# George Westinghouse Was Innovator From New York Engineering Essay

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Ohms low states; I=V/R. It has been invented form Georg Ohm, German physicist in 1827. He described that current equals to voltage divided by resistance.

Georg Simon Ohm was burned in 1787 in Erlangen, Germany. In 1826 Ohm made a statement on mathematical description of conduction in circuits modelled on Fourier's study of heat conduction (Unknown, 2012)

## Development

Figure Ohm's experiment (Unknown, 2012)Ohm conducted an experiment; two Electrodes (X, Y) from conductive metal like carbon, composites. An electrode (A, B, C) has to be conducting electricity with an electrolyte. Those electrodes had to be in a conductive environment e.g. water with free ions, as it is known from physics. See figure 1http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/J/N/ohmexperiment.gif

(Unknown, 2012)

Using this experiment it the relationship between Voltage, resistor and current had been defined in 1827.

How does the Ohm Low concept works. Let's use a power splay of 12v (volts) and a resistor 3.0A (amps) for example, therefore before the resistor the voltage was 12v, but using this low after the resistor (R) the current will be I=12v/0.3A=50W (watts).

Figure Ohm's low (Unknown, nd)Future Developmenthttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/OhmsLaw.svg/220px-OhmsLaw.svg.png

Now the concept known as Ohm's low is used everywhere in electronics. Because this is a mathematical formula there is no feature developing for this concept. All electronic based computer systems are based on this low. If there is an electronic device the Ohm's low can be applied in one or another stage.

## History

George Westinghouse was innovator from New York. He worked on the hydroelectric development of Niagara Falls in 1896.

Westinghouse was working with Niagara on transmitting power with electricity over mechanical means and transmission of alternating currents over direct current. (Unknown, 2012)

## Development

The principle of this innovation is the use of a compressed air in a cylinder shaped blocks. The compassed air help produce enough pressure in order to close the breaks on the wheel and the vehicle to stop. (In, 2006-2011)http://cdn.innovateus.net/preset_4/airbrakes.jpg

Figure Air Brecks (In, 2006-2011)This concept produce enough force and hydroelectric concept in which George Westinghouse was working on can be used in other situation e.g. lifting heavy statute like bridges for instance.

## Future Development

Now and days the concept of this innovation is wildly used in human bean's life. The question is where to go from here. Hydroelectric concept now is well known. In order to get air breaks working, some energy source has to be used (hydroelectric). It is not likely that the air breaks to use anything but hydroelectric concept it is believed by the author of this report that if the energy source is charged to something else from hydroelectric the air breaks could be improved. The problem with that is there are no energy sources that will give 100% productivity by lows physics. Therefore the brilliant hydroelectric concept of George Westinghouse can be used not only for air brakes, but and in anywhere the large force is needed to perform a task e.g. cranes, bridges etc. Although the concept cannot be improved, marital and structure if air breaks could be possible to be improved.

## Knowledge Obtained

The knowledge obtained from the two innovations was useful. It was understood how one innovation can be implemented to a many situations. For instance Ohm's low is a single formula that defines the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance, but it can be used in any electronic dives. Hydroelectric concept can be used in air bricks, cranes, and lifting bridges, and etc.

The two innovations Ohm's low and air bricks, are such innovations that there has no clear or major feature Development. For example the Ohm's low is used in any electronic devises; the only thing that can be improved is the electronic devise itself. The aim is to get them as smaller as possible. For Hydroelectric, in particular used in air bricks,- the only thing could improve is there structure and materials of use.

## Reference

In, I., 2006-2011. Air Brakes. [Online] (Unknown) Available at: http://www.innovateus.net/invention/air-brakes [Accessed 22 Nvember 2012].

Unknown, 2012. Georg Ohm. [Online] (unkoun) Available at: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blohm.htm [Accessed 12 Novenber 2012].

Unknown, 2012. George Westinghouse. [Online] (Unknown) Available at: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blwestinghouse.htm [Accessed 20 November 2012].

Unknown, nd. Unknown. [Online] (Unknown) Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/OhmsLaw.svg/220px-OhmsLaw.svg.png [Accessed 12 Novenber 2012].

