The shipping, shipbuilding and shipbreaking industry tightly bound to each other as one single giant industry. In some level, the shipbreaking industry can not only satisfy the need while developing the shipping and shipbuilding industry, improve the shipping safety, but also can form an industrial group led by shipbreaking and followed by recycling and processing recourse from the breaking ship. This industrial group has an important and unique function in solve job crisis, increase GDP and improve economy.
However, the shipbreaking industry has always been concerned as a very dangerous industrial activity and has severe damage to the environment. In the past few decades, many countries and organization have bring forward their opinions to solve safety, health and environment issues appeared in the shipping breaking industry, however, these opinions and solutions are usually random, lack of consistency and without an uniform standard. Apart from that, many countries do not have well established regulatory system; the shipbreaking industry has a potential threat to the safety and environment. How to effectively control and manage shipbreaking industry has become an important issue to all the countries.
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The global financial crisis has strongly impact the shipping business, causing the market shrinks and decrease in the shipping fees and lease price. In order to reduce the pressure in the cost, increase the liquidity, many ship owners send their ship with long operational life to the breaking factories. In 2009, 1014 ships were bought by the shipbreaking factories. Total DWT with 31.5 million ships send to breaking, this number is twice as 2008 and highest in the history. The shipbreaking business has never been so prosperous. Thus, the attention in the safety, health and environment issue of the shipbreaking business has inevitable reached a new level.
Nowadays, most of the shipbreaking factories are located in the countries with low technology and cheap price such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But with the increase of the attention in the global environment, the shipbreaking business and facilities must also follow the step of sustainable development. <The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> was established under such circumstances. This convention is aimed at ensuring that ships, when being recycled after reaching the end of their operational lives; do not pose any unnecessary risk to human health and safety or to the environment.
In May 2009, a Diplomatic Conference held in Hong Kong, China, adopted a convention which was developed with input from IMO Member States and non-governmental organizations, and in co-operation with the International Labor Organization and the Parties to the Basel Convention on the Control of Trans boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.Â This Hong Kong Convention intends to address all the issues around ship recycling, including the fact that ships sold for scrapping may contain environmentally hazardous substances such as asbestos, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, ozone depleting substances and others. It will address concerns about working and environmental conditions in many of the world's ship recycling facilities.
2. Environmental Requirements
2.1 Introduction of Hong Kong Convention
<The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> includes:
21 articles, establishing the main legal mechanisms;
25regulations, containing technical requirements, divided in four chapters:
Requirements for ships (regulations4-14)
Requirements for ship recycling facilities (regulations15-23)
Reporting requirements (regulations24-25)
7appendices, with lists of Hazardous Materials, forms for certificates etc.
The convention established standard covered majority fields of the shipbreaking industry, such as managing shipbreaking, examining ships, authorizing shipbreaking facilities, exchanging information, investigating illegal activities, technical support and cooperation.
The convention can be considered as four major parts:
The entire lifecycle of the ship start from design, construction, operation and finally disassemble, must not causing damage to the environment.
The shipbreaking facilities must operate under condition where satisfy safety and environmental protection.
Establish legitimate shipbreaking system
Ships must hold two new certificates: <International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials> and <International Ready for Recycling Certificate>.
Thus, the life cycle of ships under The Hong Kong International Convention can be sum as the table shown below:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Design and construction
Forbidden or limited material use
Must not choose materials forbade in the convention, written statement must be provided
Materials forbade in the convention must not being used on ship
Inventory of Hazardous Materials
If limited materials being used, inventory part 1 must be provided
Inventory part 1 must be provided
Preparation of recycle
Ship owner must provide Inventory part 2 and part 3, help shipbreaking factory set up a plan
Examine and approve
Inventory part 1 must be examine and approve, <International Certificate on Inventory of Hazardous Materials> will be issued
If ship being repaired or equipment being replaced, change must be made in Inventory part 1
All three parts of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials approved and <International Ready for Recycling Certificate> will be issued
2.2 The environment protection requirement of Hong Kong Convention
1. Definition of ship
"Ship" means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating or having operated in the marine environment and includes submersibles, floating craft, floating platforms, self-elevating platforms, Floating Storage Units (FSUs), and Floating Production Storage and Offloading Units (FPSOs), including a vessel stripped of equipment or being towed. "Gross tonnage" means the gross tonnage (GT) calculated in accordance with the tonnage measurement regulations contained in Annex I to the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, or any successor convention.
This Convention shall only apply to ships of more than 500 GT or to ships operating throughout their life only in waters subject to the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly.
2. Applicable range of the convention
Once the country sign the convention and become one of the states parties, ships within the applicable range of the convention can only be recycled within their own country or other states parties.
If any other countries wish to recycle their ships in the facilities belong to states parties, states countries must taking into account relevant and applicable standards, recommendations and guidance developed by the International Labour Organization and the relevant and applicable technical standards.
3. Open information of ship recycle status
Each states party must annually report to the IMO the authorized shipbreaking factories in the country, list of recycled ship and list of nullification of ship registration.
