Report On Construction Of Building Areas Engineering Essay

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1.1 This report presents a layout and earthwork calculations for a proposed project. The Proposed project of the undeveloped site (400m x 250m) consists of schools building, playing field, parking and others. The activities involved in this project are related to the setting out process. The setting out process is very crucial before embarking on the other parts of construction stages. It can be defined as the initial stage of construction in a site. The main factors taken into consideration during the setting out are location, distance/size, shape and elevation. Moreover, it involves the outline of the structure on the ground. Some factors that need to be considered when preparing a neat layout for building plans on sites are size of plot, neighbors, driveways, and sun direction. While the other facilities need to be considered also are electricity, water, sewers, communications and roads.

Next, we can plan the actual building layout area that we need to construct. However, in the site layout, some building or temporary facilities or temporary works need to be considered before the process of constructing the actual building. Besides, with the relevant data and information, the soil volume can be estimated by using any method developed to calculate volume, based on the nature of the project and the information in hand. Some of the methods widely used are Mass Haul Diagram, Average End of Area method or Grid Method. Then the region of cut and fill can be determined by comparing the proposed and level and existing level, also the volume to be disposed off or to be brought into the site can be determined. Once all that information are gathered and calculated, the anticipated cost for the earthwork costs can be calculated. A proper layout and excavation works ensure the smooth running of any construction project in civil engineering. Once they are completed as per required, it is safe to proceed with the other construction stages.

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The layout of the site, the volume calculations and the methods adopted to calculate will be presented in the following pages.

OBJECTIVES

2.1 To determine with propose by drawing the location of temporary access, perimeter road, temporary buildings and facilities

2.2 To come up with the completed actual project layout.

2.3 To determine the soil volume needed to be brought in or taken out of site by using any method of estimating.

METHODOLOGY

There are many methods of calculating volume. The method to be used in a particular project is governed by the information available and whenever a choice comes to play, it is the engineer's responsibility to choose the most reasonable method. The main methods widely practiced and whether their applicability in this project is viable or not will be clearly highlighted in following explanation

3.1 Average End Area Method

This method is applied in sites where length is much greater than width. Next, the cross-sectional areas are averaged and multiplied by the distance between cross sections to determine the volume. In this method, the volume between cross sections is calculated. Unlike in this project in which contours are given, average end area method is preferable when the cross sections are clearly shown.

The Average End Area method is expressed by the following equation:

http://docs.autodesk.com/CIV3D/2011/ENU/images/AEC/Civil3D/2011MadRiver/UsersGuide/AEA_method.png

V = volume

A1 = Area 1

A2 = Area 2

L= distance between the two areas

3.2 Mass Haul Diagram

Method of Mass Haul diagram is defined as the volume of material multiplied by the distance it is moved during construction. Where, each diagram consists of mass haul line (represent the free haul and overhaul volumes in cut and fill conditions along an alignment), and a mass haul view (view the grid on which the mass haul line is drawn).

The balance line is created at middle of the axis diagram. From that, we can determine the cut and fill value which are, when the mass haul line is above the balance line, shows that is region that materials need to cut. Whereas, when the mass haul like falls below the balance line, its shows that are region in which materials are fill. The use of mass haul in this project would not be a wise decision, because it is commonly used in highways or when Chainages are provided.

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Grid Method

This method is a technique for generating solution adaptive grids controlling cell volume and it was created for solving a two-dimensional drawing. Also, means as an analytic derivation showing the relationship of the grid control functions and the cell volume is presented.. Then it will be multiplied with the depth which had been calculated. The smaller the grid is the higher the accuracy.

EXISTENT INFORMATION

4.1 Contour Map

Contour lines showing the topography of the area are given to ease the visualization of the nature of the proposed site. The contour clearly shows existing ground levels. Since the proposed ground levels for the regions inside the site are known, it can be determined which region is fill and which is cut, simply by visual inspection of the contour.

.

ct1.JPG

Required formation of every feature to be built in the specified area.

