Remote Monitoring Intelligent Load Management System Engineering Essay

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Energy has turn up as an imperative prerequisite for the economic development of any country. Pakistan is currently facing a severe energy crisis. Energy can be in form of electricity, natural gas, oil or nuclear energy. Recently solar, wind or geo-thermal energy is also increasingly contributing to the energy needs of the world [01]. Currently Pakistan has installed capacity of 19500MW electricity generation. Out of which 8000MW of power is generated from Hydel resources while rest 11500MW is dependent on Thermal power plants which use natural gas, furnace oil, coal [01]. But due to numerous reasons Pakistan is not being able to produce electricity as per installed capacity. Table-01 describe the predicted scenario for the season 2009-2010 in the case if Pakistan can generated electricity at 100% of its potential [02].

Unfortunitively, according to PEPCO (Pakistan Electric Power Company) official press release and media reports (Oct 2010), with existing infrastructure Pakistan generation capacity for current fiscal year was never more than 12500 MW per day, whereas at present Pakistan needs at least 14500MW electricity per day in normal hours while about 15500MW of electricity is required in peak hours, whereas this electricity demand nearly touches the figure of 17500MW in summer seasons, and thus there is a constant shortfall in the range of 2000MW to 3000MW per day, while this shortfall reach to 5000MW in summer seasons [03]. In addition Pakistan power (energy) demand is expected to grow at annual rate up to 8%, so this energy short fall will become even worse in coming years. This shortfall of energy is being controlled thorough load management policy in form of load shedding, that is inadequately distressing industries, trade and way of people lives.

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There can be many reasons for this energy gap, mainly due to improper energy transmission & distribution mechanism that results into transmission & distribution losses. In Pakistan the transmission & distribution losses were recorded at 23.7% in September 2010 [03], in comparison to worldwide acceptable range of 7.6 to 11.4%. In addition improper monitoring of loads causes overloading, which results in variable voltage at the consumer part with possible risk of regular breakdowns of transformers along with feeders, so all feasible steps are needed to be espouse, i.e., to preserve energy at every levels, to reduce the transmission and distribution losses and use all accessible sources to improve energy production.

Currently, Pakistan government is considering importing energy from different countries and using native sources, such as solar power, Hydel, coal, wind, waste and other alternate and renewable energy sources, along with nuclear power plants for energy production. As the Pakistan economy is not as stabilized so different resources to increase generation can take some time and at the same time it is hard to afford or generate additional energy having weak economy situation so there is a strong need of some valuable research to help the government to develop some polices to sort out the energy crisis, as it can result in shutdown of industries leaving Pakistan government and economy in worst possible position. So there is a need of a systematic way of monitoring the transmission and distribution mechanism, along with proper control of accessories and equipments.

MOTIVATION

Since the 1950s, drift on the road to industrialization has typified economic expansion in the majority of emerging nations, by shifting towards industrialization instead of agricultural setup. The growing industrial sector unavoidably requires additional energy, mostly in form of electricity, oil and/or coal. Industrial plants are also facing continuous pressure for non-stoppable processing and manufacturing to counter the market demands.Table-02 illustrates the consumption of electricity in various sectors for the year 2009.

The uninterrupted power distribution is the utmost requirement for the processing & manufacturing the products. The enduring energy crisis has distraught Pakistan's industry along with its economy. A conformist guess suggest around 13% of the total manufacturing loss with around Rs. 130 billion of capital per annum [04]. The energy predicament is striking the industry at numerous levels: increase in energy tariff is pushing trade with squat margins and individuals organization or sectors which are incapable of generating their own power are to close down; spontaneous load-shedding effecting the productivity of workforce, and voltage fluctuations damaging machinery having millions of dollars worth. Thus there is valid need of the monitoring of power and its efficient distribution at every level to cope the current energy crisis.

