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This report presents a hybrid solar wind energy tower, which is a combination output of a two-axis solar tracking system is used for the photovoltaic system and a vertical-axis wind turbine is used for the wind energy conversion system. The two-axis solar tracking system is driven by two independent DC motors to contribute the two axis rotary motion of the photovoltaic system. The rotary motion of the photovoltaic system is controlled by using a light dependent resistor to track the sun light. For the wind energy conversion system, a vertical generation is connected to the vertical rotor and blades. The novelty of this project is that the output of both the two-axis solar tracking system and the vertical-axis wind energy conversion system is combined and it will be monitored in LabVIEW software. Besides that, the effectiveness of the hybrid solar wind energy tower design will be compared with a normal solar and wind energy conversion system. The scaled down results for the prototype of the hybrid solar wind energy tower will be based on the scaled down wind speed and sun intensity at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, which has been selected as the reference location.
I would like to thank everyone who had contributed to the success of completion of this project. First and foremost, I would like to express my great appreciation to my research supervisor, Dr. Vinesh Thiruchelvam for his precious advice, guidance, and his enormous patience throughout the development of the project. His motivation and guidance with great enthusiasm allows me to catch up with the project schedule during the project progression.
In addition, I would like to thank all the colleagues from UC4F1207ME and the engineering lecturers from Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation for providing some general information and support on the project. Their willingness to spend their time for explaining and clearing my doubts on work has been very much appreciated.
Besides that, I wish to express my love and gratitude to my loving family members and friends who always supporting and encouraging me for all my good times and bad.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS: PAGE NUMBER
APPROVAL FOR SUBMISSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
Comparison between Fibreglass, PVC, Stainless Steel, and Metal pipes
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LIST OF FIGURES
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INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
Since the year 1900, the globe's utilization of fossil fuels has almost doubled every 20 years (Chaparal Corp, 2003). In between year 2003 and 2009, the total releases of pollutants to air, water, and land reported to National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is reduced by 21%, due to reductions from main metal smelters and other developing facilities, and fossil fuel electricity-generating stations (Canada.gc.ca, 2010). This clearly shows that the fossil fuels electricity-generating system is polluting the environment while generating energy by the process of fossil fuels combustion.
Coal is one type of the fossil fuels which is mainly elemental carbon mixture with hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and nitrogen. Yet, it is the fuel for thermal power plant to operate for electricity generation. When the combustion of coal is complete, the main product formed is carbon dioxide, which contributes to the greenhouse effect; whereas the small amounts of nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides will leads to acid rain. However, when the combustion of coal is incomplete, it will produce carbon monoxide which enables the formation of smog and buildings blackening. Moreover, as carbon monoxide been inhale into human body, it will binds with iron atoms in haemoglobin and disable the blood from bringing sufficient oxygen to maintain the brain operating.
In addition, the nuclear power is a contention way to produce electricity. Although it is able to generate high amount of electrical energy in a single plant, but it is extremely dangerous. It must be kept protected from earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding and so on to prevent the leakage of the radiation to the environment. However, no matter how high security standard it is, yet accidents can still happen anytime. There is always a small chance of failure due to it is not possible to be 100% safety to build a nuclear power plant. For example, a strong country, Japan which does have the ability to build a nuclear power plant with a very high security standard, but yet it finally break due to hit by a huge tsunami in year 2011. There were explosions and the radioactive material directly releasing into the atmosphere. This showing that nuclear power is a high risk power generation system.
As the technology is advancing, the electric power consumption is increasing and fossil fuels have become one of the main elements which needed for daily uses, which is polluting our Earth with acid rain and global warming. Figure 1 in the following page shows that the mean temperature of the Earth is raising gradually since year 1980 and human's activities are the main contributor. On the other hand, according to a statistic data from World Development Indicators (2012), the electric power consumption (kWh per capita) in Malaysia has been increased from 2903.8 kWh per capita at year 2002 to 3613.5 kWh per capita at year 2009. Hence, since long time ago, mankind had been looking for alternative energy sources that are unlimited and environmentally friendly. Eventually, mankind found some clean and renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energies which can be used as replacement for the fossil fuels. Solar energy is the energy that comes from the Sun and as the sun shines, wind power can be formed and there comes another type of energy, which known as wind energy. Both of these energies can be converted into electrical energy and supplies for residential usages such as shower water heater, generating electricity, lighting homes and other buildings, solar cooling, and commercial as well as industrial uses (RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 2011).
