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As an officer with a consultant firm located in developing country, you are in charge of preparing an Environmental Impact Assessment Report for a new airport project in the capital city. Provide a guideline for such a report, stating important requirements that are needed. Make appropriate assumptions when necessary.
Kota Kinabalu International Airport (KKIA)
PURPOSE AND SCOPE
As an consultant firm we are committed to developing and maintaining safe, pleasant, and efficient facilities in airport in developing countries, which meet all environmental requirements for the public and for the people working in and near to the airport. To that end, these regulations are provided for guidance and direction in the design in new project airport, construction in new Airport project, selection of materials that uses, and location of all improvements at the airport or property owned by the airport, by the way coordinating all Port and hirer built facilities into an overall integrated framework. Where this project is general more than specific, projects should use standard practices, materials, and workmanship.
These suggestion apply, within the legal boundaries of the airport in developing countries, to the construction, alteration, repair, relocation or renovation of any structure or facility, filling or grading of land, landscaping, construction of pavement, installation of water, storm drainage, sewer and industrial waste lines, power and control systems and other underground facilities, installation of warming, aerate, air conditioning systems, deliver and technically, mechanical systems, fire protection systems for the safety and facilities, electrical power facilities and systems, environmental protection systems, communication systems, cleanup of soils and groundwater conducted under Federal and State environmental regulations and aboveground and underground fuel storage and distribution facilitiy.
For existing airports, the simplest form of public new airport in developing countries is contracting out management of the airport on a relatively short term basis. Larger economic benefits can generally be obtained via a long term lease or sale of the airport, increasingly common overseas. To create new airport facilities in developing countries (or entirely new airports), the sector can be granted either a long-term or perpetual franchise to finance, design, own, and operate those facilities. These techniques can also be used to convert military bases to commercial airports.
Federal airport grant (AIP) funds for capital investment projects can be used at all types of domestic airports in Sabah, it's known as entitlement grants (based on passenger or cargo volume) are only available if government of Malaysia retains underlying ownership of the airport (which still permits management contracting or long-term leases). Tax-exempt bonds may remain in place when an airport is privatized, and in some cases tax exempt financing can be used for new airport privatization projects.
The benefits of a more built of new airport in Kota Kinabalu to airport management include increased operating efficiency, increased airport revenues, improved airport amenities, possible new revenue streams for state and local governments of Malaysia, and reduce risk of developing uneconomic projectsc that can give negative externality to Environmental. Airlines, passengers, private-plane owners, and taxpayers can all benefit from this new approach to airport management in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah state of Malaysia.
Serves the city of Kota Kinabalu, the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located about 8Â km southwest of the city centre. It is believed that known the second busiest airport in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur International Airport, can accommodate 4.8 million passengers. It is the main gateway into the state of Sabah and into Borneo in Malaysia.
The project showed the 2,988Â m (9,803 ft) runway extended to 3,780Â m (12,402 ft) and the size of the main airport terminal building (Terminal 1) increased from 34,000Â m2 (370,000 sqÂ ft) to 87,000Â m2 (940,000 sqÂ ft). The new airport terminal building will be able to accommodate four Boeing 747s, one Airbus A330, seven Boeing 737s, three Fokker 50s and three Dorniers at any one time in Sabah.
SCHEMATIC MAP OF THE AIRPORT KKIA
SOURCE : Construction Project Government Of Sabah
When the overall project is completed, the airport will be able to accommodate the Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger aircraft in Malaysia. The airport will also be the second largest airport in Malaysia that implemented with an annual capacity of 12 million passengers 9 million from Terminal 1 and 3 million from Terminal 2.
This new project airport will would be equipped with :
64 check in counters for international
64 check in counters domestic flights
Two baggage x-ray check-in machines and 5 hand luggage x-ray machines (3 for departure, 1 for VIP and 1 for staff)
36 Immigration counters (16 for departures and 20 for arrivals)
6 baggage carousels
3 floor level (Ground floor: Arrival Hall, First Floor: Office and Airline company, Second Floor: Check-in counter and departure hall)
17 aircraft parking bays capable of accommodating both the wide and narrow body aircraft
1,400 car park and dedicated parking area
SAFETY MANAGEMENT KKIA
We make sure no construction shall be carried on or implemented which is or may become dangerous to public health and safety in Kota Kinabalu International Airport, which increases rating for the Airport, or which is illegal as overall. We have no construction activity shall be unreasonably noxious, offensive, or create an unreasonable annoyance or nuisance to others on or adjacent to the Airport.
Our contactor is financially responsible for the safety in Kota Kinabalu International Airport (KKIA) and must repair, to the satisfaction of the Port, all damage to the airport because all operation may cause to existing Airport pavement, roads, bridges, drainage pipelines, lighting system, or other Airport improvement in Kota Kinabalu.
When essential utilities are damaged, repairs shall be made immediately means that on an overtime basis if necessary. The contractor is responsible and liable for all injury to persons and damage to property resulting from our operation for the new airport project in the capital city in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
We are commited in safety management, we identify first, before choose the location in the capital city located in Kota Kinabalu. As we known that Hazards to aircraft include debris, nesting birds, and reduced friction levels due to environmental conditions such as ice, snow, or rain that can give some difficult to implemented . We have good weather in Kota Kinabalu, this is can give advantages for the new airport project built here.