4. Control of hazardous materials
The convention justified clearly hazardous materials included in the appendix 1 such as asbestos and hydro chlorofluorocarbons shall not being used in the design, construction, operation and maintains of the ship. Hazardous materials included in the appendix 2 can be used, but a list of <Inventory of Hazardous Materials> must be provided. The hazardous materials included in the appendix 1 and 2 will constantly updated according the information provided by the International Maritime Organization.
Ship within the applicable range of the convention must carry the <Inventory of Hazardous Materials> at any time for the convenience of shipbreaking factory to collect information about the type and quantity of hazardous materials on the ship. Such list must be prepared before new build ship start operate. Operated ship must prepare such list within five years after the convention become valid. Ship will be recycled within fiver after the convention become valid shall only provide such list before recycling.
The <Inventory of Hazardous Materials> must include three parts:
Part 1 indicates the location and quantity of hazardous materials in the ship facilities. This information will update regularly in the ship's life time.
Part 2 indicates the waste and hazardous materials produced by the ship while operate.
Part 3 indicates all the hazardous materials belong to the stored cargos.
Part 2 and part 3 of the list shall only be prepared before recycling of the ship.
Before the ship being sent to the shipbreaking factory, the company will arrange the final voyage of the ship and set up a pre-clear procedure to minimize the remains of cargo, fuel and any other waste materials. This can help minimize the shift of hazardous materials.
6. Inspection from harbor
The inspect officers from the harbor have the right to exam the passing ships to ensure complying of the convention. Generally, the jurisdiction only include check the <Inventory of Hazardous Materials>. However, if the ship failed to carry the certificates or under the circumstance where there are clear evidences indicate the ship exceed the standard of the <Inventory of Hazardous Materials>; the inspect officers have the right to perform further inspection.
7. Authorization of ship recycling facilities
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Each Party shall establish legislation, regulations, and standards that are necessary to ensure that Ship Recycling Facilities are designed, constructed, and operated in a safe and environmentally sound manner followed by the regulations of this convention.
Each Party shall establish a mechanism for authorizing Ship Recycling Facilities with appropriate conditions to ensure that such Ship Recycling Facilities meet the requirements of this convention.
8. Ship recycling facility plan
Ship owner must help shipbreaking factory to prepare a Ship Recycling Facility Plan before the ship being recycled. This plan should include details in policies ensuring workers' safety and the protection of human health and the environment. Type and quantities of all the hazardous materials generated in the recycle process and how to handle such hazardous materials shall be include in the plan as well.
9. Inspection and certification
This convention states high standard for ship examination and certification. The first inspection, certificate replacement inspection, additional inspection and final inspection of the <Inventory of Hazardous Materials> can only processed by approved organizations. <International Ready for Recycling Certificate> shall be issued only after these inspections.
10. Inspection on compliance status
Parties shall endeavor to co-operate for the purpose of effective implementation of, compliance with and enforcement of this convention; include establish effective regulatory system ensure compliance of the convention.
3. Assess of the Hong Kong Convention
3.1 The significance in the adoption of the convention
<The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> was designed to control and monitor ships from cradle to the grave. It has brought the standard of safety, health and environment protection to a new level. The adoption of this convention incarnates two significant meanings: First, unlike many guideline documents created before by IMO, ILO and BC, this convention is mandatory. Second, this convention is not only targeting the shipbreaking industry alone. Not only this convention justified how to recycle ships safely and without damaging the environment, it also require ship to be designed and operated under the condition of safety and environment protection. From design, construction, operating till the final recycling, each link must strictly follow the regulation of hazardous materials control.
In addition, the convention also requires establishing an effective implement system include follow the regulation of shipbreaking business which will inevitably affect other ship related industry.
3.2 Current issue of the Hong Kong Convention
1.Entry into force
At the end of the diplomatic conference held in Hong Kong 2009, representatives from 59 different countries signed the final document. However, this document does not represent the final adoption of the convention. This convention will become valid 24 months after three conditions: ratification by 15 States, representing 40 per cent of world merchant shipping by gross tonnage, combined maximum annual ship recycling volume not less than 3 per cent of their combined tonnage.
The time taken for the convention to entry in force is uncertain. The second and third condition is difficult to achieve. Especially calculate the annual ship recycling volume accurately is a big issue. Thus, for the convention to be valid, new statistical standards for calculating the annual ship recycling volume should be established.
2. Mandatory inspection issue
Mandatory inspection is the most controversial and difficult problem encountered during the making of the convention. Two suggestions were discussed:
Establish mandatory inspection system to ensure the states parties follow the regulation. Inspection will be processed by the international inspection group formed by IMO. States parties should fully cooperate with and provide necessary information and documents. The report will be classified only offered to the inspected party, inspection group and secretary-general of IMO. Report can be offered to the other states parties with the permission of the inspected country after the inspection.
System and procedure established by IMO only to deal with the state party encountered Violations.
<The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> targets the shipbreaking company instead of ship or harbor; it is truly a major breakthrough than many other conventions established before. However, at present, most shipbreaking business is running by authorized organization from each country. If start mandatory inspection, there will be conflict between IMO and authorized organizations, causing interference problem.
After discussed such matter, the mandatory inspection system were considered too difficult to establish and proceed. Thus, in the MEPC57 meeting, this provision was deleted and how to ensure the states parties follow the regulation will be discussed in the future.
