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As the title mechanical storage of electrical energy clearly indicates the project deals with the concept of transformation and storage of energy from one form to another form that are mechanical to electrical forms of energies. These type of applications was usually seen in some of the wind up products such as windup radio and windup torch, which stores mechanical energy in a spring and when it release will powered an electrical generators. The main purposes of the project was improving the energy storage system for much more time and reducing the energy usage utilities and saving of the electrical powers.
Fig 1: The block diagram of mechanical storage of electrical energy system
Mechanical Input System:-
The mechanical input devices produce the energies with the help of giving some external kinetic energies, the input devices it can be any form of applied kinetic energy like hand crank shaft or wind-up technology instruments. The main concept of this procedure was it should be a hand powered inputs mechanism.
The storage systems will store and supply the electrical energies when it was required. The main concept was to store the energies for a long time. It can be either any type of storage devices like batteries or super capacitors.
Electrical Output System:-
The electrical output devices will utilise the energies from the energy storage system and use that for the loads like glowing of LED's that was applied in this project.
Background of project
The background of the storage system of electrical energy was that it works and operates under the conditions of giving input supply to the system that will generates electric energy and stores it through any storage mechanism. Previously these types of technologies were applied in the wind-up radios and torches. These types of equipment's works under the conditions of giving some hand powered wind-up to the system. The energies are generated through dynamos and it transmitted in to the output of the system.
Generally, the mechanical storage of electrical energy system was implemented in wind-up torch that works with the help of hand powered input energy. With the help of hand crank shaft mechanical energies are created and transform that into electrical and then transmitted in to the storage system of like batteries and when it was required it will supply to the outputs of the system. In this concept generated energies are directly connected to the storage system like batteries and because of the limited characteristics of the batteries it was unable to store the same amount of energy for a longer period of time. So these energies can't be used and stored for sufficient time period as per the requirement of the application.
Aim and objectives
The main aim of the project was design and implementation of a hand powered mechanical storage of electrical energy system. This could in the form of a spring or flywheel or even a super capacitor. These types of technologies usually seen in some of wind-up technologies like wind-up radio and wind-up torches which generate the energies from hand powered inputs.
This project can be divided into two convenient aims which were given below.
Study and implement to clockwork mechanism to obtaining the more efficient system outputs.
Obtain the hand powered mechanical storage of electrical energy system.
The project deliverables plays main key role in order to improve and understanding the aim and objectives of the project. The deliverables for this particular work can be listed as below.
To study the mechanism and different energy conversion systems.
Study and implementation of hand powered energy storage system.
Implementation of clockwork mechanism system.
Demonstration of system using methodology of storage system.
Discuss and implementation of energy calculations.
CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM ANALYSIS
2.1 Basic Principal of the project:-
The basic principal and concept of the project was to store the electrical energy by giving of a hand powered mechanical inputs to the system and improving of the storage system efficiency as well as outputs of the system.
The working principal of the system was to store and utilization of the energies from the hand powered mechanical input to the system by without using of a power sources like power supply or batteries.
Fig 2: The block diagram of mechanical storage system
2.2 The Background of the Project Design System
The background design information of the mechanical storage of electrical energies conducted with the help of small electrical generators like dynamos and small storage systems like either capacitors or batteries.
The working principal of mechanical storage of electrical energy project was mainly consists of the generation of hand powered mechanical energies and storage system
Mechanical Energy Generation:-
The basic concept of the energy generation system was by giving of some hand powered mechanical inputs to the system, energies are induced and it will store into the storage system. These types system were basically implemented with the help of wind up technologies like rotating of hand crank shafts, energies are induced with the help of dynamo and it will store into the storage system.
Fig 3: The block diagram of mechanical energy generation system
Energy Storage System:-
In the energy storage system, with the helping of storage devices energies are going to store and utilising when ever it's required. The possible applications of storing the energies are widely used in capacitors and batteries. The main aim of the storage system was to store the input energies for much more time and utilising those energies for whenever it's required.
Fig 4: The block diagram of capacitor Fig 5: The block diagram of battery
2.3 The investigation of the project
The investigation of the project was mainly consisting of study and implementing the different types of mechanical energy generations and storage systems.
2.3.1 Mechanical Energy Generation System:
A mechanical energy was a combination of kinetic and potential resultant energies by producing of a forces or moment or releasing of machine components. The basic classifications of mechanical energies are classified into the follows.
Kinetic Energy System:-
The energy which possesses due the motion of the objects called as kinetic energies. These kinetic energies states in terms of speed and mass of the objects.