SCADA for intelligent power monitoring & distribution

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Generally it is not possible to monitor the industrial processing units in extreme conditions of plants. This leads to improper maintenance causing breakdown. So there is strong need of a continuous monitoring of the plant and its environmental conditions from a remote location. Just like through SCADA systems. SCADA is a real time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipments, transmit & displays collected data at a central site for either control or monitoring purposes. Electric accessories utilize SCADA systems to sense current flow and line voltage to monitor the circuit breakers functionality and manage the power grid online or offline accordingly [05]. SCADA systems control and organize the equipment from a distant location by providing managing and monitoring of various remote stations data through single master location [06].

SCADA can be interfaced with industrial processing units through Programmable Logic Units (PLC). SCADA software along with hardware can be installed on a main computer known as master unit that typically is accommodated in a central office. Remote computers which about cell phones size are imbedded into components at substations by means of the areas they want to control vaguely. The SCADA software generates digital pulses encoded information with commands to remote computer systems in the field. At the end point remote computers receive the digital commands, process the request and transmit information back. This scenario is illustrated in figure-01.

Figure-01: SCADA based remote monitoring of an energy distribution system [07]

Power Distribution Automation (DA) system can be described as a system that permits electric accessories to distantly monitor, harmonize and operate in a real-time mode. Figure-02 illustrates the main components of distribution automation in any power transmission and distribution system. In a distribution automation system, variety of quantities (e.g., voltage, temperature, switch status, system condition etc) are recorded in the station or field at the distribution transformers and feeders, using a data acquisition device known as Remote Terminal Units (RTU) [08]. These system parameters are transmitted on-line to the base station (33kV substation) by diverse communication mediums. The transmission medium could be selected from wireless (e.g., microwave, satellite, and radio) or wired (e.g., telephone line, fiber optic cable, power line carrier). Through Graphic User Interface (GUI) the observed statics of the fields are processed at the base station as per defined parameters by specific system. In the case when any system quantity crosses the predefined limits, an audible indication in form of an alarm is automatically generated through operator intervention. Specific control action (either opening or closing of the circuit breaker or switch) is initiated by the operator and transmitted from the 33kV base station by means of the communication channel to the remote terminal unit.

Figure-02: Typical power Transmission & Distribution Scenario with Distribution Automation components [09].

LITERATURE SURVEY:

In order to counter the energy demand, especially power shortage and voltage fluctuation in industries various countries has started the energy management program not only at corporation level but government of the different counties has been taking serious steps. In developed counties like USA, UK, Denmark, Switzerland energy management program has been already is in implementing phase under government umbrella. China and India are also in pipeline for industrial energy reforms. There has been in extensive research on Industrial energy management especially since last decade. Various techniques are becoming popular with the development of instrumentation and communication technologies. Most of the countries who are implementing energy management programs are utilizing power distribution automation and demand side management (DSM) concepts in industrial sectors. Most of the energy management programs adopted by developed countries are based on various approaches and techniques. Some of them are as follows:

According to [10] in August 1993 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment publish a report on "Industrial Energy Efficiency". This report outlines the energy use in industry along with the arguments that how government policies can affect energy usage. In this report various trends and prototype in industrial energy use are evaluated, energy-efficient industrial equipment and practice are also illustrated. In addition various factors that can influence corporate investment in efficient technologies are also investigated.

In [11] research proposed and offers an energy management for electricity industry. They implemented the Load management through ripple control. Their research was based on ripple control which utilizes Power Line Carrier technology, where signals were infused into the system at the summit of mass supply and flow, similar to the power, to every end in the intact network. With the availability of power, a receiver can collect and decode control instructions thus carries switching functions.

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In [12] researcher focuses to discover the dynamic technology and policy preferences which can realize extensive reduction in electricity demand. This research was circumstances based approach to classify prudent and feasible energy efficiency and load management policies. The research was supported by methodological analyses through hourly based load simulation model to study the time and temperature perceptive outcomes on electricity demand escalation by different demand side management circumstances.

In [13] research work focuses how bylaw and policies offers Demand-Side Management benefits to an emerging economy by changing Power System". This research work claims that Demand-side management programs can diminish or delay investment in generation, transmission and distribution capacity, decrease fuel expenditure, and perk up environmental quality. It was concluded that DSM can be proved a speedy, economical and efficient approach to address power famine without hurting productivity.