3. Shipbreaking reporting system
A ship owner shall notify the administration in due time and in writing of the intention to recycle a ship in order to enable the administration to prepare for the survey and certification required by this convention. Shipbreaking plan must be approved by the administration.
In the IMO conference, there were many arguments about the 24th regulation in the convention. America, Japan and some other countries believe that shipbreaking activity can be started after reporting to the administration. No approve from administration is required. But countries like China, India and Bangladesh believe that administration must give permission to the shipbreaking activity.
It is clear that approving before starting is more satisfies the environment protection requirement. Start breaking ship without approve will no doubt increase the damage to the environment. After discussion and compromising, both standards can be used according to the situations within the states party. This regulation gives the right to the states parties to be flexible, each country can choose whether the approving from the administration is required before shipbreaking or not.
4. Compliance from ship and shipbreaking factory
According to the convention, the control of the ship and shipbreaking factory before recycling the ship is ideal. However, there is still much difficulty in proceeding.
1. Compliance status of the shipbreaking factory: the convention states that if any other countries wish to recycle their ships in the facilities belong to states parties, states countries must taking into account relevant and applicable standards, recommendations and guidance developed by the International Labor Organization and the relevant and applicable technical standards. If these countries decide to recycle their ships in the Non-parties' factories, regulations in the convention shall not be force to comply with. Such action will be used by Non-parties' ship to avoid convention.
2. Compliance status of the ship: according to the requirements in the convention, states parties must recycle their ships within their own shipbreaking factory or any other authorized factories belong to the other states parties. However, this cannot prevent states parties selling their ships to the no-parties. Should ship owner decide to sell, this will avoid the control from states parties to the ships.
4. Environment requirements for ship recycling
1. Regulation for shipbreaking location
The Hong Kong convention does not state how to choose the location of shipbreaking factory in detail. It only stipulates that ship must be recycled in the factories within the states parties. In fact, in the draft of the convention, many countries argued about whether the location should be limited. Some countries believe restrict the ship to be recycled within the states parties is an action of trade discrimination. However, if the location are not restricted, ship owner may send their ship to the non-parties' factory to avoid the regulation without fulfill its obligation. Thus, after consideration, this regulation was kept in the final convention.
2. Regulation for establishing shipbreaking factory
The convention states clearly the administration of the states party has the responsibility to inspect and approve the construction of the shipbreaking factory that meets the meets the requirements of safety, health and environment protection. The convention also requests each states party to be legislated and establish relevant legal system to ensure the shipbreaking factory to be officially authorized and meet the requirements in the convention in basic facilities, managing, technique and any other area of the shipbreaking factory. Shipbreaking factory must be approved by the administration and processes relevant certificates, create shipbreaking plan and establish emergency response system.
3. Regulation for shipbreaking facilities and antifouling facilities
The convention also established requirements for the shipbreaking facilities, including the control and approve of facilities, management and removal of the hazardous materials, environment protection plan for the shipbreaking facilities, accident prevention, etc.
Official authorized shipbreaking factory must establish managing system which shall not cause any safety and health issue. They should also establish procedures and introduce relevant technique for the purpose of ship recycling. These management systems, shipbreaking procedures and recycling technique shall causing minimum damage to the environment.
4. Regulation about contamination prevention and waste management
The convention required: in the shipbreaking stage, factory must notify the administration in written notice; shipbreaking can be started if the administration do not unequivocally opposed to the activity. Hazardous materials must be confirmed, marked, cleared and stored before further action. After breaking of the ship, a statement of completion shall be issued by the ship recycling facility and reported to its competent authorities. This convention is much more comprehensive than many countries' own regulation. States parties can improve their legal system based on this convention.
5. Regulation about worker safety and training
The 22nd regulation in the convention specifically defined that the shipbreaking factory must ensuring the availability, maintenance and use of personal protective equipment and clothing needed for all Ship Recycling operations; training programmers are provided to enable workers to safely undertake all Ship Recycling operations they are tasked to do; and ensuring that all workers at the ship recycling facility have been provided with appropriate training and familiarization prior to performing any ship recycling operation. It is clear that the convention has attached great importance to the safety and health.
6. Regulation for ship certificates
According to the convention, shipbreaking factory must be approved by administration and entitled with relevant certificates; before recycling a ship, ship owner must inform the administration and obtain the <International Ready for Recycling Certificate>; ship breaking plan must be approved by administration; ship breaking factory must also inform the status of ship recycling to the administration.
This convention intends to create an equitable international competitive environment for the shipbreaking industry. Shipbreaking Company should have a clear understanding of the current situation; improve the technology for shipbreaking in the purpose of safety and environmental protection; self-inspect in accordance with the convention to meets the condition in shipbreaking facilities, managing system, ship recycling technique and staff training. Thus, achieve a great progress in the shipbreaking industry.
