In the past years there has been a lot of research going on about electric vehicles. The findings have generally shown that electrical cars are usually responsible for the environmental crisis experienced today. But what most people do not know is the fact that the engineers who manufacture electric cars know very well that a well-to-wheel carbon emission of EVs are powerfully dependent on the carbon concentration of the electricity used, Therefore, it is very essential that they design vehicles that are friendly to both the economy and the environment . According to The Oil Drum, Europe, " electrical combustion of engine emission, environment impact of human health problems, and environmental impact of the battery, impact of air pollution, impact of air pollution and finally energy consumption" (2009).
The use of electric vehicles in urban areas mostly increases the emissions locally, which can be vital because the process of sending the emissions to power plants can eradicate the harmful emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydro-monoxide from automobiles. The Environment Protection Agency (EPA) describes a personal automobile as the greatest polluter of the environment because emissions from millions of vehicles on the road accumulate in the atmosphere, thereby leading to global warming, which affects the environment. It also states that a personal polluter like in the case of the electric vehicle emission or perhaps particles fumes that add up in the in the air can cause air pollution especially in the city centers. If for example, electric cars were to be charged at night when they are not in use, this would create a mixer of power plants that connect to the grid during the night thus emitting nuclear, hydropower, solar, and wind energy freely.
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Solar photovoltaic has no change or impact on electric cars, unless additional batteries are in use when charging during daytime. This may need several batteries and most of the times the cost of additional batteries usually have a higher cost of generating electric energy per day. Contrary, wind cannot be relied on to charge electric cars because it is irregular. A person could contemplate having many spare electric vehicles in one's driveway waiting to be fueled by electricity, with just one of them being accessible per day but the cost would be prohibitive. For grids with plenty hydropower such as the Bonneville Power Administration, the charging of electric vehicles can simply be accommodated. During the night, hydro-electricity charge is maximally reduced, when the power of the electric vehicles is needed. This is a good measurement because less water would be used in the production of charge during the night, thereby saving water from environment.
For grids with less hydropower, the maximum hydro-electric charge used continuously, is a cheaper as that of generator. Under such circumstances, the peaking generators are obviously fossil generators that require to be operated more during the night. Therefore, the emission impact of charging EVs during the night is the difference between more emission at the power plant and the fumes from gasoline-powered vehicles. As such, there is the possibility of a net carbon emission advantage, but the total elimination of carbon emissions.
The use and elimination of the lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries in electric cars causes environmental degradation. This makes it hard to compare the environmental effects of internal combustion engine cars with those of BEVs. Consequently, a thorough comparison of the lifecycle record of a Li-ion battery and a rough BEV and LCA mobile shows domination in environmentally related problems of the mobility operation process.
A comparison of used European electricity fueled BEV or gasoline-fueled ICEV also shows the total contribution of environmental effects caused by E-mobility battery was about 15%. This impact was due to the extraction of lithium for the gears of the Li-ion battery which was less than 2.3% (Eco-indicator 99 points)( Lester & Michalemay 1995) but battery is the greatest contributor to the environmental problems which provide copper and aluminum to make the cathode and the anode, plus the needed cables or the battery system management.
Furthermore, research studies conducted by the EPA have shown that electric vehicles use lithium ion because it is a favorable material; features of lithium, which include lightness and offering the highest electrochemical potentials leads to high power. Moreover, extensive experiences gained in the (ICT) or Information and Communication Technology Company have led to safe, long-lasting, and affordable products.
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The Li-ion battery requires little maintenance, an advantage that most battery chemistries do not claim. There is nothing in the memory impact required to elongate the life of the battery except the charging it. For instance, application of cobalt by iron phosphate or manganese is normally done.
Another development is the increase in the content of active material by, for example, using bipolar electrodes. Nevertheless, the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles as an environmentally viable option, evaluates whether the burdens related to the battery are likely to offset the benefits related to the electric drive vehicles. For this far, it is necessary to improve electric mobility, E-mobility, including the vehicle's production that use and disposal with a strong view of Li-ion battery.
