Manipulating the influence of peltier in the helmet via undertaking various calculations

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INTRODUCTION:

Air conditioned safety helmet also characterized as "Peltier Helmet "is a helmet that utilizes peltier plate (also known as TEC-thermoelectric cooler) in the helmet. It's a project were peltier plates are to be integrated in a motorcycle riding helmet to prove a more comfortable and pleasant wear. The Idea comes from motorcycle riders in countries having hot climate and making the experience of wearing a helmet horrible. A peltier is a thermoelectric cooler working on the principle of "Peltier effect". It is the inverse of "Seeback effect". When electricity is passed through the thermocouple temperature difference occurs between thetwo junctions of the thermocouple. Heat from one side of the thermo cooler travels to the other side thus resulting cooling that side. It was discovered by the scientist named Peltier in 1834. There are number of thermocouples used in series which produce a considerable amount of heat. The circuit is heavily doped by adding impurities and making them a N-type semiconductor or P-type semi conductor.

Tillmann Steinbrecher.(1997-2005).The Heat-sink Guide. Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.heatsink-guide.com/peltier.htm (Accessed 5 November 2009).

Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) Cross-section (http://www.hothardware.com/articleimages/item928/big_Cooling_TEC.jpg, 2009)

Thermoelectric coolers that work on peltier effect are also known as heat pumps.

Thermoelctric Coolers (TEC or Peltiers).(1999).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.thetechzone.com/articles/peltier_intro/ (Accessed on 27th November 2009).

Advantages

Peltier has many advantages to it that makes it distinctly different from other coolers. Starting with, they produce cooling below the ambient temperature whereas as other coolers provide only with vapour phase refrigeration. These are less expensive and compact in size having no moving parts makes them reliable with no maintenances. They don't produce any noise as being solid state systems. It's available in different form and shapes making it useful in many different applications. They are capable of producing a temperature difference of 70°C but only in a condition where no heat exchange is taking place. They can work in any orientation and provide with accurate temperature requirement. By inverting the flow of the direction of the current the heating and cooling sides can be interchanged.

Tillmann Steinbrecher.(1997-2005).The Heat-sink Guide. Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.heatsink-guide.com/peltier.htm (Accessed 5 November 2009).

Disadvantages

They require high power supply which is one of the biggest downfalls of a peltier cooler. Condensation on the cooling side of the peltier is possible as they produce cooling below ambient temperature. The heat dissipated to heat-sink if not let out in the atmosphere would in turn heat the cooling element.

Tillmann Steinbrecher.(1997-2005).The Heat-sink Guide. Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.heatsink-guide.com/peltier.htm (Accessed 5 November 2009).

Aims

The principal goal of the project is to manipulate the influence of peltier in the helmet via undertaking various calculations and even considering the Ansys results. By means of Ansys distinct outcomes can be obtained regarding the performance of peltier inside the helmet. The key calculations relating to the temperature are mandatory. It serves to find the temperature inside the helmet when in use by the rider. Furthermore, carrying out the simulation in Ansys would enable in better understanding of maintaining the temperature inside the helmet, cooling distribution curves in the helmet, stress concentration present while design of the helmet and effect of flow of air on cooling. Considering all the factors as mentioned above help in successful accomplishment of the targets set in the project and even would help to conclude by identifying the efficiency of peltier plate.

Project plan

When considering a successful completion of a project a project plan is essential. The first step in a project is to create a project plan and work according to it. Many a times it is sidelined by people to take work head-on. Neglecting the advantages of planning which has a great deal of advantage in saving time, money and labour.

Duncan haughey.(2000-2009).Project planning a step by step Guide. Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/project-planning-step-by-step.html (Accessed 10 November 2009).

Task Analysis

Beginning with the introduction on the 5th November 2009 to the project the overview of the project would give a head start in commencing with the project. The project plan linked with the introduction as finish to start would require a week to plan out the way the project is to be proceeded with and would act as reference to the progress of the project. The research taking up most of the project time is an essential part of the project. It consisting research on peltier and tutorials of Ansys which are yet to be concluded. The research work takes up 40 days of the total project time starting on the 2nd November 2009 to 12th February 2010 including examination break. Calculations correspond to the integration of the peltier in the helmet inclusive of heat transfer from the materials of the helmet and final temperature to be determined. A feedback controller design should be initiated by the 3rd March 2010. The reason for allotting more time is to engross detail research. With all the right data the Ansys analysis is timed from 12th to 22nd April 2010.The final report commencing on the 29th March 2010 to 12th May 2010 shows the effort made throughout the year to meet the expected results. Last but not the least the final results will determine whether the project has met the specific goals which is to be concluded by the 16th may 2010.

This is done by producing a Gantt chart. The task durations and the progress timelines are denoted in a graphical representation. A Gantt chart aids in knowing the progress of the project. The Gantt chart for the project is produced in Microsoft Office project 2007:

About Gantt chart.(2009).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.ganttchart.com/ (Accessed 25 November 2009).

Progress

Beginning with the research work the introduction of peltier has been completed in understanding the thermocouples fundamentals.

Peltier effect

To study peltier effect knowledge of seebeck is required. In the seebeck effect the temperature difference between two dissimilar metals produces electric current.The scientist named Seebeck discovered this phenomenon when he formed a closed loop circuit connecting two different metals having temperature difference and connecting them to a junction. This made a compass needle deflect because the circuit produced electric current which created a magnetic field.

Seebeck effect.(2009).Kingston University [internet], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_effect (Accessed on 25th November 2009)

COLD and HEAT

P- and N-type thermoelectric coolers.(http://ixbtlabs.com/articles/peltiercoolers/, 2009)

The peltier effect is the inverse of seebeck effect. When the electric current (I) is applied to different metals connected at the junctions heat absorption takes place at junction 1 (T1) and heat rejection takes place atjuction2 (T2). The heat absorbed at T1 is determined by using the formula below. The heat carried /unit charge by a metal is represented by Peltier coefficient.