5.1 PROPOSE BY DRAWING (temporary access, temporary building and others)

This area is planned to have a school, playing field, assembly area, canteen, parking, site office, worker accommodation, toilet, entrance and security.

Building layout without temporary building / facilities

ct2.JPG

PROPOSE DRAWING (location of temporary access, perimeter road, temporary buildings and facilities)

Road

Store

Construction Site

Guard

Canteen

Worker Quarters

Entrance

1

Parking

T

Site Office

2

LEGEND:

1 = Temporary water supply

2 = Electricity lines

T = Toilet

The proposed Drawing of the completed actual project layout

Road

School Buildings

Playing field

Guard

Canteen

Entrance

Assembly Area

Parking

Fencing

SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATING

5.1 SELECTED METHOD

In this project, it became thoughtful to use two methods of volume calculations at the same time because of the complexity of some parts of the area. Most of the calculations are done by using a kind of Grid method or simply Spot height method. In between any two contours are interpolated to establish a uniform grid of squares. Each square of the grid is then considered as the top end face of a vertical prism running from formation level up to the ground surface.

After the spot heights for the edges of every single grid were determined from interpolating any two contour lines, the corner heights that were used in the calculation were then found by subtracting the formation level from the spot heights.

Each corner height is multiplied by the number of times it appears as a Corner height. The volume is then calculated using the formula that will be shown and extensively used in the volume calculations of these projects. The formula can be directly used and it can be transformed to a tabular form, the latter is used this project.

Although Grid methods of establishing corner heights is the main method used in the calculations in this project, but there were some complications. There are some regions that fall outside the uniform squared grids that have irregular shape. This situation necessitated the use of graphical method in calculating some part of the volume. A transparent graph paper with 1mm2 squares was used to estimate the total area of those irregular portions by counting the number of boxes inside, keeping in mind the scale. The average height of fill or cut was estimated and the volume is then calculated as will be shown in the calculation.

5.2 WORKS OF SOIL VOLUME CALCULATION:

Given information :

Building

Elevation (m)

School

8

Playing field

5

Canteen, Parking, Others

6

Building layout

ct1 copy.jpg

LAYOUT WITH GRID

detail grid.JPG

VOLUME CALCULATION

From Spot heights

V = A/H [ dh Appearing once + 2 ( dh Appearing twice ) + 3 ( dh Appearing thrice) + 4 (dh Appearing four times) ] + Vextra

Where,

A = plan area of each grid square

Vextra =Volume outside the grid

Corner heights = ground level - formation level

CANTEEN

Formation level = 6m

Maximum ground level = 9.2m

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Minimum ground level = 6.1m CUT

Ground point

Prism corner height (hn)

No of squares occurs in (n)

Product ( hnx n )

A

3.2

1

3.2

B

2.3

2

4.6

C

1

1

1

D

0.5

4

2

E

0.4

1

0.4

F

0.5

1

0.5

G

0.3

2

0.6

H

0.1

2

0.2

I

1

2

2

TOTAL

14.5

Volume = 25 x 25 x 14.5/4 = 2265 m3 (CUT)

PARKING

Formation level = 6m

Maximum existing ground level = 9.3m

Minimum existing ground level = 6.3m CUT

 dh Appearing once = 0.4 + 1.3 + 1.4 + 3.3 = 6.4

 dh Appearing twice = 0.9 + 0.8 + 0.5 + 0.6 + 0.8 + 1.4 + 1.7 + 3.1 + 3 + 3.2 + 2 + 1.8

= 19.8

 dh Appearing 4 times = 0.3 + 1.1 + 0.6 + 2.7 + 2.2

=6.9

 dh

No of times Appeared (n)

Product (hn x n)

6.4

1

6.4

19.8

2

39.6

6.9

4

27.6

TOTAL

73.6

Volume = 25 x 25 x 73.6 / 4

= 11500 m3 (CUT)