Figure 1: Jan-Dec Global Mean Temperature over Land & Ocean by NCDC/NESDIS/NOAA, Adapted from: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/2009/global-jan-dec-error-bar.gifglobal-jan-dec-error-bar.gif
Increase of energy demand has led to development of renewable energy systems.
Constraint of space for large renewable energy systems limits the usage in the populated cities.
Efficiency of renewable energy systems do not allow for maximum utilization of renewable energy infrastructure.
According to TheWorldBankGroup (n.d.), the world population between 1980 and 2000 has grown from 4.4 billion to 6 billion and it will continue to increase to the total of more than 7 billion by the year of 2015. Thus, the increasing of work population indirectly led to the development of renewable energy systems due to the rising in energy demand. On the other hand, the limitation of fossil fuels such as petroleum which can be used to generate the energy is getting lesser day by day. Therefore, the development of renewable energy systems takes place as the alternative energy sources. Moreover, a single type of renewable energy system is insufficient for fulfilling the usage of populated cities due to the constraint of space for large renewable energy system. In addition, the efficiency of the single type of renewable energy systems is unable to maximize the utilization of renewable energy infrastructure.
Kota Kinabalu, the reference location of Sabah has fluctuation in wind speed due to the climate change.
Engineering of the prototype - result may not be optimum due to the actual materials used in real life application are different with the materials used for constructing the prototype.
In order to solve the current problems as highlighted in Research Problem and Problem Statement sections, a Hybrid Solar Wind Energy Tower (HSWET) has been created as a possible solution. The HSWET is a combination of photovoltaic system and a wind energy conversion system on a tower. For the photovoltaic system, a two-axis solar tracking system is covering the north-south axis and east-west axis. Both the rotary motions are controlled by two independent DC motors based on the light dependent resistor to track the location of the sun. With this method, it can maximize of utilizing the sun energy for every single day. The photovoltaic system will be attached at the middle of the tower.
On the other hand, the wind energy conversion system is using a vertical axis wind turbine for power generation. A vertical rotor is connecting to the generator in the tower. Thus, as the vertical blades trap the wind and rotate, it rotates the shaft which connecting the rotor and the generator and generates electric energy.
The HSWET is designed to suit the housing and industrial areas as the alternative source of electricity. Hence, other than utilizing the green energy, the residents for the particular housing areas are able to use more electricity converted from green energy and paying less for the electric bills. Besides that, the design of HSWET is simple and easy to maintain which is suitable for home use. Furthermore, HSWET can be applied on the street lamps as well. It means that the street lamp has no longer need electricity to supply from the electric supplier to function but can straight away using the stored wind and solar energy. Hence, the street lamp can function effectively and efficiency by using the energy conversion system. Moreover, since wind and solar energy are both renewable natural resources, so it is environmentally friendly due to it will not produce the greenhouse gases while generating electricity.
Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to produce a more efficient and effective design for the HSWET to be used for residential housing areas, so as to enhance the current green technology application as part of the renewable energy systems..
The objectives of this study are as listed:
Design a hybrid solar and wind energy conversion system by using Autodesk Inventor.
Develop a scaled down prototype of the HSWET system using the most economical materials.
Utilization of LabVIEW software for monitoring efficiency of the HSWET output.
Justification of the Research
The HSWET is designed mainly for solving the current problems as listed in Research Problem. It is a combination of two renewable energy conversion systems, which are solar system and wind energy conversion system. Therefore, it acquired the advantages of space saving and better efficiency. Firstly, it is because the solar system of the HSWET is designed to be at the middle of the tower, so that it required a lesser space. In addition, the wind energy conversion system is designed to be in helical vertical axis, which is also a solution to solve the space limitation issue. Besides that, HSWET also fully utilize the available renewable energy so as to increase the efficiency of the entire system.
Organization of the rest of the chapters
This report is including the chapters such as Introduction, Literature Review, and Methodology to cover the theoretical elements required to develop HSWET.