Part of runway maintenance is airfield rubber removal which helps maintain friction levels. The fields must be kept clear of debris using cleaning equipment so that loose material does not become a projectile and enter an engine duct . In adverse weather conditions, rain and some adverse weather clearing equipment can be used to improve traction on the landing strip. For waiting aircraft, equipment is used to spray special deicing fluids on the wings.
Kota Kinabalu International Airport (KKIA) airports are built near open fields or wetlands. It's not give any problem to us, because Sabah have so much fields and wetlands that can built new Airport project in Malaysia. To overcome some problems like tend to attract bird populations, which can pose a hazard to aircraft near Kota KInabalu in the form of bird strike. We will inform and enforce Airport crews often need to discourage birds from taking up residence.
Some airfields in Kota Kinabalu now have a special surface known as soft concrete at the end of the runway ( stopway or blastpad) that behaves somewhat like styrofoam, bringing the plane to a relatively rapid halt as the material disintegrates. These surfaces are useful when the runway is located next to a body of water or other hazard that can give negative impact, and prevent the planes from overrunning the end of the field that can occur accident. It's can become strengthen when the soft concreate impose at the runway, and overcome all problems that exist when the surface of runway not support with strong concrete.
ASBESTOS IN KKIA
Many of the terminal building in Kota Kinabalu International Airport was structural members and near with building surfaces above suspended ceilings and inside wall are protected by spray on asbestos containing fireproofing and it's can prevent from any . The tenant or its contractor shall therefore notify the Port during the project planning stage for any project that may require removal or work above suspended ceilings, within or behind walls, or through floors.
This requirement addresses to all work in the project airport in KKIA, including but not limited to running new lines for telephones and communication that have equipment, computers system, cameras, or tasks such as changing light bulbs or built in signs. These all are important to make sure all work in the project implemented with more efficient and guaranted.
All workers in the Airport project involved in construction or maintenance activity located in near terminal building areas known to have asbestos containing materials (ACM) and must attend a 2 hour asbestos awareness training class provided by the Port of Seattle. Attendance at this class is required prior to the commencement of work to started the responsibility in their work. All them must follow the procedure that given by standard quality of Airport project above rules and regulation.
Asbestos abatement projects in Kota Kinabalu International Airport (KKIA) require notification of the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency and the State Department of Labor and Industries. A "waiting period" of up to 10 working days after notification is imposed before a project can be started. Early contact with the Port regarding asbestos abatement for a project is recommended so that the required forms can be filed as early as possible.
We can reduced noise of airport project to some extent by design of quieter jet engines, which was implemented long time ago. This strategy can give more benefit because it has brought limited but noticeable reducing of urban sound levels on environment. Review of operations, such asamend flight paths and time of day runway use, has showed benefits for residence populations live in near airports.
Except for the operation of motor vehicles, aircraft or other transportation equipment in Airport, the maximum permitted sound levels at any point shall not exceed or more than the levels established by any state of government in Malaysia, federal or local government agency with jurisdiction to controlled noise in Airport. Noise level restrictions may be obtained from the CI that we can know what the noise level permitted.
We realized that the source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems in new airport project, including motor vehicle noise that can give most pollution sound in among area, aircraft noise and rail noise also give as long as possible contribute to noise pollution project located. At the same time, we identify that poor urban planning may give much rise to noise pollution in nearest area, since side by side industrial airport project and residential buildings can result and contribute in noise pollution in the residential area.
Aircraft noise is noise pollution that is some time can give negative impact for the environment produced by any aircraft or its components while it's operation, during various phases of a flight, on the ground while parked such as support power units, while move slowly, on run up from fan of aircraft and jet exhaust, during take off, under and side to departure and advent paths, over flying while on route, or during the aircraft landing.
Mechanisms of sound production depends on how much the efficient and systematic management in built airport project to controlled all externality negative while the operation started. A moving of aircraft include the noise of jet engine or fan of aircraft causes pressure of compression and rarefaksi of the air, produced motion of air molecules in that area.
This movement expand through the air as pressurewave. If this pressure wave are strong enough and within the audible frequency spectrum, a sensational of hearing is produced and establish the noise. In the rules and regulation that implemented different aircraft types have different noise levels and frequencies produced. The noise originated from 3 main sources that identify:
Engine and other mechanical noise
Noise from aircraft systems
Aerodynamic noise exist from the airflow around the aircraft means that it's related with parth of body aircraft and control surfaces. This levels of noise will increases when aircraft speed and also at low lowest altitudes due to the compactness of the air. Jet powered aircraft will create powerful noise from aerodynamic. Short flight, high speed aircraft of military produced generally loud and high aerodynamic noise.
The shape of the nose, windshield or canopy of an aeroplane will affects the sound produced by . Much of the noise fan of aircraft is of aerodynamic originate due to the flow of air around the blades. For example the helicopter main and tail rotors also give rise and increase to aerodynamic noise in Airport. These type of aerodynamic noise is mostly low frequency determined by the rotor speed that uses.
