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The main objective of our proposed system is to safe guard peoples life and government property. This paper will focus on the system that will detect and control the fire accidents on running train. In-house parameters such as temperature and humidity in the each coach can be monitored in real time. From the information collected by the sensor system, decisions for fire fighting, alarming, and automatic water sprinkler system can be made more quickly by the relevant system or engine driver. After receiving the signal, the engine driver will stop the train and take necessary action.
Key Terms - Fire alarm system, Fire protection systems, Wireless sensor network, Automatic sprinklers, Signal transmission.
The trains are moderate vehicles used for transporting people and goods. Mostly, the people prefer the train journey for longer distance as it is cheaper. Since induction of train for public transportation, the fire accidents are not catered seriously by the Indian Railways. The notices showing "Do not smoke", "Do not carry inflammable material" are the only precautionary warnings about the fire in each compartment. However, because of failure in routine maintenance system or by the activities of illegal social elements, the fire accidents in train occur frequently. These fire accidents are among the most serious disasters to human lives and the property of government. In recent days, the train fire accident occurred and made several human loss. The prevention of train fire has become a serious concern in our country. Currently, Our Indian Railways doesn't use any sophisticated fire prevention methods. But it is realized to have an automatic system to monitor the fire in the coach giving alarm to the people, sending signal to the engine driver to stop the train and the fire is extinguished with the help of automatic sprinkler system. To have these all above in a single package a wireless sensor network based on ZigBee technique is proposed.
This system is used for monitoring, automatic fire sprinkling, cautioning and preventing of fire in running trains. The fire may occur in any form of activities such as short circuit in the electrical wires, prohibited activities of carrying diesel, petrol, gas stoves and smoking near by them will cause fire accidents. To control these we do not have an intensive work force. To overcome this, a system of having automatic sensor monitoring, fire alarm warning and fire extinguishing are based on ZigBee wireless sensor network technology. This system can monitor real-time related parameters such as temperature and humidity in each coach. From the information collected by the system, decisions for fire fighting, alarming, and automatic operation of the train braking system can be made more quickly by the system or engine driver. The engine driver will get the warning light and he stops the engine. Further he informs to the immediate concern authority for help.
Main Parameters of Coach Fire Monitor
There are three factors comprising of fire. The factors are oxygen, material and heat or ignition. A train fire usually occurs as the result of these three elements. Here, we are going to see elaborately the heat or ignitions being produced by the following,
A deteriorated insulation on electrical wire causing short circuit
Carelessness of smoker's activities
Illegal usage of stoves used by the tea or coffee vendors
And the activities of anti-social elements
To control these we must have a system of work force which is not deployed by the Indian Railways. To enable these we propose to have a temperature monitoring system in each coach. The device categorically of thermocouple used for monitoring the coach temperature and also provides both external and internal alarms. The devices are fixed on each coach at the appropriate distance covering full coach. ie., the total length of the coach is divided into four segments and the sensor is centrally placed in each segment.
Structure and Function of the sensor node
The sensor is a basic unit and platform of the wireless sensor network. A sensor is commonly composed of a sensor module, a processing module, a ZigBee wireless module and a driver display module. The sensor module is responsible for wave-electrical conversion and collecting parameters such as relative humidity and atmospheric temperature.
The processing module is responsible for calculating the temperature, sensing node and alerting alarm by sending the signal to engine driver. The ZigBee wireless module is responsible for receiving a reliable signal and it illuminates the warning light indicating to stop the train by engine driver. The driver display module monitors the three modules and control the fire by using fire sprinkler system. In this Sensor, is principle calculates the increased temperature over the atmospheric temperature and then it transmits the signal to the engine driver through ZigBee wireless technology. Simultaneously alert the passenger by alarm also initiate the emergency fire sprinkler for operation.
Fig. 1. Different types of module
ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols. Zigbee is a typical wireless communication technology. ZigBee uses low rate, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs (Wireless personal area network), such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (RF) applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. ZigBee has a defined rate of 250 kbps best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device. There are a multitude of proprietary wireless systems manufactured today to solve a multitude of problems that also don't require high data rates but do require low cost and very low current drain. These proprietary systems were designed because there were no standards that met their requirements. These legacy systems are creating significant interoperability problems with each other and with newer technologies.
It is Open standard protocol with no or negligible licensing fees, chipsets available from multiple sources, remotely upgraded firmware, fully wireless and low power, mesh networking to operate on batteries, low maintenance and larger network size with standard based high security.
The ZigBee specification identifies three kinds of devices that incorporate ZigBee radios, with all three found in a typical ZigBee network .
â€¢ Coordinator (ZC): organizes the network and maintains routing tables .
â€¢ Routers (ZR): can talk to the coordinator, to other routers and to reduced-function end devices
â€¢ End devices (ZED): can talk to routers and the coordinator, but not to each other.
Fig. 2. ZigBee network
The ZigBee Alliance is not pushing a technology; rather it is providing a standardized base set of solutions for sensor and control systems. ZigBee is poised to become the global control/sensor network standard. It has been designed to provide the following features:
Low power consumption, simply implemented
Users expect batteries to last many months to years! Consider that a typical single family house has about 6 smoke/CO detectors. If the batteries for each one only lasted six months, the home owner would be replacing batteries every month!