## History of the photovoltaic panels (PV)

The name of "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek (phos) meaning "light", and "voltaic", meaning electrical, from the name of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. Even though, solar panels are approved as a new technology, it's historical development is based on 18th century . First of all the photovoltaic effect was discovered by French physicist A. E. Becquerel during his scientific work about platenium layers in 1839 (Unknown, 2010). According to Becquerel's studies Willoughby Smith achieved to invented the first simple solar cell in 1873 (Unknown).

C:\Users\kubra\Pictures\gunes_pili_tarih_2.jpg

## Fig 1. Willoughby Smith's drowing of solar panel

In 1876, W.G. Adams ve R.E. Day maintained Willoughby Smith's studies and their experiments proved that solid matters can also built up photovoltaic effect. Charles Fritts performed the first serious solar cell by using selenium in 1883 but it's efficient was approximately 1 % . However, in the year of 1905 photovoltaic effect was represented properly by Albert Einstein and by this means he won the Nobel prize in 1921. Audobert ve Stora explored photovoltaic method which would be used for a long time by using Cadmium-Selenide (CdS) in 1932. In 1954, Pearson and Fuller discovered the photovoltaic effect of silicium. In this way they accomplished to produced solar cell with 5% efficiency and in a couple of years the efficiency increased to 8 %. In 1958, technical implementation of the photovoltaic panel was used on space craft named Vanguard I for the first time (Unknown, 2010). It was working with 9 % of efficiency and was producing 0.1 W power for 100cm2. Photovoltaic panels were used for satellite, Soyuz I, to provide energy in 1967. The technologies of Cu2S/CdS which can obtained 10% efficiency are developed in Delaware University in 1980 ( Unknown, 2010) . In 2005, significant improvements are acquired in photovoltaic panels by using polycyristal silicon.

## Technology of the Photovoltaic panels

Photovoltaic panels convert sunlight to the electrical energy. Radiation which comes from the sun move by particles named photon, in other words it spreads. Photons carry energy and move at speed of light. Solar cells are made layers of semi-conducting materials such as silicon, which is sensitive to light and these layers absorb the photons . When photons are absorbed by the solar cells, released energy causes that electrons move freely. Electrons move forward under the photovoltaic panel and come out of the cable. This current of the electrons is called electric.

One solar cell has 20-25 years of life and their surface is generally rectangular or square. Many solar cells can be connected as a paralel or serial to increase the it's power. This structure is known solar cell module or photovoltaic panel. Photovoltaic panes can be connected to a photovoltaic inverter. This inverter converts Direct current to AC and it can be connected to the electric power grid for a small systems or to large systems requÄ±red high voltage.

C:\Users\kubra\Pictures\6C4_solarhesap1.jpg

## Future of the Photovoltaic panels

Increased world population, according to this , increased demand of the energy and pollution caused by fosil fuels to meet this demand will cause that clean energy is one of the main problem in the near future. This problem will entail usage of renewable energy. Solar energy is the big enough to meet the demand of electricity on the world.

It's cost has been one of the biggest proplem up to now so when the use of solar panels increase, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is decreasing considerably. This will cause that solar energy will be the most efficient renewable source in the near future. Secondly, it is believed ( Kris Walker, Nov 22, 2012) that travel in solar power driven space ships could be improved and used in the future. Solar panels can take part in the architecture more. In other words, it could be used on the whole building and even windows or walls to extract energy from the sun. Furthermore, the solar power clothing technology which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of producing energy will be improved and common.the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

Experts state that the future of solar power depends on its efficient application. With the increase in use of solar panels, the average cost of manufacturing these panels is reducing considerably making solar energy the most efficient renewable energy source in near future. While no other renewable energy forms can work in space, solar energy is used to power space vehicles and satellites. Spacecrafts also make use of high efficiency solar cells to power themselves.

As human activities in space increases, it is believed that travel in solar power-driven space ships should be possible in the future. Eco-friendly solar plants can be created to generate solar energy by replacing carbon-producing oil and coal industry. In addition, solar panels can be fitted on the whole building to extract energy from sun. They can be integrated into the windows and walls as well. Upgrading old buildings with solar panels will in turn create more green energy in the future.

On the other hand, solar-powered clothing prototypes are being developed which will have clothes embedded with solar cells capable of generating solar energy to power devices like cell phones.