According to [14] research at University of California, Berkeley; discussed the effectiveness of "SCADA/EMS/BMS in Electricity Industry". His idea was based on Monitoring, Generation control, Network analysis of resources using SCADA.

According to [15], report was prepared as component of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia to provide companies in nine Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam) with information on existing mechanisms to assist them by financing in energy efficiency projects. It also guides to policy makers by uplifting various mechanism which can increase energy efficiency with minimum investment, as these polices can be opted by mentioned countries in their perspective states.

In [16], research project was based on "Client's Sub-Station SCADA and PLC Platform". The PLC's were connected to the SCADA Control server through an industrial Ethernet network. The Energy management functions and Interlocks were programmed in the 8 no's of EMS PLC nodes using IEC61131-3 programming tool and the SLD as per the specification developed on the OEMs SCADA.

According to [17], a report was prepared and published by Aimee McKane, Lynn Price, Stephane de la Rue du Can Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with title "Policies for Promoting Industrial Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries and Transition Economies". This report discuss the lack interest in of industries in their energy efficiency policy making, despite that the industrial energy efficiency plays a significant impact on economy and climate change mitigation.

Cost effectiveness and atmospheric friendly role of Demand Side Management in Industry is discussed in [18].

Through [19] a brochure was published focusing European power industries. This brochure offers an outline of the general practices presently realized to control electric loads in corporative industries. It claims that load management is a feasible outfitted concept in most circumstances, as it can endow with for significant economic payback to energy consumers.

In [20] a strategic plan which focuses various parameters like Fault Location, Minimize Losses, Volt/Var Control, Transformer Load Management and Integration of Distributed Resources is focused. This research work focuses on the communications and information infrastructure to support the smart grid.

Importance of efficient electricity distribution to minimize distribution losses to counter the supply shortfall is highlighted in [21].

Carl La Place in [22] carried the research which was based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) technology. According to research the information provided by AMI systems can be used to support improved decision making by system operators, engineers, maintenance managers, and other persons throughout the enterprise. The AMI communication infrastructure should be leveraged to link feeder devices to distribution management systems. This will greatly improve the visibility of the distribution network, and will enable the electric utility to optimize the performance of field equipment.

RESERCH OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research is to design an intelligent energy management framework for the industrial plants that should be based on remote monitoring of power distribution automation system through D-SCADA (Distribution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition).

The research work will be focusing on following agendas:

To understand power distribution mechanism in particular industrial plant.

To identify the factors which can results in distribution losses to industrial processing plant.

To investigate the possible techniques to minimize the distribution losses in industrial plant.

To develop a monitoring and fault detection model.

To design a framework leading to efficient power distribution mechanism.

To exploit use of Power Distribution Automation (DA) software's, capable of remote monitoring, remote controlling, fault capturing, alarm generation, etc.

To explore Distribution Network Simulator, this must be supported by various communication systems and protocols, capable of analyzing the data acquired by Distribution Automation software, tuning of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU).

To purpose the strategies that can help Pakistan to turn out to be an energy surplus state in coming times with zero additional generation.

PROPOSED METHODOLOGY:

Our proposed energy management methodology will be based on data acquisition from multiple sources to manage the system status and condition as per internal requirement of any industrial plant. Proposed methodology will be based on Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management (DSM) to formulate the route:

Power distribution mechanism will be covered from power generation station up to Distribution networks, encompass with overhead lines, cables, transformers, and switchgear to make easy the transfer of electricity to consumers' premises from the transmission system . Power which is normally generated at 11-25kV in a power station, is stepped-up to 400kV, 220kV or 132kV as obligatory to transmit it over to long distances through a transmission network of high voltage lines and delivers the power into a common power pool called the grid. The grid is connected to load centres through a sub-transmission network (33kV or 66kV) lines, where the voltage is stepped-down to 11kV for power distribution to load points (localities, industrial areas, villages, etc.,) through a distribution network of lines at 11kV and lower. At these load points, a transformer further reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V through Low Tension (LT) feeders to industrial plants.