HSWET is a proposed system that can meet the requirements for renewable energy in the city areas where the population is very dense, therefore the energy demand is high. Furthermore, the HSWET is a system predicted to be easy to construct with high efficiency and allow for economical purchase.
Photovoltaic System (PVS)
In a solar system, PVS has become one of the most important applications due to it is an economically viable renewable power source for distributed generation (Wang & Hsu, 2010). The predictable performance of a PVS is depending on the design and size being modelling, analyzed and simulated under many dissimilar circumstances. However, according to Tina & Gagliano (2010), there is a need of backup source such as diesel for the current stand-alone HSWET and the authors have highlighted that the future development of the system have the potential to increase the economic attractiveness and accept by users. In addition, the size of the HSWET is very important in determining the dependability and cost-effectiveness of the system. The authors had also tried out various techniques to design HSWET which present better cost-effectiveness way and at the end they added the solar tracking system in an HSWET (Tina & Gagliano, 2010).
There three dissimilar configurations of PVS which are fixed tilt angle, one-axis tracker, and two-axis tracker. Fixed tilt angle is that the collector tilt angle is equals to best tilt angle, which is the maximum total radiation on the PVS surface, whereas one-axis tracker is the structure follow the Sun along the azimuth angle. Furthermore, two-axis solar tracker is that the collector always pointing straight at the sun. Yet, two-axis solar tracking system is said to be having a better achievement compared to one-axis solar tracking system (Boicea et al., 2010). The authors had considered two different photovoltaic plants installed at different latitudes where the two-axis solar tracker at South Italy and one-axis solar tracker at North Italy. Eventually, the collection gain for two-axis solar tracking system is higher than the single-axis solar tracking system which is 34-35% and 24-25% respectively. Hence, the authors conclude that two-axis arrangement has a better achievement even though the one-axis solar tracker is simpler which lessen the operation and maintenance cost. Tina & Gagliano (2010) have agreed with the conclusion made by Boicea and the team members as they did comparison and evaluation between fixed solar system and solar tracking system as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Monthly average daily energy generated (Ed) in July with dissimilar PVS designs (Fixed angle = 32.3o). Adapted from: Renewable Energy
The figure 2 in the previous page is showing the comparison between 3 different PVS design, which are fixed tilt angle, one-axis tracker (polar), and two-axis tracker. The result of the graph is showing that two-axis tracker is more effective than fixed tilt angle and one-axis tracker. According to Tina & Gagliano (2010), they have generalized some conclusions as there is improvement in energy index of dependability is marginal by using two-axis tracker, the efficiency of PV tracker system is obvious which is mean value is 13.5% and maximum value is 23.5%, and by connecting a higher rate of PVS will be the best grouping of photovoltaic system and wind energy conversion system. On the other hand, according to Wasfi (2011), the competence range of silicon solar cells is from 13% to 18% and he did some day time experiment by using stationary, single axis tracker and two axis tracker and determine the power output. The result is showing similar with the graphs which shown in Figure 2. The descending order of the power efficiency is from two axis tracker, single axis tracker, and follows by stationary configuration. Hence, it clearly shows that HSWET with a two-axis solar tracking system is having a better performance compared to the fixed tilt angle and one-axis tracker.
Moreover, there are some other factors which will influence the performance output of a solar panel, which are load resistance, sunlight intensity, photovoltaic cell temperature, shading, and crystalline configuration (Wasfi, 2011). Load resistance is a load or battery that determines the voltage at which the system will function. As the resistance of the load goes higher, the system will work at higher voltages than the greatest power point and it will then lower down the competence and current output. According to Wasfi (2011), a control device that tracks the greatest power point is needed to be used to in order to endlessly match the voltage and current working requirements of the load. Even though the voltage does not change significantly, but the current of the solar panel is influence by the intensity of the sun radiation. In addition, the cell temperature can also be less efficiently as the rising of the temperature of more than 25oC and at the same time, the voltages will reduced. This is because the temperature of more than 25oC will resist to the flow of electrons. Moreover, although one cell of photovoltaic panel is being shaded, it might cause the output a spectacular reduction, which is as much as 75% (Wasfi, 2011).