## History of the wind turbine

The usage of the wind energy dates back 5000B.C. .By 200 B.C windmills were used for pomping water in China and vertical-axis windmills with woven reed sails were grinding grain in the Middle East. By the end of 11th century people in the Middle East were used windmills for food production. In 19th century America started to use the windmills to pump water for farms and then to generate electricity for homes and industry. Than, industrialization caused the decline on usage of windmills in Europe and in America. However , the larger windmills, now known as wind tribune to generate electricity in Denmark (Unknown, 2011). One of the first wind turbines was designed by Charles F. Brush, of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1888 (Unknown). The Brush machine had a rotor 17 meters in diameter and was mounted on a 18 meter tower. The largest wind turbine known as Grandpa's Knob began operating on a Vermont hilltop in the 1940's. This tribune was rated at 1.25 megawatts in winds of about 30 mph. In 1956, wind turbine which is a 24 m diameter has been set up at Gedser and it ran until 1967. The interest of wind energy depended on fosil fuels so when the price of fosil fuel decreased in 1940's, use of wind energy felt. Then, in 1970's the interest of wind energy increased because of raise on the oil prices.

## Technology of the wind turbine

Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power and this mechanical power can be used for different aims such as grinding grain or pumping water or a generator which converts this mechanical power into electricity. Basically, wind tribunes consist of tower, electric generator, speed converters, electrical and electronic equipments and wind rotor.

To get the most out of wind turbines, it's location should be determined ideally. Wind tribunes should be placed where wind speeds reach 16-20 mph and are at a height of 50m. that power plants should be also located near existing power lines and in the windiest sites available. The air temperature is also important for wind power. Colder air is more denser than hot air so it affects to the operation of the wind tribune. The blades of turbines are similar to the propeller on an airplane. when the rotor blades generate lift from the passing wind , the hub of the turbine is rotated and this rotating action turns a generator, which creates electricity (Unknown, 2012).

022691.jpg

## Future of the wind turbine

Wind energy has been not only source of developed countries but also the source of developing countries which they lean towards. Therefore, utilisation from wind energy and the idea of installation wind tribune or wind farm is becoming widespread gradually. The number of projects on prudential wind power tribunes also is increasing significantly. According to committed calculations 21. century will be century that usage of wind energy together with all renewable energy sources will be more than estimated and renewable energy sources will leap forward (Ethan Goffman, 2008).

## Obtained Kowledge

Firstly, under-researched inventions was selected according to their impact on human life and future development. Their histories, technologies and improvements were researched basically. It can be seen that aim of the both inventions is similar; photovoltaic panel converts sunlight into electrical energy, wind turbine converts wind energy into the electricity. In other words, they are both generate renewable energy.

Many new information were obtained, for instance, these inventions are not new technology and their history go back a long way and both of them are open to improvement. Especially, energy sources which human being consume swiftly will decrease in the future. Besides tendency of renewable energy has emerged as a result of this consumption. Therefore, use of wind turbines and solar panels will be more common in the future. Morover, solar technology will come into our clothes!.

## References

Goffman, E., Capturing the Wind: Power for the 21st Century. [Online]

Available at: http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/wind/review.php [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, 2012., Electricity Producing Windmill. [Online]

Available at: http://news.cnet.com/2300-33566_3-10011387-2.html [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d., Historical Background of the Wind Power. [Online]

Available at: http://isaacbrana.wordpress.com/2010/06/28/historical-background-of-the-wind-power/ [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, 2010. History of Photovoltaics. [Online]

Available at: http://www.solarenergyhome.co.uk/history_of_photovoltaics.htm [Accessed 20 11 2012].

Unknown, 2011., History of Wind Energy . [Online]

Available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/wind_history.html [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d. History of Wind Energy Use. [Online]

Available at: http://www.edprenovaveis.com/Technology/WindTechnology/ForTeachersKidsAndConsumers/HistoryOfWindEnergyUse [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, 2012., How Wind Energy Works. [Online]

Available at: http://windcoalition.org/wind-energy/how-wind-energy-works/ [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d. Solar Panels History. [Online]

Available at: http://www.efficientenergysaving.co.uk/solar-panels-history.html [Accessed 20 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d. The History of (PV) Solar Cells. [Online]

Available at: http://www.solartotal.com/solarenergy/technology/solarcellhistory [Accessed 20 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d., Why Use a Mode Electrical Solar Power System?. [Online]

Available at: http://modesolarpanelstasmania.com.au/ [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d., Wind Power. [Online]

Available at: http://www.alliantenergykids.com/EnergyandTheEnvironment/RenewableEnergy/022397 [Accessed 22 11 2012].