The use of electric vehicle also has some negative health effect on human beings following the entomology Study done in America by Lave et al (1995). In their book, the authors show that exposure to lead has adverse effects on child development at what had previously been considered low and normal levels of lead exposure, down to a blood lead concentration of 10 micrograms per deciliter. (The standard measure of human exposure to lead is the concentration of lead in blood, expressed in the United States as micrograms per deciliter, or mg/dL, a deciliter being one-tenth of a liter.12)
Regardless of the less use phase of the electric car in the environmental change , which has currently describe the environmental benefit as based on the defined boundary conditions, the impacts the electric vehicle concepts to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) are in a comparable range to gasoline vehicles whereas diesel vehicles are unreachable, yet.
The wind power provided an additionally installed wind power plants, that is described as "the production stage of electric cars proved substantially extra environmentally harsh condition comparing it to how diesel and petrol car operate, global warming mostly from electric vehicle production is around twice that of conventional electric vehicle" (Electrical Cars 'pose environmental threat"4th October2012).
Generally, global warming is also a major problem affecting the electric vehicles which has led to environmental pollution that has destroyed the atmospheric layer. Correspondingly, emissions of particles accumulate in the air and form a fog in the atmosphere, especially in town areas leading to air pollution. Also, the impact of electrification of passenger cars also depend on the share of these cars in total air pollution. For example, in locations with relatively dense goods transport, air quality will not reduce significantly if passenger cars drive electrically.
According to the simplified Literature Comparison (LCA) replica, the lifecycle of a carbon dioxide emission would be lowered by 30% when switched from the diesel version to a recent electric Smart. Charging an electric Smart with a renewable electricity mix up normally causes an extra 55% reduction of life cycle of carbon dioxide emissions. Nevertheless, we have selected an already Smart car with ignition engine over a hundred thousand kilometers and transformed it, thereby skipping the expenditure for the glider manufacturing (cutoff) (Helmers Marx 2012).
In considering electricity generation, it is truly essential to establish how electricity expenditure will grow in the future and which other possible forms of electricity generation and be either, the hydro-power, renewable energy sources or fossil fuel power plants might be implemented in the future. Also, according to Klima and Energiefords (2009, p. 9), the battery charging levels needed can be calculated on the base of the numbers of electric vehicles that appear on the market on the grounds of traffic volume. Batteries charging will be through the public energy grid. Although losing of power through the charging procedure will be high; thus, there will be less power in the batteries compared to the quantity used from the power grid. Therefore, the implications of the electricity generating system of electric vehicles need to be viewed in the following manner: "As electricity demand rises existing plants will increase the levels of generation and if overall long-term demand rises further" ( It is also foreseeable that additional generating capacity could also be required. In terms of the first point, the nature of the marginal plant will influence the environmental impact (GHG intensity) of any marginal generation needed. The generation system will respond to additional demand from EVs by increasing the generation from the plant that has lowest marginal cost at that specific point in time.
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However, the specific impacts of the additional demand from EVs determine the vehicles which are used when charging. Thus, majority of Electricity Company will produce power plant which probable will be powered by natural gases. Other sources might be from nuclear energy and coal which will degrade in time causing environmental havoc that will ruin the environment
In conclusion, electric vehicles should be discouraged by the policy makers because they only add their negative impacts to the environment. The industry of manufacturing electric car should be make new invention in battery technology, end-of-life recyclability and production which is efficiencies because it is rather unreasonable to compare the environmental impact they have and their low fuel e and maintenance cost. The bigger challenge, perhaps, is that their environmental "credentials" hangs largely on factors outside their manufacturers' capability because they need to operate in a low-carbon, "smart" network where nuclear and renewable do much well. In this case, policy-makers have a double challenge and responsibility to combat the above impact and make sure that a low-carbon, smart grid supply to the manufactures so as to avoid environmental degradation.
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