5. Introduction of Inventory of Hazardous Materials
The major effect of <The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> is unifying the regulation and standard for the ship recycling activates to create a safe and healthy environment for the shipbreaking industry. However, the shipbreaking industry is not the only party which has a huge impact on. Due to the listing of the inventory of hazardous materials, and the regulation in the convention states clear that each states partyï¼š
1. Shall prohibit and/or restrict the installation or use of Hazardous Materials listed in inventory of hazardous materials on ships entitled to fly its flag or operating under its authority
2. Shall prohibit and/or restrict the installation or use of such materials on ships, whilst in its ports, shipyards, ship repair yards, or offshore terminals, and shall take effective measures to ensure that such ships comply with those requirements.
The shipbuilding industry has inevitable affected by the convention. The inventory of hazardous materials included several materials which will cause severe damage to the environment.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties. They all have in common their eponymous, asbestiform habit: long, thin fibrous crystals. The prolonged inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious illnesses, including malignant lung cancer, mesothelioma (a formerly rare cancer strongly associated with exposure to amphibole asbestos), and asbestosis (a type of pneumoconiosis). Long exposure to high concentrations of asbestos fibers will cause health problems. This is most common among the miners of asbestos, since they have the longest exposure to it.
Asbestos became increasingly popular in the shipbuilding industry because of its sound absorption, average tensile strength, its resistance to fire, heat, electrical and chemical damage, and affordability. Approximately 100,000 people in the United States have died, or will die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building.
The dangers of asbestos are now well known all over the world. The European Union has banned all use of asbestos and extraction, manufacture and processing of asbestos products.
5.2 Ozone-depleting Substances
Ozone-depleting substances means controlled substances defined in paragraph 4 of article 1 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, listed in Annexes A,B,C or E to the said Protocol in force at the time of application or interpretation of this Annex.
Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's Polar Regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole.
Since the ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (280-315 nm) of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth's atmosphere, observed and projected decreases in ozone have generated worldwide concern leading to adoption of the Montreal Protocol that bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethane. The Ozone depletion has been suspected as the cause of a variety of biological consequences such as increases in skin cancer, cataracts, damage to plants, and reduction of plankton populations in the ocean's photic zone may result from the increased UV exposure due to ozone depletion.
5.3 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
A polychlorinated biphenyl is any of the 209 configurations of organochlorides with 2 to 10 chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl, which is a molecule composed of two benzene rings.
PCBs were widely used as dielectric and coolant fluids, for example in transformers, capacitors, and electric motors. Due to PCBs' toxicity and classification as a persistent organic pollutant, PCB production was banned by the United States Congress in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001. Concerns about the toxicity of PCBs are largely based on compounds within this group that share a structural similarity and toxic mode of action with dioxin.
The toxicity of PCBs had been known since before its first commercial production through research done by producing companies themselves in the 1930s; however, these conclusions were dismissed as negligible.
The toxicity of PCBs to animals was first noticed in the 1970s, when emaciated seabird corpses with very high PCB body burdens washed up on beaches. Since seabirds may die far out at sea and still wash ashore, the true sources of the PCBs were unknown. Where they were found was not a reliable indicator of where they had died.
Individuals can be exposed to PCBs through breathing in contaminated air, consuming contaminated food, and by skin contact with old electrical equipment that contain PCBs. Once exposed, some PCBs may change to other chemicals inside the body. These chemicals or unchanged PCBs can be excreted in feces or may remain in a person's body fat or other organs for months.
5.4 Anti-fouling compounds and systems
Anti-fouling compounds and systems regulated under Annex I to the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 2001 (AFS Convention) in force at the time of application or interpretation of this Annex.
According to the Annex I in the AFS Convention, the anti-fouling compounds are defined as organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems. One of the most commonly used compounds is Tributyltin, (TBT).
Tributyltin compounds are a group of compounds containing the (C4H9)3Sn moiety, such as tributyltin hydride or tributyltin oxide. Tributyltin uses include wood preservation, antifouling pesticide in marine paints, antifungal action in textiles and industrial water systems, such as cooling tower and refrigeration water systems, wood pulp and paper mill systems, and breweries. Tributyltin oxide is the most widely used compound in TBT-containing commercial products.
TBT compounds are considered toxic chemicals which have negative effects on human and environment. Tributyltin compounds are moderately to highly persistent organic pollutants that biomagnify up the marine predators' food net. One common example is leaching of TBT from marine paints into the aquatic environment, causing irreversible damage to the aquatic life. Tributyltin has also been linked to obesity in humans, as it triggers genes that cause the growth of fat cells.
6. History of IMO
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, was established in Geneva in 1948, and came into force ten years later, meeting for the first time in 1959.
Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations with 170 Member States and three Associate Members. The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping.
IMCO was formed to fulfill a desire to bring the regulation of the safety of shipping into an international framework, for which the creation of the United Nations provided an opportunity.
According to Master Mariner John Christianson of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, when IMCO began its operations in 1958 certain other pre-existing instruments were brought under its aegis, most notable the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (OILPOL) 1954. Throughout its existence IMCO, renamed the IMO in 1982, has continued to produce new and updated instruments across a wide range of maritime issues covering not only safety of life and marine pollution but also encompassing safe navigation, search and rescue, wreck removal, tonnage measurement, liability and compensation, ship recycling, the training and certification of seafarers, and piracy.
6.2 Primary IMO conventions and progress
The greatest concern object for IMO is the environment issue cause by ship transport industry. Through many years of study and development, IMO has introduced four major regulations to protect the environment.