Walker, K., Into the Future: Solar Power from Outer Space . [Online]

Available at: http://www.azocleantech.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=312 [Accessed 20 11 2012].

1. Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. [1] The idea of using boiling water to produce mechanical motion has a very long history, going back about 2,000 years. Thomas Sacery(1650-1715) patented the first crude steam engine. Based on Denis Papin`s digester or pressure cooker of 1679. And Tomas Newcomen was an English blacksmith, who invented the atmospheric steam engine. In the second half of the eighteenth century.[2] James Watt(1736-1819) transformed the design and application of the existing Newcomen steam pump to such an extent that many people today think of him as the first inventor of the steam engine. [3] Perhaps nothing in the history if Western technological achievement has been as important as the invention of steam engines, and their subsequent application to industry, transport, and agriculture. They were developed in response to a need for power that was part of the Industrial Revolution. [4] Although this began first in areas that were inhabited by Europeans, it led to the rise of industrial communities all over the world, and had global significance because those countries that pursued technological development became economically and politically stronger than less developed areas. 330px-Rankine_cycle_layout220px-Jacob_Leupold_Steam_engine_1720

[1] American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.

[2] Mary Bellis (1997). The History of steam engine. [Online].Available from: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsteamengine.htm [21th Nov 2012]

[3] Howard Jones (1973). Steam Engines an international history. Great Britain: Ernest Benn Limited. P28

[4] Howard Jones (1973). Steam Engines an international history. Great Britain: Ernest Benn Limited. P5.

2. Internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide. [1] The Internet and the telephone system are similar in that you connect your computer to the Internet just as you connect a phone to the phone system. On the Internet, you then dial another computer using Telent, special software that runs on your computer. [2] The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. [3] And after many years` develop, it become to the world`s largest computer network. The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. The number of available services is too huge to list in this chapter, but here are the Big Three: Electronic mail, The World Wide Web, and Instant messaging. [4] Although Internet just appears about twenty years, it has changed our life. It let us get information faster and make our world smaller. internet-marketing-strategy-traffic1internet20

[1] "Internet, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (Draft ed.). March 2009. http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/00304286. Retrieved 26 October 2010. "Shortened < INTERNETWORK n., perhaps influenced by similar words in -net"

[2] Joshua Eddings (1994). How the Internet Works. United States of America: Ziff-Davis Press. P19.

[3] Walt Howe. (2012) An anecdotal history of the people and communities that brought about the Internet and Web.[Online] Available from: http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html [21th Nov 2012]

[4] John R. Levine Margaret Levine Young (2010). The Internet for Dummises. 12th ed. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. P11.

Computer Invention

Figure.. Abacus (Unknown, 2009)The development of digital computers is derived from the abacus, which is the first mechanical calculating device, may be considered the first computer. It emerged about 5,000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still in use today (Unknown, 2011). As the necessity demanded, John Napier, a Scottish inventor, invented a calculating device called the Napier Bones in 1617. It shows how to divide by subtraction and how to multiply by addition. In 1642, Pascal's calculator, the first numerical calculating machine was invented by Blaise Pascal. In 1671, Gottfried Leibniz modified the Pascal calculator and called Leibniz calculator. In the year 1833, a machine which could keep our data safely was invented by Charles Babbage, the father of the computer. This device was called analytical engine and it deemed the first mechanical computer (Unkown, 2009). http://WikiEducator.org/images/thumb/c/cf/Abacus.jpg/150px-Abacus.jpg

Figure.2. ENIAC (Unknown, 2009)ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the world first successful electronic computer which was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchy (Unknown, 2009). As the invention of the transistor, first-generation computers were replaced by the transistorized computers in the late 1950s and early 60s. They, in turn, were supplanted by the third-generation integrated-circuit machines that were even smaller and were far more reliable. The integrated circuit (IC) was developed by Jack Kilby in 1958 (Unknown, Development of Computers, 2011). In 1971, the Intel 4004 chip (the first micro-processor) was developed by Ted Hoff of U.S.A. It not only diminished the size and price of computers, but also increased their power, efficiency and reliability. In 1981, IBM introduced its personal computer (PC) for use in the home, office and schools. This is the fourth generation where we are working today (Unkown, 2011). http://WikiEducator.org/images/thumb/e/e4/Ourg15a.jpg/150px-Ourg15a.jpg