Kinetic energy = 1/2 (mass) (speed) 2
= 1/2 mv2
These types of kinetic energies are generally consisting in various forms like vibration due to the vibration motion, rotational motion, and translational motion due to the translation from one place to another place.
Gravitational Energy System:-
The gravitational energies also one of the type of mechanical energy and it mainly depends on the weight of the object. The gravitational energies are mainly consist product of the weight and height of the system.
Gravitational Energies = weight Ã- height
The gravitational force occurs between the two objects based on the mass of the object and distance between the objects. Newton's gravitational law calculate the size of the gravitational forces between the two object masses.
Elastic Energy System:-
One of the most common known energy it was, when it was stretch or compresses something energies are stores in the system. The amount of the force must exert and it directly proportional to the amount of stretch or compression.
Spring force = spring constant Ã- amount of stretch or compression
Calculation of energy stored in a spring depends on the mechanical work to the process of stretching the spring.
Energy transferred = force applied Ã- distance stretched
2.3.2 Types of Energy Storage System
The energy storage was a device or physical body that are going to store the energies for performing the operations when ever it's required. It will store all forms of energies like potential and kinetic energies. The some of the main energy storage systems are discussed in the below.
Electrical Storage system
Mechanical storage system
Electrical Storage System:-
The Electrical energy storage system was a process of storing the energy in a form of electrical, the conversion of electrical energy from a network power into a form in which it will stored until the requirement. These energy storage systems mainly divide into the following types.
Superconducting Magnetic Storage System
Mechanical Storage System:-
To applying of a mechanical input to the system energies are induced and store in a form a mechanical storage system. These types of storage system are mainly classified into the following types.
Flywheel Energy Storage System
Compressed Air Energy Storage System
Electrochemical Storage System:-
The process of stored chemical energies are converted into an electrical energies are known as electrochemical storage system. The electrochemical storage systems are generally classified into the following types.
2.4 The Main Components:-
The expected components for generating and storing of the energies are Wind-up technology, Dynamo, Bridge Rectifier, Capacitors, and LED's.
The Wind-up Technology:
The wind-up system was a small technology which consists of a hand crank shaft for rotating and generation of energies. By applying of a hand powered rotations either in both directions energies are going to generates in the system.
The dynamos are also known as an electrical generators and it consist of a number of gears. With the help of Clockwork mechanism the generator will work and produce the energies to the system.
The Bridge Rectifier:-
The bridge rectifier was a device, which are used to convert the ac voltages to dc voltages, In this concept bridge rectifier are going used for supplying the powers either in both directions to the system.
The capacitor was electronic devices which are used to store the maximum power and maximum time period for driving the system requirements.
The LED's are semi conductor light sources which are like to show resultant of the output by glowing of a bulb or light.
2.5 The Basic Calculations
The basic calculations for involved in this system mentioned below.
To finding out the applied voltages Î”V = Vmax - Vmin
Vmax - Maximum voltages
Vmin - Minimum voltages
To find out the applied currents Iavg = Imax - Imin
Imax - Maximum current
Imin - Minimum current
To find out the total capacitance in farads
Ct = Iavg Ã- Î”t/Î”v
Iavg - Average current
Î”t - Change in time
Î”v - Change in voltage
To find out of the no of capacitors in series
Ns = Vmax / Vcmax
Vcmax - Maximum capacitor voltage
To find out of the no of capacitors in parallel
Ct = C Ã- Np / Ns
Np - No of capacitors in parallel
Ns - No of capacitors in series
2.6 The Design Specifications:-
The Wind-up Technology:
The wind-up system was required to provide the power supply constantly 9 volts to drive the system for long period.
The Bridge Rectifier
To operating the system the bridge rectifier capable to drive the assumed average input and output voltages are 7 volts.
The dynamos are required to produce the power supply from minimum 6 volts to maximum 9 volts to the system.
To designing the capacitors, it's required to knowing the total number of capacitors.
Total no of capacitors = no of capacitors in series Ã- no of capacitors in parallel.
The minimum speed and brightness 2.3years
The medium speed and brightness 1 year
Stepper Speed 2LED's/sec to 2revolution/sec.
LED Current = 24ma pulses
LED Voltage drop = 3.2 at 24ma
CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
The possible solutions of the mechanical storage of electrical energy was studied and suggested with the using concept of wind-up energy generation along with serious regulator and the another method of pulse wide modulation system and also discussing the existing methodologies of flywheel energy system and boost converts.
Suggested Windup Technology.