Q=(ΠABI).

Peltier coefficient=ΠAB

Peltier effect.(2009).Kingston University [internet], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoelectric_effect (Accessed on 25th November 2009)

The types of materials used in manufacturing of the helmet are as follows:

* Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic

* polystyrene (thermocol)

* foam

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic

ABS plastic the more common name for Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a light weight, solid mold of commonly used thermoplastic. It is used in making many various products like musical instruments, car body parts, helmets, toys etc. The percentage of acrylonitrile is between 15-35%; that of butadiene and styrene is between 5-30% and 40-60%. In many of the applications ABS plastic is used from -25-60°C. The properties of ABS differ with difference in temperature.

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.(2009).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene (Accessed on 13th November 2009).

File:ABS resin formula.png (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/ABS_resin_formula.PNG, 2009)

. The acrylnitrile percentage gives the thermal and chemical properties; whereas butadiene confirms the ductility and impact strength of the material. Styrene effects the cosmetic look of the material by giving it a glossy surface and making it easy to machine and keeping the cost factor very low.

ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.(2009) Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.designinsite.dk/htmsider/m0007.htm (Accessed on 13th November 2009)

Expanded Polystyrene foam (thermocol)

Expanded Polystyrene foam is made from the composition of ethylene and benzene. It is extensively used in packing of fragile products to be transported in a box. It is great insulator and is also used in various construction purposes for insulation.

Polystyrene.(2009)Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polystyrene (Accessed on 16th November 2009).

Polistirolo.jpg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Polistirolo.JPG, 2009)

It is made up of individual cells of low density polystyrene and is very light in weight. As it is formed of individual cells heat transfer through it cannot take place.

Background.(2009).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.answers.com/topic/expanded-polystyrene-foam-epf (Accessed on 26th November 2009)

Foam

The foam available in the market is mostly made up of polyurethane foam. This foam comes in different forms with high or low density for different applications. For example high density stiff foam is used in refrigerator linings (door linings) for insulation and is used behind wallpapers (for insulation). It is also used in form liners with concrete. One important use of polyurethane foams is in the automobile industry where these foams are used to make car seats. Being easily mouldable into any shape and of soft texture makes them ideal for this application.

Polyurethane.(2009).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyurethane (Accessed on 17th November 2009)

Ansys

Introduction to Ansys has just begun. Ansys a finite element method tool that is used widely for solving problems relating to transfer of heat, fluid mechanics, mechanisms and vibrations. To solve each problem the software divides the model into number of finite elements which are connected to each other with points known as nodes. The stress and strain on the element is directly related to the displacement of the nodes. The equilibrium conditions of nodes are converted into linear algebraic equations and are then solved by the software. In this way when the element is analysed using such high density, very accurate solutions are obtained which intensifies the research and analysis.

A general guide to Ansys.(2005).Kingston University[Internet], Available at:http://www.me.cmu.edu/academics/courses/NSF_Edu_Proj/StrAnalysis_ANSYS/FEM.html (Accessed on 26th November 2009)

In addition, Ansys is such engineering software which helps in justifying the various processes that can be carried out on this software. It can be utilized to carry out virtual prototyping, carrying out stress study, analysis including fluid dynamics, electromagnetic analysis and structural analysis of various components in a design. Ansys can be even used to optimize systems regarding elements, equation solvers and to check the fluid temperature in a component. Thus, considering Ansys for this project would help in understanding the flow of air inside the helmet. Also, it would help in justifying the utilization of peltier plate for the effect of cooling the helmet via describing the temperature plots which are in turn produced from the fluid dynamics study from Ansys and hence, helps in making the helmet much more proficient.

ANSYS 12.0.(2009).Kingston University [Internet], Available at: http://www.ansys.com/products / (Accessed on 27th November 2009)

Discussion

It can be perceived from above fragments of the report that for acquiring of productive outcomes of applications of peltier in helmet huge amount of research has been performed. The main objective of the whole project is to reduce the degree of temperature via introducing peltier plate in the helmet and thus prevent rise of temperatures inside the helmet. Initially, the research comprises of description of peltier plate which specifically represents the meaning of peltier plate. Next, on continuing further with the research, for the introduction of peltier plate inside the helmet, knowledge about discrete types of helmets is gained and even the operation of the effect of pressure and temperature is noticed on the riders head. In addition, the Ansys software is employed in order to study the effect of peltier plate. This helps in considering the stress concentration plots and the fluid flow plots for the helmet. Thus, for acquiring the final outcome of the project that is APPLICATION OF PELTIER IN A HELMET, Gantt chart is needed to be followed which would hence, help in producing the requisite result.

Conclusion

Lastly, it can be concluded by describing about the research work that has been achieved until phase of the project. It is evident that after intense study about the peltier that comprised of history and introduction, the operation of peltier, manufacturing of peltier plate and finally the efficiency of peltier plate was observed in general, the research comprises of huge amount of facts which strengthens the understanding about the project. Subsequently, research about helmets was carried out which comprised of gathering data about manufacturing of helmet, materials employed for construction of helmet and finally the structural layout the helmet was scrutinized. Next, the ansys software was carried on with and hence, familiarization with the software has been accomplished.

Thus, for the final word for the report it can be said that for the successful achievement of the project Ansys is required for the finite element analysis and to study about the fluid flow initiated by the peltier plate in the helmet. A reasonably fair experience would be gained and a wide understanding can be achieved in creating this helmet for future utilization.

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