## Microchip Invention

Figure Integrated circuit (Bellis, unknown)Microchip, or integrated circuit, is a power digital device from computers to cell phones to CD players, and even automobiles and satellites. Before the invention of the microchip, although transistors is much smaller in the size than that of a vacuum tube and allow more advanced electric circuits to be built, engineers still faced some problems, such as creating complex circuits with intact connections (Elise Moore, unknown). In 1958, Jack Kilby, started working for Texas Instruments and came up with a way to make smaller circuits. A year earlier, Robert Noyce, a research engineer, had co-founded the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and came up with a version of the integrated circuit that made it more suitable for mass production (Bellis, unknown). Noyce's silicon chip incorporated an insulation layer and streamlined the production process. With Kilby's integrated circuit, the chip and all its components were fitted in the same block of semiconductor material. Tiny wires and components no longer had to be manually assembled. Kilby did not win the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention until 2000 (Elise Moore, unknown). illustration from Jack Kilby's inventor's journal

Figure.2. Microchip (Unknown, 2007)In 1959, Jack Kilby and Texas Instruments received 3,138,743 patents of US for miniaturized electronic circuits. At the same time, Robert Noyce and the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation received 2,981,877 patents U.S. for silicon based integrated circuit. After several years of legal battles, the two companies wisely decided to create a global market by using their technologies. And now it is worth about \$1 trillion a year (Bellis, unknown). http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQdSEAdjW-fo5NGC7X0K9yt-UiAaUi82G7D8A-YP9rnyJryr6oa

## References

Bellis, M., unknown. The History of the Integrated Circuit aka Microchip. [Online]

[Accessed 18 11 2012].

Moore, E., unknown. Microchip History. [Online]

Available at: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6811035_microchip-history.html

[Accessed 18 11 2012].

Unknown, n.d. Computers: History and Development. [Online]

Available at: http://www.dia.eui.upm.es/asignatu/sis_op1/comp_hd/comp_hd.htm

[Accessed 18 11 2012].

Unknown, 2007. Microchip Technology Sets New Industry Standard. [Online]

Available at:

http://www.designworldonline.com/microchip-technology-sets-new-industry-standard/

[Accessed 23 11 2012].

Unknown, 2009. History of Computer Development. [Online]

Available at: http://wikieducator.org/History_of_Computer_Development

[Accessed 23 11 2012].

Unknown, 2011. Development of Computers. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 23 11 2012].

The Two Topics Suggested:

Cloud Computing:

Mars Rover:

Development Framework:

History / origin

Development (Technology Development and Impact on humans)

Future (progress in the field)

Cloud Computing

cloud-computing

The Origin of Cloud Computing

According to National Institute of Standards and Technology (Mell,P. and Grance, T. 2011), "cloud is a pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider Interaction"

The Cloud Computing technology according to Broberg, J. (2009) focuses on the following:-

Pay-per-use (Utility prices)

Elastic Capacity ( Demand can go up and down based on need)

Self Service Interface (Users manages their requirement and cost)

Virtualized resources

Biswas, S. (2011) wrote that the term 'cloud' was derived in 1990 when the telecommunication companies moved from point to point communication to virtual network which has to be represented in the form of a cloud network where different switching and routing of communication network packets takes place.

According to Biswas, S. (2011), in 1997, Ramnath Chellappa used the term 'cloud' for the first time to refer to a new computing paradigm where the limit of computing will be defined by economic and not technical limit. A situation where individuals will rent their own Computing requirement only for the period that computing resources is needed.

The cloud service providers contributed cloud services based on the table below:

## Cloud Service Provider Year of commencement

Salesforce.com 1999

Amazon.com 2002

Microsoft.com 2009

(Biswas, S. 2011)

The development of cloud computing

The cloud computing technology can be viewed from two perspectives namely, the technology development and the impact on human life.

