarm control unit is an electric panel that is controlling component of a fire alarm system. The panel receives information from environmental sensors designed to detect changes associated with fire, monitors their operational integrity and provides for automatic control of equipment, and transmission of information necessary to prepare the facility for fire based on predetermined sequence.

The fire alarm control panel can do all the functions as below:

1. System reset

After an alarm condition, all initiating devices are reset and the panel is clear from any alarm condition. A system reset is often required to clear supervisory conditions. Trouble conditions cannot reset by system reset if there is still contaminated smoke detected or an electrical problem within the system. The electrical problem can be low power on the backup battery or the disabling of notification appliance and etc. Trouble conditions will clear after the conditions are back to normal.

2. Acknowledge

Acknowledge, also abbreviated to "ACK", is used to tell the abnormal situation such as an alarm, trouble and supervisory to the building personnel or emergency responders. The panel's own sounder will be silent after the alarm or trouble condition is cleared but not of any Notification Appliances.

3. Drill

Also known as "manual evacuation" or "evacuate". This function is mainly use for conducting a fire drill purpose. Drill function activates the system's notification appliances, but not transmitted to the fire department or monitoring center. Notification for the fire department is a must just for in case of an alarm is unintentionally transmitted.

4. Walk test

Walk test is mainly to testing the system's devices by initiating devices without the assistance of additional people at the control panel itself and setting off the alarm system. Most panels offer the option for a silent walk test (no alarms activate) or an audible walk test (alarms activate for audible period when a device is initiated). A system trouble will also generate when the panel is in walk test.

5. Lamp test

Known as flash test. This function is use to check the condition of the LEDs. This test is required by code on multi-zone panels installed in Canada. Many panels do a lamp test when the system is reset.

6. Alarm circuit supervision

This function is use to check the alarm circuit faults. Possible alarm circuit faults on a two wire circuit include one of the conductors being shorted to ground, open circuit, or short circuit between conductors. It could also happen when the circuit tempered with by having an external AC or DC voltage applied with various duty cycles or waveform.

Generally, there are 4 basic types of panels: coded panels, conventional panels, multiplex systems and addressable panels.

5.1 Coded Panels

Coded panels are the earliest type of central fire alarm control, invented from late 1900s to 1970s. This panel works with each zone was connected to its own code wheel (Ex: An alarm in zone 1 would sound code 1-2-4 [through the bells or horns in the building], while zone 2 would sound 1-2-5), which, depending on the way the panel was set up, would either do sets of four rounds of code until the initiating pull station was reset (similar to a coded pull station) or run continuously until the panel itself was reset.

Large panels could take up an entire wall in a mechanical room, with dozens of code wheels. Lists of codes had to be maintained, sometimes with copies being posted above certain pull stations (this setup is commonly seen in older wings of hospitals). Smaller panels could be set up in one of two ways. Basically, the panel would only have one zone, and therefore, only one code. Common one-zone codes were 4-4-0 and 17-0-0 (which is similar to the 120 bpm March Time setting found on modern panels). The panel can make with no code wheels, using only what was called the gong relay.

Normally, this would be used in a system with coded pull stations to retransmit the coding strikes from the pulls. However, it could also be used as its own zone, such as connect with the horns or bells sounding continuously instead of in a particular code. Examples of this type of panel include the IBM 4201 and the Simplex 4246.

These panels are not very common today, but still can be found in older buildings such as college campuses or hospitals.

Rock Inox Coded Panels:

Manufactured in 316 ANSI stainless steel

Available from 1 to 20 push buttons

5.2 Conventional Panels

A conventional system employs one or not initiating circuits, connected to sensors wired in parallel. These sensors are devised to decrease the circuit resistance when the environmental influence on any sensor exceeds a predetermined threshold. In conventional systems the information density is limited to the number of such circuits used.

A smaller map of the building is often placed near the main entrance with defined zones drawn up, and LEDs indicating whether a particular circuit has been activated. Another common method is to have the different zones listed in a column, with an LED to the left of each zone name. Examples include the Edwards 6500 and the Simplex 4005 or 4006.

The main weakness of this panel is unavailability of show activated device within a circuit. The fire may be small enough in a room, but the emergency responders can only tell the fire exists in anywhere within that zone.

These types of panels are no longer used in large buildings but still used on smaller site such as small schools, stores, restaurants and apartments.

ZC3 Conventional Panel

Features control and indication facilities for 2,4,8, 16 and 32 zones

Up to 32 automatic detectors and/or manual call points at each zone

5.3 Multiplex Systems

Multiplex systems, an invention after conventional systems were often used in large buildings and complexes from the mid to late 1970s into the late 1980s.