A photovoltaic system can be designed and implemented as a microcontroller based automated sun tracker by searching for the Maximum Power Point (MPP) conditions (Huang et al., 1998). There are two dissimilar operation modes in the microcontroller is programmed by the authors which are tracking mode and conversion mode. The tracking mode is for the system to track the location of the sun and control the motors so as to face the photovoltaic toward the sun. In addition, the conversion mode is used to control the on-off time of the power switching device where the MPP is maintained. Huang and the team (1998) conclude that the microcontroller based automatic sun tracker combined a solar energy conversion system can be made more compact, reliable, and cost effective. On the other hand, Taberhaneh and the group (2007) have designed a combination of fuzzy-based MPP tracker and sun tracker in PVS. The design is using several sun sensors as the variations for the fuzzy rules. However, the motors are controlled by a microcontroller similar as what Huang's team did (1998). Taberhaneh et al. (2007) conclude that more output power was delivered to the load in their PV system and by using solar tracker, it can be remarkably increased the output power in turn to reduction of the size, weight and cost of the solar panels in photovoltaic systems. Therefore, using a microcontroller in the solar tracking system to control the motors and also for the facing direction of the solar panels is appropriate.
Furthermore, crystalline silicon has conquered the photovoltaic panels market at the present time as the photovoltaic panels are majority made of mono-crystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon (Chen, 2012). Mono-crystalline solar panels are usually present in dark black colour where polycrystalline solar panels are usually present in dark blue colour. Besides that, the mono-crystalline solar panels are generally more costly than polycrystalline solar panels due to the manufacturing process for single crystals to produce mono-crystalline solar panels are more costly compare to polycrystalline solar panels. In addition, polycrystalline solar panels are having slightly less efficiency than mono-crystalline solar panels due to the many-sided crystal within the polycrystalline solar panels.
Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS)
On the other hand, wind power has leisurely becoming an important part of the power generation group. It is basically a wind turbine that used to converts kinetic energy from the wind to mechanical energy, which will then generate electricity. Until today, the wind power is already developing in most of the European countries and predicted that it will be about 20% of the wind power adoption level in the U.S. by the year 2030 (Constantinescu et al., 2011). However, according to the authors, there are numerous of challenges to the process of the electrical power grid because wind power in extremely irregular and hard to forecast. According to Hamidi. V. et al., 2011), the value of wind power is decreased when the wind power is not rigid and stable, which means that the wind generator output will often diverge from the committed level due to it is irregular, where the "value of wind power" is defined by the authors as the fuel-cost savings and emission diminution due to replacing the conventional plants with wind power generation plants.
Furthermore, the wind turbine can be divided into two types, which are constant-speed wind turbine and variable-speed wind turbine. The constant-speed wind turbine process is much uncomplicated case and can be used as baseline, whereas variable-speed wind turbine was selected according to the maximum energy capture and steady-state limit of the wind turbine (Maljadi, 2001). According to Maljadi (2001), the constant-rotor speed wind turbine is considered as the simplest wind turbine design which working in a single revolution/min will only be optimized at a single wind speed. On the other hand, for the variable-speed wind turbine, the inertia of the blade is needed to be considered due to the blades have a bigger inertia than the inertia of the generator. The inertia of the rotor is used to smooth the rotor speed variation and it stored energy while speeding up and restores energy during deceleration (Maljadi, 2001). Yet, Feng et al. (2009) states that the tip speed ratio (ratio between the rotational speed of the tip of the blade versus the velocity of the wind) of the WECS is the most important factor for influencing the output power of the wind turbine system. Feng et al. (2009) had carried out testing on the maximum output power and efficiency of the system from the wind speed of 8m/s with an increment of 2m/s per gap till 16m/s at different tip speed ratio. Apparently, it shows that the efficiency of the system is the lowest when the tip speed ratio is at approximately 1.5 and 4.5, where the highest efficiency of the system is when the tip speed ratio is at 3 to 4. Hence, it can be concluded that the tip speed ratio of the wind turbine system is able to influence the efficiency of the output power directly.