The Technology Development

According to Zhang, S. et al (2010), the cloud computing technology stemmed from earlier computing technologies such as Grid computing, Parallel Computing and more recently the Internet. The cloud computing technology enables the sharing of large computing resources among multiple users over the Internet medium. The advent of web 2.0 technology, virtualization technology and advanced technology in storage gave rise to the cloud computing platform.

The Impact on Human

Buyyal, R. et. al. (nd) stated that Cloud computing has significantly improved the human life by achieving the computing utility paradigm which states that computing services will be made available to every home in the form of utility computing on a pay on demand basis similar to water and electricity utility which is available on the basis of the need of the consumer.

Today with the cloud computing technology users access their electronic mail box for old and new messages, users store their personal and corporate files in internet based storage facilities. Furthermore, large corporations and small medium business alike utilize the computing resources of cloud service providers to process their business data on a pay per use basis significantly reducing their operational cost.

The future of cloud computing

According to Hariss, D. (2012) 80% of new commercial applications will be deployed on the cloud platform, in addition, by the year 2016, 50% of the global 1000 companies will have stored customer-sensitive data on the cloud platform. This is based on the improvement in the cloud technology security. The consumerization of computing resources will eventually be based on quality of service, QOS, parameters and Service Level Agreement, SLA, which we will all be negotiating for our companies or ourselves. Are you prepared?

Mars Rover

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The Origin of Mars Rover

According to Smith, Yvete (2012), 'the objective of Mars Rover Curiosity is to evaluate whether Mars has or has had environment that can support bacterial or microbial life'. The process will involve analyzing the soil and rock samples and terrain to determine 'geological and climate history' of Mars.

The Exploratorium (2012), stated that in the early 1960's the United States of America and the Soviet Union made several attempts to explore the planet Mars. In 1965 the flyby voyager Mariner 4 deployed by NASA was able to send the first close shot picture of the Mars to the earth. Subsequent exploration of Mars by NASA Mariner 6, 7 and 9 and Soviet Mars 2 and 3 further produce clearer picture of the terrain on Mars. In 1976, the NASA explorer/lander Vikings 1 and 2 were about to provide further details about the Mars topology, volcanoes and canyons. The feasibility and capabilities of rover exploration was continuously tested with the deployment of Mars Sourjouner in 1997 as well as the Spirit and Opportunity in 2004. On the 26th of November 2011, a mobile science laboratory Mars rover named Curiosity was launched by NASA with a successful landing on the 5th of August 2012. This achievement marked the most recent innovations of Mars exploration.

The development of Mars Rover

The Mars Rover Curiosity development can be presented in terms of Technology development and the impact on Human life.

The Technology Development

The NASA fact sheet about Mars mission, (NASA, nd) stated that "the Curiosity rover in comparison with earlier rovers represents advancement of technology in Power, Communication and Imaging as well as the Mobility systems". In addition, the ability of the Mars rover to carry out chemical analysis of soil and rock samples as well as measure climatic condition is yet another major technological advancement of Curiosity. The Curiosity Rover is supplied with power from radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) unlike previous rovers that are powered by solar powers and are affected by is adequacy of sun light to power the system. The rover is fitted with higher capacity embedded systems compared to the previous rover and is equipped with more sophisticated robotic arm for drilling and holding samples. (NASA, nd)

The Impact on Human

The impact of the technological innovation is the potential of having a successful manned mission to the planet Mars. This is because Curiosity rover will be able to determine if radioactive rays that can prove lethal to manned mission are present on Mars. In addition, the soil sample analysis of Curiosity can lead to the discovery of valuable mineral resources on the Planet. Furthermore, if Curiosity effort can establish that the planet Mars was once occupied by living beings, then the conditions that result to the present state of Mars may be studied to avoid a similar event on the planet earth.

The future of Mars Rover

The Curiosity Mars Rover has a mission life of 687 earth days or One Martian year, according to Orr, K. (nd). The period will be characterized with constant images of different parts of the planet Mars being taken and sent to earth, extensive roving and coverage of the Mars terrain as well as exploring the current evidence of water path on Mars. Curiosity will be able to collect and analyze samples that will help scientist to determine if microbial life exists or once existed as well as determine what happens to those lives. Most importantly Curiosity will contribute towards a successful manned mission to Mars.