MARPOL stands for <The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships>. In July 1997, IMO established MARPOL 73/78 the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, and 8 resolutions. The original MARPOL Convention was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force. The current Convention is a combination of 1973 Convention and the 1978 Protocol. It entered into force on 2 October 1983. As of 31 December 2005, 136 countries, representing 98% of the world's shipping tonnage, are parties to the Convention.
The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both accidental pollution and that from routine operations - and currently includes six technical Annexes. Special Areas with strict controls on operational discharges are included in most Annexes. Such emissions as ozone-depleting substances, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide and particulate matters needs to be limited and preventing further damage to the atmosphere.
BWM stands for the <International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments>. It was adopted on 13 February 2004 and will be entry into force 12 months after ratification by 30 States and representing 35 per cent of world merchant shipping tonnage.
The <International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments> include 22 articles and <Regulations for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments>. Invasive aquatic species present a major threat to the marine ecosystems, and shipping has been identified as a major pathway for introducing species to new environments. The problem increased as trade and traffic volume expanded over the last few decades and in particular with the introduction of steel hulls, allowing vessels to use water instead of solid materials as ballast. The effects of the introduction of new species have in many areas of the world been devastating.
The Ballast Water Management Convention, adopted in 2004, aims to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organismsÂ from one region to another, by establishing standards and procedures for the management and control of ships' ballast water and sediments.
3. Hong Kong Convention
The third major convention established by IMO is the <The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships>. As discussed before, this convention is adopted on 15 May 2009 and will be entry into force 24 months after ratification by 15 States, representing 40 per cent of world merchant shipping by gross tonnage, combined maximum annual ship recycling volume not less than 3 per cent of their combined tonnage.
<The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> includes 21 articles, establishing the main legal mechanisms and 25regulations, containing technical requirements. This Hong Kong Convention intends to address all the issues around ship recycling, including the fact that ships sold for scrapping may contain environmentally hazardous substances such as asbestos, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, ozone depleting substances and others.
4. GHG Emissions
GHG stands for greenhouse gas. It is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.
After years of development, international shipping is still the most energy efficient mode of mass transport and has relatively low carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions compare to other transport methods. However, due to the large base of the ship quantity, shipping industry still contribute significant amount of carbon dioxide emission. According to the Second IMO GHG Study 2009, which is the most comprehensive and authoritative assessment of the level of GHG emitted by ships, international shipping was estimated to have emitted 870 million tones, or about 2.7% of the global man-made emissions of CO2 in 2007. IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) has given extensive consideration to control of GHG emissions from ships:
In November 1998, issue of the reduction of GHG emission was raised in the MEPC's 42nd meeting.
In July 2003, the draft of <IMO Policies and Practices related to the Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships> was approved in the MEPC's 49th meeting and adopted in the IMO 23rd meeting in November 2003.
At MEPC's 59th meeting, (July 2009) the Committee agreed to a package of technical and operational measures to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping aimed at improving the energy efficiency for new ships through improved design and propulsion technologies and for new and existing ships, primarily through enhanced operational practices. Four major measurements was included in the pack:
1. Interim guidelines on the method of calculation of the Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships (EEDI) (MEPC.1/Circ.681);
2. Interim guidelines for voluntary verification of Energy Efficiency Design Index (MEPC.1/Circ.682);
3. Guidance for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) (MEPC.1/Circ.683);
4. Guidelines for voluntary use of the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) (MEPC.1/Circ.684).
MEPC's 60th meeting agreed by majority that MARPOL Annex VI which submitted by Japan, Norway and America was the appropriate vehicle to make the technical and operational measures mandatory.
In September 2010, at the 61st MEPC meeting, nine members (all parties to MARPOL Annex VI) requested the Secretary-General to circulate proposed amendments to MARPOL Annex VI to make mandatory, the EEDI for new ships and the SEEMP for all ships in operation, both of which have previously been disseminated for voluntary use.
7. Development history of the ship
7.1 Early stage of ship
1. The origins of ship
Human have already discovered the difficulty of traveling through rivers thousands of years ago. If the water is shallow and the flow is slow, people can walk through it. But if the river is deep and rapid, crossing the river by foot becomes extremely dangerous. Later on, some people discovered by holding branches, they can float through these rivers. Thus, people start to intentionally bind the branches, make them into raft; hollow out the inside of the wood, make it into canoe; these are the earliest form of the ship.
2. Ancient paddle boat
After the canoe, people start to put paddles on the ship to control the ship, prevent it from shifting and give power to it. This can effectively improve the safety of the ship. The three-tier paddle warship built by Athenians 480 BC has the speed of 8 knot in the still water.
3. Ancient ocean-going sailboat
With the development in science and technology, human begin to explore the ocean. In terms of technology, the sailboat is far more advanced than the old man-power ship. It equipped with large mast attached by canvas with huge surface area. This design can maximum the wind power on the ocean used by the boat. Compare to the old ship, these ships are bigger, stronger and travel with much faster speed.
