Light Vehicle Suspension And Steering Faults Engineering Essay

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This project shows about light vehicle steering and suspension faults. A steering consists of ball and socket joint, cam and peg steering box, worm and nut steering box, Worm and Ball Bearing Nut Steering Box. Light vehicle steering like power steering helps the rider to easily rotate the wheels without any pressure. Power steering is of two types namely integral type and linkage type.

Suspension fault: Sensors and components in physical system are often subjected to unanticipated deviations from standard environment. These deviations are known as faults. For comfort driving and safety, suspension system of an automotive vehicle is highly responsible. For this a Fault-free process is demanded for the whole system.


A steering consists of a steering wheel, steering column, steering gear box, cross shaft, drag link, drop arm, tie rods, steering arm and knuckle. The steering wheel makes the steering column rotate. The steering gear box in attached at the end of the column and hence when the steering wheel rotates the cross shaft in the gear box oscillates. The drop arm which is connected by means of a drag link to the steering arms is also allied to the cross shaft. In both the wheels the steering arms is linked by the tie-rods to the drag line. While the steering wheel is operated, the knuckle moves, making the wheels shift right and left.

Suspension faults -Sensors and components in physical system are often subjected to unanticipated deviations from standard environment. These deviations are known as faults. For comfort driving and safety, suspension system of an automotive vehicle is highly responsible. For this a Fault-free process is demanded for the whole system. Suspension system contains various electric and electronic components like sensors, electromagnet, electro motors etc.

Research methodology

The research methodology includes both the online research data from different websites and theoretical studies from different books.

M.Staroswiecki ,FaultHYPERLINK "" HYPERLINK ""detection, supervision and safety of technical processes

Main body

Light vehicle steering

Ball and socket joint:

In the tie-rod, one end of the drag-link is connected and in the drop arm, the other end of the drag link in connected. Ball and socket joint are engaged in creating those relations.

Cam and peg steering box:

In the steering box, at the end of the steering column there is a special type of worm. A square thread is included in that worm. The square thread in the worm is acknowledged as cam. There includes two pegs which are attached to the drop arm and cross shaft. The steering column rotates when the wheel is rotated. The pegs are moved to and fro by the cam causing the cross shaft to revolve. Due to this, the drop arm rotates in the arc. This is the way the cam and peg steering gear system performs.

Worm and Ball Bearing Nut Steering Box:

A ball nut surrounds the column of the steering. In between the ball nut and worm several balls are distributed. A frictionless drive between the worm and nut is provided by such pact. When the steering wheel turns left, the steering shaft also turns left and the ball nut moves downhill. This faction is caused by the balls rolling between the worm and nut. As the ball reaches the outer face of the nut, it enters the return guide and re-circulates in the circuit. When the steering wheel is rotated right, the ball nut moves uphill. The ball circulates in opposite way. The teeth on the sector gear are engaged by the teeth on the ball nut. This moves the shaft. It is connected with the drop arm. Hence the drop arm circulates in the arc.

Power steering:

Some vehicles low pressure balloon and wider section type tires. It has got more contact with the ground. Hence the driver has to put on more force to turn a vehicle on a narrow turn. The power steering assists with automatic hydraulic assistance against the manual steering system.

There are two types of power steering:

The integral Type

The linkage type

The integral Type:

Here the power steering assembly is an integral part.All power steering systems has the common ways of working. The steering wheel is slightly moved. This actuates a valve. Due to this action of the valve, the hydraulic fluid enters a appropriate side of piston. Hence the pressure is applied on one side of the piston to function the linkage of the steering. This revolves the steering to the correct way.

Structure and procedure:

Its main component is a hydraulic pump assembly connected by hoses. A rotary valve power steering gear re-circulates ball-type worm and wheel steering gear. The steering wheel is connected by steering shaft towards the right end of the torsion bar. The worm is connected to the other end. When the driver puts force on the steering, the end of the torson bar offers resistance as it is connected to the spool of the rotary valve and the worm. When the force of the wheel is more than the required or determined value, the spool turns through a small angle resulting in the closing of the return line. The other side of the steering gear is connected to a pressure line when the steering is rotated in the opposite direction. When both the sides of the nuts are closed to the pressure line, the steering is in neutral position that is they are in the same pressure. As return line is open , hydraulic liquid passes through the valve making the steering unaffected.

Linkage-type Power Steering System:

In this system, power cylinder is not a division of the steering gear. Indeed it is built-in with the steering linkage. The control valve may be a separate assembly.

Suspension faults

Active suspension System:

Victor Hillier, Peter Coombes, fundamentals of motor vehicle technology, light vehicle steering and suspensions faults

It provides an active force prevailing directly in the dynamics of the vehicle with the target of compensating for road hurdles. An active suspension system enables the system to take various driving state leading to comfort and safety. Between natural frequency of the body and tire lies the control frequency. Moreover there is non-partially and fully loaded suspension system.

Model and test rig of active suspension:

The investigated active suspension is a fully loaded hydraulic system. It contains hydraulic plunger connected to steel spring, and on the other hand the damper directly connects the body and the wheel mass. A specific pressure and hydraulic liquid in/out flow to hydraulic cylinder is provided by the controlled actuation system. Ignoring suspension arms results in effective spring stiffness and damper ratio.


Lolimot means Local linear model tree. It is used to manage with the suspension system. The idea is based on approximating a non-linear dynamic discrete function with m inputs u and one inputs y.

Sensor vault detection of active suspension:

In active suspension system, the detection of sensor faults is considered. To stimulate a realistic general setup, the sensor setup is chosen.


suspension system doesn’t give rise to faults on modern vehicles. Diagnosis detects noises and performs geometric checks. Suspension faults are supported by examining tyre wear.

Derek Newbold, Allan W. M. Bonnick, A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance, steering, wheels and tyres

Rubber springs:

Rubber can store more energy. It can be used as the main suspension spring. In the form of suspension, considerable weight can be saved. This type of suspension basically has an urge to settle down in the initial period of the life of a car.

The power steering system today used in cars and light trucks are mostly hydraulic i.e. the hydraulic piston provides the force to turn the wheels. However, in some light trucks and cars force for the steering is also provided by electric motor.


It can be concluded from the project that the knowledge of light vehicle steering is important and beneficial to people. This project also helps us to know about suspension faults and the layout of active suspension give us brief information about the stated topic. The suspension part is constantly moving up and down by absorbing the road shocks and providing a comfortable drive for vehicle occupants. The degree of the movement of the suspensions depends to the road and the manner in which the vehicle is driven. The mechanism of steering in light vehicles has to two main purposes â€" it must be enabled to the driver to easily maintain the direction of the vehicle if any bumps are encountered in high speed, and the next is to be effectively able to change the direction of the vehicle with minimum efforts on the steering wheels.

Several suspensions faults have different types of ways to be used by the driver on the basis of the conditions and the personal choice. Steering systems are mainly power assisted. Tyres are mostly low profile in order to guarantee that stability, performance and control are well maintained and maximized.