Possible methods for mechanical storage of electrical energies.
Flywheel Energy System
Series Regulator Circuit
Pulse Width Modulation System
Wind-up Technology System
The working principal of the windup technology consist with the help of dynamo, the dynamos are also known as an electrical generator. The generator requires spinning rotors to generate energies. With the help of hand powered windings the spinning of the rotor was generated. The rotor was made up of copper turnings which produce magnetic fields to the system. The fixed magnetic field generates electricity in accordance with faraday's law of induction. The generated energy can be sent from the winding mechanism to the system components.
Fig 6: The block diagram of windup technology
Flywheel Energy System
The best and simple procedure for mechanical storage of electrical energy was flywheel storage system. With the help of windup system by giving of hand powered mechanical inputs to the system flywheel will rotate and stores the energies and it connected LED's for showing the outputs of the system. Its generally consist of electromechanical storage system. In this system energy was stored in the form of kinetic energies of rotating mass, and then it will release the resultant of electrical output energy.
Fig 7: The Block Diagram of Mechanical to Electrical Energy Storage System (With the Concept of Flywheel Energy Storage System)
In the above flywheel mechanism, applying of small mechanical inputs to the system flywheel will rotate rapidly and energies are generate and stores in the form electrical energies at the flywheel energy storage system.
The Boost Converter System
With the help of boost converts the mechanical storage of electrical energy concept was implemented, the boost converters also know as step-up converters because with the help of step-up circuit only the output voltages are greater than the input voltages.
Fig 8: The Block Diagram of Mechanical to Electrical Energy Storage System (With the using of Current Booster Circuit)
In the booster circuit system with the help of windup technology electrical energies are generated and it supply to the rectifier for rectifying the input voltages and with the help of current booster circuit stepping the input currents and these currents are regulated with the help of regulator circuit and it directly supply to the system.
The current boosters are constructed with the help of the single transistor and parallel connected resistors for stepping up the input currents and delivering of the higher output currents to the system for driving of the Led's circuits.
The Series Regulator Circuit
The mechanical storage of electrical energy was implemented with the using of series regulator circuit. With the help of windup technology generates the electrical energies and it supply to the bridge rectifiers.
The main functioning of the bridge rectifier in this circuit was to transmitting the power either in directions of clockwise or in anti clockwise directions. The generated electrical energies are rectifies with the help of rectifier circuit and it going to store in the storage system of capacitors. Then series regulator circuit take place between this section for improving the input voltages and current followings of the system.
Fig 9: The Block Diagram of Mechanical to Electrical Energy Storage System (Concept of Series Regulator Circuit)
The series regulator circuit consist of a simple transistor along with serially connected zener diode and resistor. The transistor works as a voltage follower to the system and the functioning of the zener diode was allows the current flow in the forward as well as reverse direction when the voltages are above certain values. These energies are directly connected to the led's circuits for showing the output of the system.
The Pulse Width Modulation System
The pulse width modulation was a technique to varying the amount of power delivered to an electronics component. The pulse width modulation mainly implemented in analogue and digital circuits. By using of pulse width modulation, the system cost and consumptions of power are reduced.
With the help of Pulse Width Modulator concept the mechanical storage of electrical energy was implemented. In this section the main usage of PWM circuit was to improving the efficiency of the output currents without losses. The electrical energies are implemented with the help of windup technology and it going to store in the storage system of the capacitors. The pulse width modulator system was introducing in this section for improving of the system power as well as the brightness of the lights.
Fig 10: The Block Diagram of Mechanical to Electrical Energy Storage System (Concept of PWM Circuit)
The pulse width modulation switching frequencies are much faster than the applied voltage sources. The main advantages of the pulse width modulation are switching losses are very low and it will delivers the total power without any losses. When a switch was typically close there are no voltage conduct and when the switch was in ON stage there was no voltage drops across the switch.
Discussion of Solutions:-
The Pulse Width Modulation Circuit was more compact to achieving the mechanical storage of electrical energy system, because it will operate under at any type of analogue and digital circuits. The main advantage of PWM circuit in this concept was it delivers the total powers without any losses and it also improving the brightness of the LED's lighting systems.
It will operate and deliver maximum output powers
It will improves the efficient of the powers
The system cost and consumption of power was less
The Series Regulator Circuit was efficient and simple circuit to implementing of the mechanical storage of electrical energy system. With the help of zener diode power was delivering to the system either in both directions. By using of regulator circuits in this concept the output voltages and brightness of led's much higher.