At the beginning, these systems were programmed to function as large conventional systems. Gradually, later installations began to feature components and features of modern addressable systems. These systems were manageable of controlling more than a building's fire alarm system (i.e. HVAC, security, electronic door locks and etc.) without any type of alarm or trouble condition present. An example of this type of system is the Simplex 2120.

Besides, the main panel was the brains of the system and to access certain functions, such as fire alarm controls accessed through transponders. These were smaller conventional panels programmed to 'communicate' the status of part of the system to the main panel and also could be used to access basic fire alarm control functions. An example of this type of system is the original Simplex 4100.

5.4 Addressable Panels

Addressable panels are made from a higher degree of programming flexibility and single point detection, which are much more advanced than their conventional counterparts. In the mid 1980s, introducing of the microcontroller in that year was increase the efficiency of addressable fire alarm panels and thus largely producing by many manufacturers.

Below are the functions of Addressable panels:

Signalling line circuit loops

Panels usually have a number of signalling line circuit loops - usually referred to as loops or SLC loops - ranging between one and thirty. Depending on the protocol used, a loop can monitor and control several hundred devices.

Some protocols permit any mix of detectors and input/output modules, while other protocols have 50% of channel capacity restricted to detectors/sensors and 50% restricted to input/output modules. Each SLC polls the devices connected, which can number from a few devices to several hundred, depending on the manufacturer. Large systems may have multiple SLCs, and SLCs are further divided into sub-groups through the use of fault-isolation modules.

Each device on a SLC has its own address, and so the panel knows the state of each individual device connected to it. Common addressable input (initiating) devices include smoke detectors, heat detectors, manual call points, notification appliances, responders, fire sprinklers systems input and switches ( flow control, pressure, isolate, standard switches).

Addressable output devices are known as relays and include relays (warning system/bell), door holder relays and auxiliary relays (control function).

Relays are used to control a variety of functions such as switching fans on or off, closing/opening doors, activating fire suppression systems, activating notification appliances, shutting down industrial equipment, recalling elevators to a safe exit floor and activating another fire alarm panel or communicator.

Mapping

Mapping is the process of activating outputs depends on specific inputs have been activated. As the improvement of technology, much more advanced techniques have become available, as each company has its own special invention to reach different types of client needs.

Zones

Zones are defined as dividing a building, or area into different sections, and placing each device in the building in a different location.

Groups

Groups are defined as multiple output devices such as relays. A single input is allows connect to only one output was programmed to a group that maps to two or many outputs or relays. This has comfort the installer to ease programming by having many inputs map to the same outputs and do changes all at once, and also mapping to more outputs than the programming space for a single detector/input allows.

Boolean logic

Main variation compare to other panels. It allows a panel to be programmed to work with complex inputs. For instance, a notification to fire department program within panel can be made by activating more than a device has activated.

ZP3 Analogue Addressable Control Panel

complies fully with EN 54 parts 2 and 4

Advanced sensing techniques

Extensive networking ability

Loop powered sounders

6.0 Conclusion:

After we discussed this assignment, we found that fire safety, fire suppression system and fire detection is imperative for every building such as commercial, high rise and institutional building.

The fire suppression methods that can be used besides water are foam, powder, carbon dioxide and wet chemical to extinguish fire. Water is use to control fire risk results from burn up of wood, paper, textiles and fabrics. Besides, fire extinguishers, wet risers, dry risers, pipe sprinklers system and hose reels also involve use of water as suppression methods. Besides, foam use in fire extinguishers are contain chemical and air filled bubbles where it suitable use for flammable liquids, wood and paper fire risk.

Similarly, dry chemical or powder contains sodium bicarbonate which efficient on fire risk cause by flammable gas and flammable liquids. Nevertheless, dry chemical extinguishers can cause corrosion to airplane, electrical system and electronic items. So it is not recommended to be used for all this purpose above. In addition, metal extinguishers contains of sodium chloride which is more suitable for metal fires. Moreover, for cooking oil and fat fire, we also can use wet chemical extinguishers (potassium acetate).

Equally important, the common types of fire detectors are heat detector, temperature detector, smoke detector and carbon dioxide detector. All detectors above have their significant roles in fire detection. Furthermore, in commercial and institutional building alarm system, as well as in high rise building, alarm systems involve coded panels, conventional panels, multiplex systems and etc.

In order to prevent fire and spread of fire, we need to eliminate the potential fire hazard. For safety measure, we shall keep flammable and combustible material away from potential ignition sources such as near power generation room or machinery which may easily get burned. Fire safety awareness need to be emphasized to every people as a tools to safe own self during fire occurrence. Furthermore, fire can strike a building at anytime without any notice to occupants, if occupant does not take any initiative against fire safety. Thus, they may fail to prevent building fire occur that would result loss of properties and human life.

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