4. Early stage Steamship
Follow the step of the industry growth, the industrial revolution has started. After years of research, the British inventor James Watt, improved the design of steam engine, make it more reliable and efficient. In 1807, the American engineer Robert Fulton developed the first commercially successful steamboat, "the Clermont" using the idea of steam engine power. In 1835, the British inventor, Sir Francis Pettit Smith invented the screw propeller. After research, people discovered the screw propeller can give more power to the ship than paddle, thus screw propeller gradually replace paddle in the ship design. In 1839, the first steamship with screw propeller "SS Archimedes" built in Britain.
7.2 Modern ship
The history of the ship start from chopping branches, through the stage of wood board, come to the age of steel after 1879, world's first steel ship appeared. The power of the ship also evolved from man-power, wind power to the mechanical power. In 1903, Russian ship "Vandal" and French ship "Petite-Pierre" became the very first ship equipped with diesel engines. In 1947, the British first modified the gas turbine from aircraft and replaced the diesel engine for the boat "Cartaric", the host power reached 1837 kilowatts, and speed reached 3600 turns per minutes. This equipment only weight 2.08 kilograms per kilowatt, far more efficient than the others. After 1960s, the combined system of steam turbine and gas turbine was used in many large-scaled military naval ships. The discovery of nuclear power has created a new approach for the powering of the ship. In 1954, the American naval built the first nuclear power submarine, "USS Nautilus SSN-571", it has the power of 11025 kilowatts and speed of 33 kilometers per hour. Now days, these nuclear power devices have only been used on the military naval ships because of the financial condition. From 70s~80s, many countries start to design a new type of ship powered mainly by mechanical power also associated by wind power in the purpose of energy saving.
With the development of the maritime technology and the global energy crisis, environmentally friendly and energy saving has become more and more important for the design of the ship.
8. New Concept Design for Ships
Since the beginning of The International Maritime Organization established, many conventions and regulations has been established by IMO to reduce the damage from ship related industry to the environment. With all the regulations have been entry into force, there's no doubt that IMO has strongly affect the design and construct of the ships. However, all the conventions have been established so far are most likely to be guide lines that tell how ships should reduce their damage to the environment. Until 20 May 2010, IMO's Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) has instigated an historic change in the way international standards for ship construction is to be determined and implemented in the future.
At MSC's 87th session on that day, an adoption of so-called "goal-based standards" (GBS) for oil tankers and bulk carriers by the MSC, means that newly-constructed vessels of these types will have to comply with structural standards conforming to functional requirements developed and agreed by the Committee. This means that, for the first time in its history, IMO will be setting standards for ship construction.
The first introduction of "goal-based ship construction standards" was in IMO at the 89th session of the Council in November 2002, through a proposal by the Bahamas and Greece, suggesting that the Organization should develop ship construction standards that would permit innovation in design but ensure that ships are constructed in such a manner that, if properly maintained, they remain safe for their entire economic life. The standards would also have to ensure that all parts of a ship can be easily accessed to permit proper inspection and ease of maintenance. The Council referred the proposal to the 77th meeting of the MSC in May/June 2003 for consideration.
In May 2004, at the MSC's 78th session, the MSC commenced detailed technical work on the development of goal-based ship construction standards. The Committee agreed to establish a five tier system initially proposed by the Bahamas, Greece and the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS), after a comprehensive general debate of the issues involved in the development of GBS. The structure of the GBS is:
Tier I - Goals
This is the safety goals related to the ship structure. Generally speaking, a series of safety goals must be establish before ship design and construction, and these goals must be satisfied during the design and construction stage of the ship.
Tier II - Functional requirements
Set up a series of functional requirements for ships which has to be satisfied.
Tier III -Verification of compliance criteria
This generally means how to verify if the standards have been satisfied, which divided into two parts: first part is verification process, include submit verification report, examining the report, approving the report, maintain verification and professional opinions; second part is information and document, include requirements and evaluation of the verification standard.
Tier IV - Rules and regulations for ship design and construction
Detailed requirements developed by IMO, national Administrations and/or recognized organizations and applied by national Administrations, and/or recognized organizations acting on their behalf, to the design and construction of a ship in order to conform to the goals and functional requirements.
Tier V - Industry practices and standards
Industry standards, codes of practice and safety and quality systems for shipbuilding, ship operation, maintenance, training, manning, etc., which may be incorporated into, or referenced in, the rules and regulations for the design and construction of a ship.
The goal-based standards adopted at this session reflect tiers I to III. Tier IV established by classification society and tier V established by ship industry.
8.2 Major effect on the ship concept design by Hong Kong Convention
The major effect of <The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> is unifying the regulation and standard for the ship recycling activates to create a safe and healthy environment for the shipbreaking industry. Also, it established certain standard of materials that should be concern during the construction of the ship. With the help of goal-based standard of ship construction and other conventions established by IMO, ship design industry has experiencing a completely evolution towards a new era in terms of environment protection for the design.
The most common change here will obviously come to material improvement. With the listing of the inventory of hazardous materials, many harmful materials used in the ship construction before, now will gradually fade away in the ship building industry. Replacements for these materials will surly cause less damage to both the environment and the health.