Besides that, according to Dehghan et al. (2009), the control system of the wind energy conversion system can also be divided to two types, which is control of power delivered to the grid and maximum power point tracking (MPPT). For the first control system, it is use to assures that all the power coming from the rectifier is transferred to the grid, whereas the second control system (MPPT system) is that the mechanical power delivered by a wind turbine (Dehghan et al., 2009). The torque is resolute by the generator speed and the wind speed which is probable to get a forecast for the dc voltage as a function of the generator speed and the wind speed, and the generator speed can be synchronized by setting the dc voltage (Dehghan et al., 2009). However, according to Thongam et al.(2009), there are three types of control system which is machine side converter control, MPPT and grid side converter control. In a machine side converter control is including a MPPT which generates the reference speed so that the maximum power points can be tracked by the WECS through the speed control loop of the machine side converter control system. Moreover, the MPPT control computes the power that extracted from a turbine at a definite wind speed using information on degree and path of the change in power output due to the change in command speed (Thongam et al., 2009). Furthermore, the grid side converter control is used to assure that all the power approaching the rectifier is directly transferred to the grid by the inverter.
For most of the modern wind turbines, it is using a horizontal axis design with two or three blades and functioning either down-wind or up-wind (Chang, 2002). However, a vertical axis wind turbine is selected for the project design due to it is more appropriate to be used for housing areas. According to Dang & Rashid (2009), vertical axis wind turbine is able to begin the power generation at a lower win speed than horizontal axis wind turbine, which is proper to be used for housing area. Besides that, it is more residential friendly as it can be mounted lower than other wind turbine due to it is able to catch the wind from all the direction. In addition, the research of Dang & Rashid (2009) shows that the bigger the diameter of the rotor, the output power will be larger. Furthermore, Chaar et al. (2011) agreed with the research outcome of Dang & Rashid (2009) as no control is required to direct the rotor, so that the wind direction is not an issue for vertical axis wind turbine. On the other hand, Li et al. (2010) states that the performance of the vertical axis wind turbine can be improved by adding a Savonius rotor (S-Blade). Li et al. (2010) had done a computer simulation on a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine and a combined typed straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with Savonius rotor. The parameters like wind speed, axis radius, straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine radius, temperature, and viscosity are fixed. Eventually, the results shows that straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with S-Blade is having a greater performance due to the S-Blade lead to a blockage effect of the wind throughout the system and finally affects the aerodynamic performance (Li et al., 2010).
Selected Location for Data Input - Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Kota Kinabalu is the capital of Sabah state in East Malaysia. It located at the west coast division of Sabah. Figure 3 at the next page is showing the map of Malaysia and Figure 4 is showing the map of Sabah state for a better view on the exact location of Kota Kinabalu. As shown in Figure 4, the Kota Kinabalu city is locating near to the South China Sea. According to the climate information of historical monthly average in Kota Kinabalu, the maximum recorded wind speeds (km/h) from January to December are 74, 65, 74, 56, 74, 74, 93, 80, 74, 74, 56, and 65respectively (Weather2, n.d.) . Figure 5 at the page after next is showing the chart for daily expected wind speed and the maximum recorded wind speed over the year. On the other hand, Figure 6 at the page after next is showing the average monthly hours of sunshine over the year.
Figure 4: The map of Sabah.
Adapted from: http://www.mamakk.com/wp-content/sabah.jpg
Figure 3: The map of Malaysia.
Adapted from: http://www.realholidays.com.my/images2/my_map.gif http://www.mamakk.com/wp-content/sabah.jpghttp://www.realholidays.com.my/images2/my_map.gif
Figure 5: The average expected wind speed and maximum recorded wind speed over the year in Kota Kinabalu
Adapted from: http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Malaysia/Kota-Kinabalu/climate-profile.aspx
Figure 6: Average monthly sun hours in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (www.weather-and-climate.com, 2009)
Adapted from: http://www.weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Kota-Kinabalu,Malaysia
Materials for Prototype
For the supporting pole of the prototype, piping materials such as fibreglass, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and metal are being compared and the result are as shown in Table 1 below (BurgessWellCompany, n.d.).
Table 1: Comparison between Fibreglass, PVC, Stainless Steel, and Metal pipes
Adapted from: http://www.burgesswell.com/comp.htm
The result of from the Table 1 shows that the Fibreglass and PVC are suitable to be used as the material for the supporting pole for HSWET.