It will regulate and delivers the higher voltages
The system cost was very less
The Boost Converter Circuit improves and stepping the input currents for providing the efficient outputs. With the help of current booster circuit the mechanical storage of electrical energy was implemented. The boost converters provide the maximum output currents to the system for driving the system with the help of current booster circuits.
It provides maximum outputs
The cost of the system was very less
The stepping currents are very high.
The Flywheel Energy systems are provides the higher energies to the system. With the help of this concept energies are store for a long period in the capacitors. With the help of this concept storage system of capacitors and brightness of lighting system are implemented.
The system cost was little expansive
It will generate high currents.
The brightness of LED's are high
Considerations of Suitable Solution
The Pulse Width Modulation system was more suitable concept for implementation of mechanical storage of electrical energy system. The possible considerations are take place during the investigation of the system.
The design and working principal was simple
It will provides the maximum powers to the system
The power losses are very less.
It will improve the brightness of LED's.
The system cost was less
Discussion of possible Components
The suggested possible components during the investigation of the problem solutions found the following components.
The Hand Crank Shaft
This was only possible solution for generating the hand powered mechanical energies to the system. With the help of hand powered rotating the crank shaft continuously and then energies are generate and transmitted to the system.
The Bridge Rectifier
The bridge rectifiers are like to use for supplying of stabilized powers to the system for either in both direction of clockwise or anticlockwise system.
The Super Capacitors
The super capacitor works as a storage system because its stores the energies for long time periods and it can utilise when ever it's required.
The Pulse Width Modulation Circuit
The pulse width modulation was a technique for operating the analogue circuits. By using of this system the output of the powers much higher and brightness of the led's also increased.
The Counter/Decoders Circuits
With the help of counter circuits the LED's are going to will flash in the sequence order to save the power. It will improve the brightness of the LED's along with the PWM circuit.
CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM IMPLEMENTATION
The implementation of the mechanical storage of electrical energy was conducted in the two methodologies for getting the efficient and compatible system outputs.
The series regulator system
The pulse width modulations system
2.1 The Series Regulator System
The mechanical storage of electrical energy was implemented with the help of series regulator system. This system consists of a bridge rectifier and voltage regulator for regulate and improving of the input currents.
The Schematic Design of Mechanical Storage of Electrical Energy using with the Series Regulator System:
2.1.1 Description of Circuit Diagram:
The Electronics System:
In this section of mechanical storage of electrical energy system was contain a bridge rectifier, a series pass zener regulator, a super capacitor for storing the energies and a switch (while in power generation the system energies must me in not utilize and it stores in the storage system itself). When the handle of the crank shaft was turned, the DC generator produces about 6 volts Dc.
The Bridge Rectifier:
The bridge rectifiers are usually used to convert AC voltages to DC voltage. In this case, the generator produces a DC voltage. This allows the connection of the wired from the generator to the PCB in either direction. The bridge rectifier connects to the series regulator.
The Series Regulator:
The series regulator made up of Transistor Q1, Resistor R7 and Zener Diode ZD. The transistor was connected as a voltage follower. The zener diode fixes the base of the transistor to 4.3 volts. This causes the emitter to be about 0.7 volts less than the zener diode's voltage.
The Super Capacitor:
The transistor's voltage was 3.6 volts, and it was connected to the super capacitors. Each time the handle was turned, the super capacitor was charged up. The more the handle was turned, the more energy was induced and it stored in to the storage system of super capacitors.
2.1.2 Designing of the PCB
ARES Designing for PCB
2.1.3 Construction of the Printed Circuit Board
The main purpose of the printed circuit board was locating of the components on the PCB. The copper tracks are on the underside of the PCB. The outline of the tracks was visible through the PCB. These will act as a guide to help locate the components onto the PCB.
When all the components are in place, check them carefully against the printed circuit board.
Once all the components are correctly located, turn the PCB over and bend the component leads outwards, away from the component's body. This prevents the components from slipping down while being soldered in position.
Begin the assembly of the components to the PCB, by placing the components that sit lowest on to the PCB. Mount all resistors in place. Resistors are non-polarised components and don't need to be placed in any particular direction. However, the conventions of the horizontal resistors are mounted gold band to the bottom.
Make sure the Diodes D1 to D6 (black body, white band) have the negative end (the one with the band) facing in the same direction as shown on the PCB.
Make sure that the super capacitor terminals on the socket face in the same direction as indicated on the PCB.s
Make sure the Zener Diode (ZD - grey body, black band) has the negative end (the one with the band) facing in the same direction as shown on the PCB.
Mount the capacitor in its location on the PCB.