The second major improvement will be the powering system for the ships. Currently in the world, the most common powering system for the ships is still diesel-powered system. As discussed before, these diesel-powered systems will produce large amount of carbon oxides which combine with other emissions such as ozone-depleting substances, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide and particulate matters can cause huge damage to the atmosphere and causing greenhouse effect. Designers have developed many new powering systems for the ships which do not requiring heavy use of diesel in the ship, such as solar powered system and wind powered system. These major improvements for the powering systems can significantly help reduce the damage to the environment.
Another major threat to the environment is the ships' ballast water. Ballast water is used to help ships to maintain stable during the traveling without any cargo on board. These ballast water are basically sea water which put into ship before departure. This sea water will be released into ocean once the ship reaches its destination. However, if the sea water contains bio hazard from the outset, such as new species, it will causing biological Invasions which can severely damage the ocean environment at the destination. Due to this reason and with establish of the <International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments>, designers also developed many new structures of the ship to help reduce the using of ballast water in order to minimize the environment damage.
8.3 New concept designs for ships worldwide
1. NYK Super Eco Ship 2030
This is concept ship was designed by Nippon Yusen Kaisha Lines from Japan. Designed cargo capacity is 8000 TEU, using well developed modern ship construction technology, to achieve lighter self-weight and decreasing resistance in the water in order to reduce the engine requirements. Ship equipped with sails, ship's deck covered with solar cell board to generate wind power and solar power. Propulsion power can be increased through use of LNG-based fuel cells, solar cells, and wind power, all of which will lead to a reduction of CO2 from 195 gram to 62 gram per container carried, 69 percent lower than the current standard.
2. Auriga Leader
This ship was also designed by Nippon Yusen Kaisha Lines from Japan. Auriga Leader is a car carrier owned by Nippon Yusen used for shipping Toyota cars from Japan to USA. It is the first ship in the world to be partially propelled by solar power. Ship equipped with 328 solar cell board (about 250 meter squire), maximum output power is 40 kilo watts, which is nearly 10% of the total power of the ship. The experiment of the solar cell on the ship shows the total capacity of generated electrical energy in 2600 hours is 32300 kilo watts. Maximum output power is 43.6 kilo watts, can save fuel tons and reduce carbon dioxide emission 22 tons.
ISHIN-I is a car carrier concept ship designed by Mitsui O.S.K. Lines from Japan. It is mainly designed to reduce carbon dioxide emission. ISHIN-I has two main features:
(1) While in port, and during loading and unloading: Achieve zero CO2 emissions
Further develops the use of renewable energy for conventional car carriers. Realizes zero emission goal by adopting large-capacity solar-power panels and rechargeable batteries.
(2) Under way: Reduce CO2 emissions by 50%
Ship adopts multiple new technologies to greatly reduce the vessel's burden on the environment.
One of the most important improvements is the use of PBCF. The Propeller Boss Cap Fins (PBCF), which enhance propulsion efficiency by effectively breaking up the strong hub vortex that forms behind a rotating propeller, increasing fuel efficiency by about 3-5%. The PBCF has been patented in 12 nations and is in use on more than 2,000 vessels. This one improvement can potently reduce the CO2 emission by 17%.
4. Non-ballast water technology
Ship's ballast water is one of the major environment threats. The Japan Ship Technology Research Association is the leading organization in the non-ballast water technology research. The idea is to design a ship structure which do required ballast water to maintain stable while traveling without any cargo on board. The Japan Ship Technology Research Association focuses on change the shape of the ship in order for it to reach enough draft without ballast water. The association comes up with a design which builds the ship body into V shape and abandons the ballast water tank. Compare to the traditional ship body shape, with small increase of the ship length, a large increase in the ship width and lateral inclination design for the ship bilge can ensure the ship reach enough draft. Although this technology is not mature yet, the idea of non-ballast water is no doubt the pioneer in the environment protection and will be achieve in the future.
5. Green Dream Project
"Green Dream" is a project developed by Korean company: STX Corporation. Given strengthening environmental regulations including gas emissions and rising fuel costs worldwide, STX established a task force team earlier last year and started research and development to develop eco-friendly and highly efficient ships. STX Offshore & Shipbuilding has developed a new concept ship based on eco-friendly technology and is ready to open up new markets.
STX Offshore & Shipbuilding announced on September 21 that it has successfully developed a "GD (Green Dream Project) ECO-Ship". The efficiency of propellers was elevated by reducing the number of propeller blades to three. It installed additional wings for energy saving to improve fluid flow on the stern of the ship. Besides, it adopted more advanced eco-friendly technology such as WHRS (Waste Heat Recovery System) which converts thermal energy in the hot waste gas from engines into electric energy. According to the report, this ECO-Ship can reduce NOx and SOx emission by 95% and reduce CO2 emission by 45%. Overall it can achieve a 50% less fuel costs by increasing fuel efficiency by 41%.
6. HERCULES & HERCULES-B Project
The I.P. HERCULES Integrated Project (High Efficiency R&D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) is a large scale cooperative project on marine engine R&D supported by the European Commission and the Swiss Federal Government. The HERCULES Project developed new technologies to drastically reduce gaseous and particulate emissions from marine engines and concurrently increase engine efficiency and reliability, hence reduce specific fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and engine lifecycle costs.