PLAYING FIELD

Formation level = 5m

Maximum existing ground level = 11m

Minimum existing ground level = 5.5m CUT

 Single depth = 2.3 + 6 + 0.5 + 4 = 12.8

 Double depth = 4 + 1.5 + 0.7 + 2.7 + 3.1 + 3.5 + 3.9 + 2.7 + 1.5 + 0.6 + 2.6 + 3.1 + 3.3

+ 5

= 38.2

 Quadruple depth = 0.7 + 1.5 + 4 + 2.7 + 1.5 + 0.6

= 11

 depths (hn)

No of times appearance (n)

Product (hn x n)

12.8

1

12.8

38.2

2

76.4

16.5

4

66

TOTAL

155.2

Volume = 25 x 25 x 155.2 /4

= 24250 m3 (CUT)

ASSEMBLY AREA

Formation level = 6m CUT

 Single depths = 0.4 + 3.3 + 0.7 + 0.1

= 4.5

 Double depths = 1.4 + 2.3 + 2.5 + 1.6 + 1.5 + 1.2 + 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.4 + 1.3 + 1.6 + 2.2 +

2.8 + 3.1 + 3.2 + 2.1 + 1.2 + 0.2

= 28.9

 Quadruple depths = 1.1 + 0.8 + 0.7 + 2.1 + 1.4 + 1.5 + 1.7 + 1 + 1.4 + 1.3 + 1.2 + 1.8 +

1.6 + 0.9 + 0.8 + 0.5 + 0.4 + 1.1

= 21.3

 depths (hn)

No of times Appearance (n)

Product (hn x n )

4.5

1

4.5

28.9

2

57.8

21.3

4

85.2

TOTAL

147.5

Volume = 25 x 25 x 147.5 /4

= 23047 m3 (CUT)

SCHOOL

Formation level = 8m

Maximum existing ground level = 9.4m CUT

Minimum existing ground level = 4.6m IMPLIES FILL

Volume for the Fill Region

Volume within the grid

 Single depths = 3.1 + 3.4 + 0.2 + 0.5 + 0.4 + 1 + 0.3

= 8.9

 Double depths = 3.2 + 3.3 + 3.2 + 1.3 + 2.6 + 2.2 + 1.2 + 0.6 +

= 17.6

 Triple depths = 1.2 + 1.3 + 1.5 = 4

 Quadruple depths = 2.5 + 2.6 + 2 + 2.6 + 2.1 + 2 + 1.6 + 1.7

=17.1

 depths (hn)

No of times Appearance (n)

Product (hn x n )

8.9

1

8.9

17.6

2

35.2

4

3

12

17.1

4

68.4

TOTAL

124.5

Volume1 (V1) = 25 x 25 x 124.5 /4

= 19453 m3

Volume outside the grid ( by graphical method, two regions with different mean height)

Region 1

Number of squares counted = 120

Mean heights of fill = 0.5m

Volume2 (V2) = 120 x 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5

= 375 m3

Region 2

Number of squares counted = 52

Mean heights of fill = 1m

Volume3 (V3) = 52 x 2.5 x 2.5 x 1

= 325 m3

Total Volume of Fill (Vfill) = V1 + V2 + V3

= 19453 m3 + 375 m3 + 325 m3

= 20153 m3

Volume of Cut

Volume inside the grid

 Single depths = 0.1 + 0.4 + 0.8 + 0.7 + 1.3 + 1.1 + 1.1

= 5.5

 Double depths = 1.2 + 0.9 + 1.2 + 0.7 + 0.6

= 4.6

 Triple depths = 1.5

 Quadruple depths = 1.3

 depths (hn)

No of times Appearance (n)

Product (hn x n )

