Most people do not realize it but everyone has experienced compressed air. Our lungs are low air compressor .when we take breath we expand our lung and create negative internal pressure which draws in outside air. For expel the air we contract our lungs who create the positive pressure and air flow out. Neanderthal man use his lungs as compressor to glow air for glowing ember in order to built up his fires. Tribes in Africa and South Africa used their lungs as a compressed air source to power their blow guns. German physicists Otto Von Guericke invent and recognized first air pump. He can used that device to conduct studies on vacuum, pressure, reciprocating and combustion. In late 1700 s blower was commonly use for supplying air ventilation of a large mining operation and metal furnace. In late 1800 s engineer was consider compress air was a viable energy source.
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In early part of 1800 s compressed air was start to utilize in tunnelling and mining operation. To power lightweight rock drills and hammer. On speed at which compressed air was allowed subterranean workers to move through were unprecedented. Air compressor Can be set up at the surface piping and hose and hose can be easily rotated.
By the mid 1800s engineers were at odds with one another over whether it compressed air or electricity is the power source of future. In 1988, Viktor Top (Austrian engineer) installed in Paris 1500 K-W compression system. Existing sewers was used as a distribution system and then Paris became the first city offered compressed air as public utility. Paris compressor had been increased in 1891 up to 18000 K-W.the compressed air was used to activate nearly about 4000 elevators and 58,000 clocks as well as provide power to all sort of industrial equipment.
In 1845 Robert Thompson invented an pneumatic tire and granted patent on his idea. However the design was not become successful and costly. In 1988 John Dunlop granted for the first pneumatic tire and his design had great successful market in tire industry. Today pneumatic tire became standard equipment on cars, bicycle, trucks and there was millions of hand operated pumps under seat in garages, trunks and gas station.
In later part of 1800 s compressed air was limited to large operation and companies. This is because power pumps which requires power source in the form of engine and steam boiler. Smaller business doesn't afford the power source because it is expensive as steam engine, so they were forced to do without it. The advantage of compact electric and motors transformed the industry in 1990. In early 1900 manufacturing equipment not longer relied on central engine. For the power equipment had the compact electric motor power and motor which delivered it in the form of electricity. Air compressors are also transformed by this development. In 1900 small companies started manufacture the small air compressor. Manufacture a small air compressor specifically aim for small business.
Due to small and low cost air compressor low cost pneumatic tool come in the business. Small business couldn't take the advantage of new innovation because they can't afford the air tools which are available in the market. Manufacturer started to introduce personal size, low cost air tools for a wide variety of application. Compressed air quickly becomes popular in the manufacture industry.
The first air compressor was metallurgy as far back 2000 B.C. This low pressure device was powered by foot hand and later by water wheel. These are mainly use for fan fires hot enough to smelt and forge metal ores.
Bellows are still using nowadays, often hung around English fireplace. They are also used to provide compressed air to instrumental as accordion.
In third century B.C double piston acting commonly used by Han Rulers in ancient china.
During the 18th century inventors create large quantity of gas causing solid container for explode, boiling water. Development of steam power into usable energy source acknowledged by James Watt.
It wasn't up to 19th century that compressed air seen to be method of transporting energy.
In 1801-1862 numbers of Cornish mine grew four fold. This explosion led through Holman brother developing their compressed air rocket drill. The Holman brother based in Camborne was internationally acclaimed for production of high quality compressed air tool.
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In 1857-1870 rocket drill was used to connect Italy and France with mile tunnel under the mount Cenis. In rocket drills compress air convey to small cylinder which work as piston. Via rod piston is connect to the jumper. When air force from behind the piston impel jumper against the rock then brought back by opening valve which let air through front of piston piece of equipment pounding the rock up to five hinge per second
In late 19th century some cities like Birmingham, Paris and Buena's Aires has compressed air greed system in place to run the power clocks by providing pulse of air every minute this will give deliver power to industry and home.
In 1986 Paris had 30 mile wide 80psi compressed air system power by 3000hp equipment of compressed air. It was well dominated lots of people suspect that compressed air will be taking over from electricity as clean energy source.
In early 20th century for power rocket compressed air mixed with gasoline.
Piston compressor used for power in many industrial applications. Powers through the electric motors were design a steam engine in reverse piston pump used for the transporting water as far back as 250 B.C. by Romans.
In 1930 bought about screw compressor. This technology first patent by Heinrich Krieger (GERMANY) in 1878 .this offered more efficient source of air compressed.
Compressed air usages carry growing in 20th century with compressed air with compressed air being use carbohydrates, jet engine and whole range of other application.
A major break through late in 20th century was speed drive compressor which allowed for industry application to reduce the energy consumption which require for the compressed air.
Pneumatics derived from the Greek word "pneumos" meaning breath deals with behaviour of gases and mainly concerned with the use of gases for the transmitting power.
All gases are readily compressible and it is that property which differentiates them most from liquid as power transmission medium. The behaviour of gas when transmitting the power can easily see in bicycle pump.
The compressibility of gas first investigated by the Robert Boyles in 1962 and he found that produce of pressure and volume of particular quantity of gas was constant, providing the temperature did not vary which is usually written as :
PV = C
In this equation the pressure is absolute pressure, which for free for air is about 14.7 psi.
Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the most usual for obvious reason exception are most likely to occur on aircraft and space vehicles where an inert gas such as nitrogen is preferred or the gas is on which generated on board.
Energy is expanded in compressing a gas proportion of which appears heat and usually perform no useful purpose it may require costly plant for remove-whilst reminder as available as potential energy. Compressed air conducted through the pipe to the point of application where it performs useful work, either by direct forces or by expansion. Then it is exhausted to the atmosphere.
Air compressions are highly developed machine but their no means finalized. For many years piston compressors were in vast variety but their predominant position is being seriously threatened by vane and screw types in 100 psi field. All have the same basic principle and their difference because of heat transfer and mechanical consideration.
Development in pneumatics:
Faced with the necessity of improving productivity in the modern industrial world, pneumatic technology is providing an efficient and competitive contribution to the construction of automated production equipment.
Pneumatic machine component if they are to fully meet the requirements of various user industries, must not only incorporate, at the design stage, consideration related to their techniques and economic performance but also designed to simply operation and reduce maintenance requirements .
Present stage in development of pneumatics technology covers several complementary aspects ranging from the product construction to operating the maintenance question.
Present day Design and Technology use different types of Compressor
Compressor generally classified in two parts
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Background of compressor
Compressor is mechanical device that increase the pressure of gas by reducing the volume. Compressors are equivalent to the pump; both can transfer fluid through the pipe and pressure on the fluid. As gases are compressible compressor also reduce the volume of the gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible so the main action of pump is transport of the liquids. a compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at certain pressure and deliver at high pressure
A key part of any facility supply of a compressed air is by mean using the reciprocating compressor
Positive displacement compressor
Positive displacement compressor most frequently used for compressed air plant and prove high successful supply for pneumatic control application
Reciprocating type compressor
Rotary type compressor
Turbo compressor used when large air required at low discharge pressure. Turbo compressor cannot attach pressure for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage design and they are and they are seldom encountered in pneumatic service.
Dynamite compressor in which the compression is achieved by converting air inlet into a pressure.
Compressor includes a various components from inlet filter to the control cabinet with monitoring system. Depending on the air quality certain ancillary equipments is necessary which forms sophisticated central compressed air production units. Air service equipment at the compressor outlet is essential to remove water vapour and oil condensates when equipment used is of the lubricated type.