Bluetooth has many different modes and states depending upon your latency and power requirements such as sniff, park, hold, active, etc.; ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 has active (transmit/receive) or sleep. Application software needs to focus on the application, not on which power mode is optimum for each aspect of operation.
Even mains powered equipment needs to be conscious of energy. Consider a future home with 100 wireless control/sensor devices,
ZigBee devices will be more ecological than its predecessors saving megawatts at it full deployment.
Low cost (device, installation, maintenance)
Low cost to the users means low device cost, low installation cost and low maintenance. ZigBee devices allow batteries to last up to years using primary cells (low cost) without any chargers (low cost and easy installation). ZigBee's simplicity allows for inherent configuration and redundancy of network devices provides low maintenance.
High density of nodes per network
ZigBee's use of the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC allows networks to handle any number of devices. This attribute is critical for massive sensor arrays and control networks.
Simple protocol, global implementation
ZigBee's protocol code stack is estimated to be about 1/4th of Bluetooth's or 802.11's. Simplicity is essential to cost, interoperability, and maintenance. The IEEE 802.15.4 PHY adopted by ZigBee has been designed for the 868 MHz band in Europe, the 915 MHz band in N America, Australia, etc; and the 2.4 GHz band is now recognized to be a global band accepted in almost all countries.
Application of ZigBee wireless sensor network in Fire Detection system
A wireless sensor network which combines driver's display unit and signal transmitter is considered to be one of the reliable applications. This network is composed of micro sensor nodes which have the ability to calculate. These nodes can monitor sense and collect information of different locations in the coach.
ZigBee is a low-rate, low-cost and low-power kind of short range wireless network communication protocol. Compared with other wireless technologies, ZigBee has unique advantages of safe and reliable data transmission, an
easy and flexible network configuration, low equipment costs and Long- lasting batteries. The ZigBee Alliance is not pushing a technology; rather it is providing a standardized base set of solutions for sensor and control systems and The ZigBee Network Node is designed for battery powered or high energy savings.
Thus, it has great development potential and a promising market application in the field of industrial control. By applying a wireless sensor network based on ZigBee to a train fire monitoring system, information such as temperature and relative humidity at any part of the train covered by the network could easily be collected, dealt with and analyzed at any time. In addition, the system Can be extended significantly, the cost of equipment maintenance could be reduced and the whole system could be optimized.
Fire Alarming System
The thermocouple temperature sensor is to monitor for fire conditions within rail coach and provides external and internal alarms, together with automatic operation of the train braking system. When the temperature senses it triggers the alarm in the coaches to make the people alert and wake up who are sleeping. The carriage Controllers have associated with the LED batteries such that fire protection is maintained by indicating the color lights in the driver's display unit. As a back up, the alarm also installed in the engine driver. This provision is created to ensure that the engine driver does not oversight the illuminator light.
Fig. 3. Layout of a train
Control of Fire Accidents
After the signal send by the ZigBee wireless monitoring system, it also ensures the fire sprinkler system gets operated and the fire extinguished or the temperature is brought down substantially. To facilitate this, a pipeline all along the compartment is connected with the water tank. The value is intermittently fitted in the pipeline. When the sensor is detecting the increased temperature, this enables the valve to get open and automatic sprinkler sprays the water in the compartment. Resulting the fire is extinguished or temperature is brought down.
Fig. 4. Overall view process
When fire is noticed in any one of the compartment, temperature sensor senses the fire by the way of difference between the coach temperature and the critical temperature. It collects the signal of increased temperature and it responses to the driver display unit when it reaches above the critical fire point. Then it invokes three major processes to control the fire. They are,
AUTOMATIC ALARM SYSTEM
ZIGBEE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK
AUTOMATIC WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM
Automatic alarm system which alerts all the passengers at sleep during night Thereby the people can put maximum effort to safe guard themselves as well to control the fire.
ZigBee wireless sensor network which transmits signal to the engine driver panel enabling the warning light and alarm to function. The Engine driver stops the train. The main reason for stopping the engine is to avoid spreading of fire to other compartments when train is moving into the wind. Simultaneously the driver informs to the concern authority for help.
Automatic water sprinkler system which is energized and shut-off valve opens. It allows water to enter into the sprinklers and get sprayed. Now the temperature and the heat intensity are reduced. These three processes are mainly used for controlling the fire accidents on running train.
Fig. 5. Flow chart for controlling fire accidents
Wireless sensor network are increasingly applied in the field of fire safety and monitoring. Especially in difficult and harsh workstations such as mines, ships, submarines. In addition, wireless sensor technology has a broad application background in the field of real time forest fire monitoring. This system has not been applied in practical train fire monitoring. To monitor temperature and humidity in the coach in a more timely and precise way, we pointed out unique advantage of safety in signal transmission, flexibility in network set up and low cost. We propose this system as a first attempt and compliment to Indian railways fire monitoring system. To extend the potential of the system and improve the Indian railways to implement on priority basis in order to avoid train fire accidents in future.