ENVIRONMENT IN KOTA KINABALU
Aircraft noise is major cause of noise pollution and become one big problems to residents living near airports that can disturb their routine. The routine like Sleep can be affected if the airports operate night and early morning flights. This become residents live near airports not suitable to living when they expose with sound pollution everyday and when works of construction airport project implemented.
Aeroplane noise not only occurs from take off and landings aircraft, but also ground activities include maintenance and testing of aircraft or repairs aircraft that produce high noise and this will polluted with existing noise pollution. We know that noise can have other noise health effects for human that can give direct effect for all ecosystem. In other words, other noise and environmental concerns are vehicle traffic used believed cause noise and pollution on roads leading the airport while or in complete airport.
The construction and built of new airports project in Kota Kinabalu or addition of runways to existing airports and improvement road run-way , is always being fought by local community because of the effect on village, historical sites in located area, local flora and fauna. Also we can see that due to the risk of collision between birds and airplanes, large airports carry out population control programs where they try to frightening or shoot the birds generally.
The construction of airports in Kota Kinabalu have been known to change local weather patterns. This is because they often flatten and press out large areas, they can be vulnerable to fog in areas where fog rarely forms. At the same time, in the area of contruction and built airport mostly replace trees and grass with pavement, they usually change drainage patterns in agriculture areas, leading to more flooding, run off and erosion in the surrounding land of airport areas..
Airport project in Kota Kinabalu of the airport administrations prepare and publish annual environmental reports in ready to showing how our firm consider this environmental concerns in airport management issues that believed can exist some problems and how our firm protect environment from airport operations to reducing noise pollution followed rules and regulation made by government.
This reports contains all environmental protection prepared by firm and measures levels of performed by airport administration in terms of water, air, soil and noise pollution produce by airport project, resource protection and protection natural life around the airport construction.
In planning preparing environmental impact assessment for a new airport project, the major procedure that must followed is reducing in externality negative from airport project on environmental. All project made must followed the rules and regulation by government policy in developing country to endanger and not destroyed environment and next to damage all ecosystem and can give climate changes in certain area, for example area warming in project airport located.
Noise can have a risk and effect on animals and human by causing stress, increasing risk of die with changes in the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and eliminate, and by interfering with their use of sounds in communication in term of relations especially in relation each other to reproduction and in navigation generally.
Acoustic that overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing in long term. It's can give effect not only on animal, but human also can get permanent loss hearing if we are not consider about externality negative existing in construction airport project.
We can see also impact of noise on animal life is the reduction of important benefit habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of can give danger for species may being part of the path to destroyed species environmental. This is because, as we know that noise pollution exist by construction and built big project like airport project has caused the death of certain species after being exposed to the high loud sound of implemented construction project that come from construction a airport project.
Noise also to make species communicate more louder than usually, this we called Lombard Vocal Response. In cases Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that showed that whales' song length is longer, it's happen submarine detectors are on. At the same time, If creatures do not speak loud enough as needed, their voice will being masked caused by anthropogenic sounds in certain area. This unheard voice may become warnings, finding of prey, When one species start to speaking louder, it will being mask other species voice, causing as whole ecosystem speak louder in environmental.
EFFECT HUMAN HEALTH
Before identify some project, we must identify what are the problem can existing of airport project especially problems that can give direct for human and next give effect to the human health. In airport project, we know that noise or sound that cause by construction and works everyday can give problem hearing in residence near airport project. To reducing the some noise, and solve the problems with enforcement to think about programs to insulate homes near airports in Kota Kinabalu.
At the same time, government also with authorized that have must use of noise barriers limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles while works of construction implemented, use of traffic controls while airport project implemented this can smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration of vehicles, and tire design that can influence and produce some noise pollution. This is because noise pollution are serious matter problem and it's related with problems human health.
Noise health effect come from noise pollution that exist by construction and works of airport project both health and behavioral in works located. The negative sound is called noise when it's not suitable to hearing of human. This noise sound come from airport project can damage physiological on health human or community near airport overall.
Noise pollution can cause interference and invasion , high blood pressure , high stress levels, tinnitus , hearing loss for human , sleep disturbances because works of construction, and other harmful effect that can existing externality for the community. At the same time, stress and high blood pressure are the leading causes to health problems for the human, where tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness for human health, severe recession and at times panic attacks suddenly.
Critical exposure to noise may causing hearing loss of human. Older man exposed to important occupational noise showed significantly reduced hearing sensibility than their non-disclosure peers, though differences in hearing sensibility decrease with time. The research population showed that chronic exposure to modestly high levels of environmental noise can give negative impact to hearing loss for human.
More High noise levels can contribute and give negative effect to cardiovascular effects for human and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in high blood pressure of 5 to 10 points and can an increase in stress of mind and life and vasoconstriction leading to the high blood pressure noted above as well as to increased of incidence of coronary artery disease for human and furthermore, noise pollution also can cause of annoyance.