Electrical power losses in distribution systems vary with abundant factors mostly based on system configuration, like intensity of losses through distribution lines, transformers, insulators, capacitors, etc. These factors can pop up two major types of losses, namely as technical losses and non-technical losses. Technical losses also known as natural losses occur due to actions internal to the power system, principally due to power dissipation in electrical system components such as transmission lines, power transformers, distribution transformers, distribution lines etc. Technical losses are based on two losses namely as variable losses, fixed losses. Variable losses or copper losses crop up mainly in lines and cables Fixed losses or iron losses, occur mainly in the transformer cores and do not vary according to current. Non-technical losses are caused by actions external to the power system and mostly occur due to loads and conditions affected by surroundings. Non-technical losses can be due to Electricity theft in a particular system, Non-payment by consumers, liability in technical losses computation etc.

In order to increase the system efficiency at distribution network various techniques can be implemented which can be equipped by voltage controlling devices. Possible techniques can be adopted through load Shaping, demand side management (DSM), voltage maintain with distribution automation (DA), voltage regulators, shunt/series capacitors, tap change transformers, network restructuring, circuit balancing, circuit management, power factor correction.

My research work will be focusing demand side management and voltage control by Distribution Automation. DSM can be achieved through peak voltage clipping, strategic load conservation, valley filling, strategic load growth, load shifting, flexible load shaping etc.

Various factors including transmission lines distances, feeders overloading, voltage fluctuation, temperature level can causes possible system losses, which can be monitored through SCADA network. SCADA network can monitor the system status but based on system parameters data can be acquired and alarms (set point) be setup to diagnose system faults.

By successfully understanding the power distribution mechanism and overcoming on system losses an efficient power distribution network can be designed through Demand side management. The possible designed frame work as shown in figure- 03 can assist to reduce the overall electrical power losses, thus improving system reliability.

Numerous power distribution automation software's are available which can run in real time simulation mode. My research simulation work will be utilizing software package that must have features like real time data acquisition, remote monitoring, remote controlling, fault capturing, alarm generation etc.

For reliable and secure power distribution network operation, Distribution protection devices and an automation system are crucial, which must be tested and verified before being put into operation. However, it is not realistic to test and verify the devices and system in a real distribution network, so a real distribution network simulator can be utilize instead of this. My proposed network simulator will be supported by various communication systems and protocols for the testing and verification of distribution protection devices and the automation system along with tuning of Remote Terminal Units (RTU).

Research will be focusing to analyze the robust DSM strategies for future plans on the basis of application load simulation frame work, leading design of load simulation based programs by considering specific application along with accessories patterns, temperatures, voltage variations, power distribution mechanism etc. On the understanding of possible saving potentials through DSM strategies based on total consumption reduction and peak load limitation effects some polices will be purpose to help the government of Pakistan to make power reform not only in industrial processing but also at residential and commercial levels.

Policies Recommendation to Government of Pakistan to implement Power Reforms in country

Problem DefinitionElectricity consumption structure & characteristics

DSM options

Technologies,

Behavior changes

Electricity supply system & Energy market condition

DSM experience in other countries

load simulation & Application Scenario Analysis Energy efficient technologies

Industrial processing plants

Environmental performance & fuel consumption

Possible parameters variations

DSM Policy Formation Scio-economic issues

Identification of Robust DSM options

Existing Technological Limits

Environmental & conditional problems

DSM Policy Feasibility Analysis Identification of implementation barriers

DSM policy Recommendations

Identification of Implementation advantages

Identification of DSM technology interfacing

Figure-03: possible DSM framework and policies options

Potential Research Outcomes (as expected) :

Potential research outcomes are estimated as under:

Understanding of system losses mechanism there by possibility of reducing waste of energy by controlling system losses.

Possible control over the load management along with voltage variation, thus by providing constant voltage, minimizing the chances of tripping or any sort of unusual breakdowns.

Remote monitoring of equipment thus avoiding any fault before it gets matured.

In case of any fault occurrence within system, on the spot diagnosis and correcting possibility, thus providing greater control over production.

Improved product quality which yields increased production at less energy per unit cost.

Possible Reduction in energy consumption by implementing demand side management framework and polices.

Reduced capital requirements by successfully implementing intelligent energy management system