5.5

1

5.5

4.6

2

9.2

1.5

3

4.5

1.3

4

5.2

TOTAL

24.4

Volume1 (V1) = 25 X 25 X 24.4 / 4

= 3812.5 m3

Volume outside the grid

Region 1

Number of squares counted = 70

Average cutting height/depth = 1m

Volume2 (V2) = 70 x 2.5 x 2.5 x 1

= 438 m3

Region 2

Number of squares counted = 150

Average cutting height/depth = 0.5 m

Volume3 (V3) = 150 x 2.5 x 2.5 x 1

= 469 m3

Total Volume of Cut(Vcut) = V1 + V2 + V3

= 3813 m3 + 438 m3 + 469 m3

= 4720 m3

Total Cut Volume = (2265 + 11500 + 24250 + 23047 + 4720 )m3

= 65782 m3

Total Fill Volume = 20153 m3

Disposal = 45629 m3

7.0 ASSUMPTIONS AND EARTHWORK COST ESTIMATION

BUILT UP RATES

We hire excavators from specialist plant hirers with cost of hiring of Rm15/hr each (with operator).

Production output of the excavator =12m3/hr

Cost of hiring the excavator (with one operator) =RM8/hr

Salary of one banks man= RM2/hr

Total cost/hr =RM10

At an output of 10m3/hr, cost/ m3 =Rm10/12=RM0.8

Therefore, unit rate for excavation = Rm0.8/ m3.

Once the excavation works work is completed, the remaining earthworks will be conducted. In this project we assume a hauling distance of 3km.owing to that, to remove the surplus material and dispose, we hire 5m3 Lorries. The cost analysis for that work will be as follows;

Say, the loading of each 5m3 of bulk will take 1 labor 0.25hr/ m3

So, for 5 laborers, rate=1.25hr/ m3

Then, Cost of loading = 6.25 @ RM1/hr= RM 6.25

The time it takes the lorry to dispose the excavated material, will be assumed as follows:

Lorry standing loading =75min

Travelling to tip =15min

Tipping =10min

Return from tip =10min

Time for 5 m3 =110minutes

Cost of hiring 5 m3 lorry = RM6/hr

Therefore, for 110minutes or 1.8hr, the cost will be;

1.83hr x Rm6/hr = Rm10.98

Cost of disposing 5 m3= Rm10.98 + Rm6.25= Rm 17.23

Cost/ m3 = Rm17.23/5=Rm 3.45

So, UNIT RATE for disposal =Rm3.45/ m3

As soon as the excavation is complete, some of the soil, used as a fill and compacted. In that instance, we will use hand labors.

Rate= 1hr/ m3 per laborer (all in onetime, return, fill and compact)

Salary of 1 laborer=RM 2/hr

Therefore, cost/ m3 = 1hr/ m3 x RM2/hr = RM2

UNIT RATE for fill, and compact = RM 2/ m3

QUANTITIES

Cut Volume= 65782m3

Fill volume=20153m3

Volume to be disposed = 65782-20153=45630m3

Actual volume to be disposed= 45630m3 + Bulkage

Assume the soil type of the site is Stiff clay; therefore the Bulkage is 10%.

Actual Volume to be disposed = 45630+0.1(45630) =50193m3

Therefore, the earthwork costs based on the unit rates that have been determined will be as follows:

Excavation cost = 65782m3 x Rm0.8/ m3= RM52625

Cost of fill and compact = 20153m3 x RM 2.4/ m3 = RM48367.2

Cost of cart away and disposal =50193m3 x Rm3.45/ m3=RM173000

The results in this calculation have their limitations. The figures, specially the unit rates used in this calculation are not based on real costs; this may have a significant effect in the estimated cost. Moreover, not all earthwork activities costs are mentioned here.

It is worth mentioning that the amount of the soil to be disposed will be reduced if it is desired to level the surface to a level that filling surpasses the cutting volume.

8.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

8.1 In conclusion, proper layout and calculation of excavation cost are very crucial in construction process. Strictly, some consideration needs to be taken into account during these processes. This is due to avoiding costly error and misplacement of the finish building. From the calculation of soil of volume by using grid and graphical method, the amount of soil to cart away and disposed turned out to be 45630m3, but the actual volume of disposal is governed by the type of soil, because different soil types have different bulkage factors. The volumes calculated play a major role in calculating the cost to be allocated to perform that task.

As recommendation, we suggest few checking on estimating of soil volume with using different method. So, we can compare the data.