The last component to be mounted before soldering of the transistor. Make sure that the transistor faces in the direction shown on the PCB.
If power to the PCB and transistor was facing in the wrong direction, then the transistor will almost certainly be damaged.
Carefully solder all the components leads.
When all the soldering complete, cut the leads as close to the solder as possible.
Check the soldering for any poor joints or solder bridges between the tracks. Solder bridges are most likely to occur between tracks that are close together, so pay careful attention to the solder tracks where the transistor mounted.
The solder bridges must be removed before connecting power to the PCB, Failure to do so many results in damage to the circuit.
When soldering wires, strip a short piece of insulation from the end of the wire, twist the strands and "tin" them. This was done by using a hot soldering iron to apply solder to the ends.
Use different colour wires so it is easier to follow the wiring connections, and to fault find any problems.
Work out the length of the wires that connect the generator and the LED's to the PCB connect and solder them. The wires connecting to the LED's must have positive and negative connected correctly or the LED's will not light up.
Connect and solder the three wires to the slide switch. Make sure that they connect to the tabs along one side of the switch.
The Generator has its positive terminal marked, but because the PCB has a bridge rectifier the Generator can be wired in either direction, and it will still work correctly.
2.4 The Testing of PCB:
In this concept of mechanical storage of electrical system testing was implemented in the following section given below.
Check that the handle can turn freely in both directions.
Testing the Generator
When the gearbox was completed, connect a DC Voltmeter to the output terminals. When wound the generator will produce maximum 30 volts. This may seem to be far high considering that we expect the generator to produce 6 volts. The generator produces power, such as a light globe When a 6 volt light connected to the terminals you should measure close to 6 volts.
Insert the battery and turn the handle for one minute to charge the battery.
Move the sliding switch from the middle position (Off) to the upward position. Check that the 4 LED's light up.
Move the sliding switch from the middle position (Off) to the downward position Check that the two LED's lights up.
When turn the handle it able to measure above 6 volts across the Capacitor.
If it measures 6 volts, It able to measure 4.3 volts between negative and the junction of R7, the Zener diode and the base of Transistor Q1. The voltage between negative and the emitter of transistor Q1, should measure 3.6 volts.
2.5 The Troubleshooting:
If nothing happens and not getting of any output, while testing the printed circuit board.
Turn the turn off immediately
Check that all the components are in the right position and facing in the correct direction.
Check the diodes to ensure that they are facing in the correct direction.
Check that the transistor is facing as shown on the PCB.
Check the orientation of smoothing capacitor to make sure that the positive and negative leads are the correct way round.
Check the orientation of the wiring for the all Ultra Bright LED's. If they are connected the wrong way, they will not light up.
If the components are correctly placed and orientated, double-check your soldering.
Make sure there are no dry joints, the soldering may look dry or lumpy, or you may notice the solder around a lead does not actually connected to the lead. This will look like a dark ring around the lead; try pulling the component up to see if the led comes out or moves.
Check for short circuits where solder connects across form one track to another track.
2.2 The Pulse Width Modulation System
The main working of the mechanical storage of electrical energy was implemented with the help of pulse width modulation system. It was constructed with the help of pulse width modulation system and combination of the timer circuit as well as the counter circuits to operate and driving the LED's circuits.
The applying of hand powered mechanical inputs to the system electrical energies are generated and it supply through the bridge rectifiers. The bridge rectifiers are used to supplying the total powers to the system either in directions of clockwise or an anticlockwise. In this system with the help of 10 stages counter circuit of IC74HC4017 rising of each clock pulse its output steps one at a time in sequence.
Fig 10: The Block Diagram of Mechanical Storage of Electrical Energy
The pulse width modulation system improves the efficiency of the powers without any losses. It also improves the brightness of the led's with the help of counter circuit. With the help of this concept the energies are generate and it stores into the storage system of capacitors. The stored energies are implemented with the help of pulse width modulation by producing of the total outputs of the system without any power losses with the help of counter circuit the led's are glow one by one in for saving of the power and also it helps to improve the brightness of the led's with the help of timer circuit of the system.
In the overall observation and investigation of different methodologies, the simple and compatible procedure for implementing of the mechanical storage of electrical energy by suing of pulse width modulation system. It will achieve the mechanical generation and as well as storage system of electrical energies.
Varying the resistance values
LEDs are bright
Add PWM Circuit
Storage System of Capacitors
Voltage = 6
Start2.2.1 System Flow Chart
The functioning of the mechanical storage of electrical energy states in the following flow chart system.