Moreover, the materials such as aluminium and steel are being considered for the helical blades for the wind energy conversion system. Apparently, aluminium is having the properties of light in weight and corrosion resistance. Therefore, aluminium is being selected as the material for the helical blades due to it is more suitable compare to steel.
The methodology for the HSWET is divided into 3 sessions, which are designing, construction, and testing.
Designing is the first session to do before a product is build. When designing the HSWET, data collection is one of the steps under the designing session. The primary and secondary data are obtained by interview method. Moreover, some sample designs can also be getting from the existing system as reference of designing it. Besides that, scope of research is also falls under the designing session. For this project, the research work is mostly focusing on the solar systems, wind turbine systems, and the typical geographical location for the system. The research is be about the solar energy and the wind energy which goes to photovoltaic system and the wind turbine respectively, and then goes to a control unit and lastly to the loads. Besides that, by considering the effectiveness and efficiency factors for setting up a hybrid renewable energy system at the housing areas as to meet the aim of the project, the types of solar system and wind turbine systems are also included in the research. However, a two-axis solar system and a helical vertical-axis wind energy conversion system with S-Blade are selected to be used. It is because according to the research, both the combination of the particular type of solar system and wind turbine system are said to be having the highest efficiency and effectiveness. After deciding on the type of systems, the entire design is to be drawn. Several sketches had been prepared and one of the sketches is selected to be the project design. After getting the sketch of the design, the material selection is considered. For this project, the helical blades of vertical axis wind turbine system is using aluminium and composite materials to contribute low rational inertia, so that it is able to accelerate quickly when the wind flows. In addition, the PVC pipe will be used for the material of the tower body. Besides that, photovoltaic panels will be use for the solar system. The project can then be constructed since the sketch for the design and materials are being considered. Besides that, the sketch will be drawn by using Autodesk Inventor software. Thus, with a better reference on the project drawing, the project can be started for construction by using the selected components.
In the construction stage, the prototype will be constructed according to the selected materials such as PVC or fibreglass for the supporting pole of the HSWET, aluminium for the helical blades, mono-crystalline solar panels for the photovoltaic system, and two DC motors for the controlling the rotary motions of the two-axis solar tracker. Besides that, a normal wind turbine system with stand still solar system will be constructed so that the HSWET is able to compare the results with the normal existing system.
After a prototype is built, it is to be tested at scaled down wind speed from the wind speed at Sabah region. Besides that, the solar system is tested under the sun at the outdoor from 8am to 4pm. This is to test the total power generated from the HSWET prototype from 8am to 4pm. The reading of the total power output from the system will be monitored and taken down for every 60 minutes. The output power of the system is monitored by using LabVIEW software. In addition, a table can be plotted by using the taken results and average of the total power for every single day for a total of 3 days testing period. In addition, the weather of the day will also be taking into consideration. On the other hand, the normal wind turbine system and stand still solar system is also being tested by using the same method. Hence, the results of power generated among the 3 days can be compared between the designed and constructed HSWET with the normal wind turbine system and stand still solar system.
The hybrid solar wind energy tower (HSWET) should be able to convert sunlight through the photovoltaic system (PVS) into electrical energy as well as converting wind energy into electrical energy through the wind turbine. The HSWET will be located on the roofs of residential housing areas at Sabah, so that it can fully utilize the wind energy as well as the solar energy. This is because usually the wind energy at the Sabah, which is near to the South China Sea is strong, whereas the sunlight can also be fully utilize because there is no blockage of the sunlight from reaching to the PVS on the roofs of the houses. In addition, the sunlight energy can be obtained all the time from sunrise till sunset due to the configuration of PVS with two-axis tracker. Hence, it will maximize the conversion of wind and solar energy to electricity.
The results which obtained from the prototype testing are being compared with current existing similar system. In overall, it should be achieving a better outcome than the current similar system which is showing that the HSWET will be more effectively and efficiency in generating energy.
However, there are a number of benefits by replacing non-renewable energy resources to renewable energy resources. The main benefit is that the renewable energy resources can significantly reduce the pollution which will lead to global warming. Besides that, unlike non-renewable energy resources, renewable energy resources will not used up. Hence, for long term use, it is more cost saving compare to non-renewable energy resources.