The project HERCULES-B is the Phase II of the HERCULES programme, conceived in 2002 as a 7-year strategic R&D Plan, to develop the future generation of optimally efficient and clean marine diesel power plants. The project is the outcome of a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer Groups, MAN Diesel and WARTSILA, which together hold 90% of the world's marine engine market. The principal aim in HERCULES-B is to reduce fuel consumption of marine diesel engines by 10%, to improve efficiency of marine diesel propulsion systems to a level of more than 60%, and thus reduce CO2 emissions substantially. An additional concurrent aim is towards ultra-low exhaust emissions (70% Reduction of NOx, 50% Reduction of Particulates) from marine engines by the year 2020.
7. The Norway-based FellowSHIP project
The Norway-based FellowSHIP project is a research project focus on hybrid energy system. The project is aim to develop a new type of energy system to reduce the carbon emission. Entire project has divided in to three stages:
Stage 1: (from 2003-2005) research of possible use of hybrid energy system on ship.
Stage 2: (from 2005-2009) design and manufacture the hybrid energy system, carry out certain experiment onshore and on the sea.
Stage 3: (from 2010- ) start to design and manufacture hybrid energy system for megawatt level ship.
On December 10th 2009, The Norway-based FellowSHIP project installed a fuel cell integrated with a battery pack on a marine engineering supply vessel "the Viking Lady" which has the power of 320 kilo watts, thus state the experiment of the hybrid energy system. The project claim this new energy system can reduce emissions by up to 50% and boost fuel efficiency by up to 30% over conventional maritime propulsion systems.
Quantum is a concept ship designed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) from Norway. The ship is designed to transport more cargo with reduced fuel consumption. After completion, the ship will be operational for the next 25-30 years. Ship is 272.3 meters in length and beam length at the water line is kept at 42.5m and beam at the deck level is 49m, this design aim to increase the capacity of cargos on board, maximum cargos on board is 6210 TEUs. Energy efficiency will be achieved with the ship's design of a low-block, coefficient and slender monohull with high fuel efficiency. The design of the ship will reduce the operating expenditure, capital expenditure and fuel cost by 14%. It is also expected to reduce CO2 emissions by 35%.
Triality is also a concept ship designed by Det Norske Veritas (DNV) from Norway. The new concept tanker has two high pressure dual fuel slow speed main engines fuelled by LNG, with marine gas oil as pilot fuel. The generators are dual fuel (LNG and marine gas oil) while the auxiliary boilers producing steam for the cargo oil pumps operate on recovered cargo vapors (VOCs). Triality use V shape ship body design and new cargo arrangement to achieve non-ballast water tank on board. Compare to the traditional oil powered vessel, Triality can reduce CO2 emission by 35%, NOx emission by 80%, SOx and particulate matter emission by 95%. It also claims to achieve an energy consumption reduction by 25%.
10. Planet Solar
Planet Solar is the largest solar-powered boat in the world. The vessel was designed by LOMOcean Design, built by Knierim Yachtbau in Kiel, Germany. This boat is covered in over 500 square meters of solar panels rated 93 kW and completely powered and operated by solar power. Planet Solar is 31 meters in length, 15 meter in width and 7.5 meters tall. It can reach a maximum speed of 25 kilo meters per hour and carry 50 people on board. First launched on 31 March 2010 and in May 2012 it became the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe.
11. MS Beluga Skysails
Designed by German company Beluga and Skysails, the MS Beluga Skysails is one of the latest innovations in the heavy cargo ship market to address increasing fuel prices has been a return to wind power. The ship is 132m long with deadweight 9,821t, a beam of 15.8m, a draft of 7.73m, and an air draft of 37.50m to keel. Ship equipped a huge kite to help drive the ship. The kite has an area of 160 square meters and reduces fuel consumption by 15-30%. By using the skysail system, it not only can reduce fuel consumption but also reduce the CO2 emission at the same ratio. The designer believes if all the cargo vessels in the world install this system, it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 146 million tons per year.
Eoseas was developed as part of STX Europe's Ecohorizon project, which aims to develop practical solutions for constructing more environmentally friendly and sustainable ships. Eoseas is a 305 meters long and 60 meters wide five hulled ship. Ship installed 5 sails which covers 12.440 mÂ² surfaces. It uses natural gas for operating new generation generators electrically feeding the ship and supplying the heating and cooling needs. Ship also equipped with solar panels can store solar power feeding the ship. Designer use double skin for the ship, act as a natural air conditioning system. At mean time, ship can recycle water and use the energy recovered from the waste treatment. An air cushion installed under the main hull, optimize hydrodynamics characteristics. With all the special environmentally friendly design, this ship can significantly save energy and reduce the CO2 emission by 50%.
With the increasingly stringent of the environmental protection requirements, more and more shipping and ship building companies start to focus on the development of the environmentally friendly ship. For many years, the International Maritime Organization has adopted many conventions and regulations intended to create and lead the global shipping industry towards an environmentally friendly future. The establishment of <The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships> is a further step in the entire progress. The convention not only regulated in detail for ship recycling and further restricted the emission of certain substances, but also limited the hazardous materials to be used while constructing the ship. Thus, for the first time in the IMO history, the entire life circle of the ship has been fully completed in the favour of environmental protection.