Environment affects the life of the people and many challenges arising from the climate change are affecting both animals and plants. In this section we are going to refer in detail for the major aspects, which are affecting the environment in the area of the London gateway port. Many aspects are arising from this development of having a bad result in the environment the ones that will be addressed for this scoping report are the visual, marine, traffic, noise and air.
Point 1: Changes during Construction of Ro-Ro ferry
The RoRo ferry construction demands an expansion of the road network. Increasing the lanes in a road network an increasing of lorries and cars is expecting. This result to a traffic congestion as the RoRo ferry will open a variety of jobs for various people and also by constructing a berthing structure that can accommodate two freights simultaneously it means that more lorries will have to travelling on this road to transport the cargos. Traffic congestion affects the whole development by having effects on the prosperity of the country, the quality of life and the environment.
Point 2: Traffic
Considering the existence of an extra Ro-Ro ferry here means the increase on products entering the port. Therefore, more trucks will be traveling from London gateway to London.
Point 3: Logistic Park
The environmental benefits of the offering from the Logistic park location, in terms of transport emissions due to distances saved and optional modes of transport provided by rail and feeder vessels, along with modern more economic and environmentally friendly buildings will reduce transport and other operational costs, and CO2. (Dp-world)
Point 4: Assuming of having a container port rather than Ro-Ro ferry
Amount of product in port will be similar but not as many trucks will be in port area therefore the transportation will be only off port site as in the other container port.
By having the full land as a container port it doesn't demand such amount of lorries to move from the terminal and transport the cargo. If the whole place was only a container terminal the cargo would be gone directly to the logistics parks and transfer it by cranes.
Point 5: Results of traffic into other sectors (also mentioned in details on next section: Air)
By minimising the traffic we then minimise the air pollution, because lorries extracting many amounts of co2 emissions. So this option by having a whole container port will be a better sustainable development and more friendly to the environment. The option of having a container port at its place and the rest of it empty space is not cost effective solution as the DP-world paid for the whole land and the whole preparation for this place to be constructed is already been undertaken.
Traffic cause noise and air pollution as the trucks and the cars that might be congested will therefore cause air pollution by extracting co2 emissions and also causing noise pollution by the engines still working. Also moreover traffic can be caused from the freight traffic as by having a roro ferry terminal 2 freights can be accommodated in the berthing structure that results to have deep sea container freight traffic. The option having a container port all over the land is a more convenient way as it can accommodate only one container ship and won't cause traffic.
In the port industry, however, excess capacity plays a more crucial role; productive headroom not only attracts more traffic to the port, but is also a signal of its reliability, a crucially important factor for port users.
Workers and the residents around the area will be affected. As the workers will have to drive in the area so they can go to their work and the residents driving from their house to work and vice versa.
In order to measure the vehicle traffic most authorities have data on motor vehicle registrations, drivers' licenses, and the mileage of the vehicles. Performance indicators can also be used as they include traffic volumes, the average speed of the traffic near the roads in and out of the port terminals, parking supply, vehicle operating costs and crash rates.
In addition, the mobility can be measured by using travel surveys to quantify person-miles, ton-miles, and travel speeds, plus traffic data to quantify average automobile and transit vehicle speeds. In recent years some special techniques have become available to evaluate multi-modal transportation system performance and this is one option that can be used for the London gateway terminal.
Mitigate Traffic Changes:
To minimise those changes in traffic people that travelling to work must prefer to use the public transport rather than their cars. And the transportation of the cargo will better moved by the rail as well inside the city rather than using lorries to transport it to the relative shops. And for the freight traffic to keep the whole site as a container port and reject the possibility of constructing a ro ro ferry terminal as by this the we r going to have only one container ship rather than two freight coming at the same time.
A major result from traffic affecting the environment is the co2 emissions that causing air pollution and affecting the quality of air. The air quality plays a major role in the environment, it compromising of two elements (a) soot and dust that mainly produced from dry cargo handling and storage, from the construction works on the land and the road traffic; b) the concentration of sulphur dioxide (So2), nitrogen dioxide (no2), carbon dioxide (co2) and hydrocarbons (HC) all those fuels released by freights or container ships, vehicles, various construction plants and other equipment that will be used for the port facilities.
Unsafe substances and odour are also elements to be taking into account for this part. Those gasses emissions that emitted from the construction plants, work vessels, lorries and other vehicles that used during construction is a source of air pollution. Moreover the construction activities produce dust and soot that are also a possible source of air pollution. In addition ships are another source of airborne emissions such as gasses, smoke, soot and fumes. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are common pollutants produced by container ships and freights while both maneuvering and berthing and have bad effects in air quality as the pollute the atmosphere in the surrounding area.
Nevertheless bulk cargo handling and storage emit gasses and can be seen as a source of the air pollution. Liquid cargo handling may result in the release of vapour during the cleaning of storage tanks and by the breather system for ambient temperature changes. Accidental leakage of gasses may cause problems such as toxic material emission explosions, fumes, odours and hazardous airborne emissions.
Air is generally connected with the transportation in site and off site as well as the containers/Ro-Ro ferries that will be ''parking'' at the port.
As mention at point 1 under transportation the increase on the trucks will lead into air pollution.
Existence of Logistic part might will minimize the transportation therefore air pollution as well (CO2 emissions).
Considering that the container port works different from a RoRo ferry port and more trucks are on site on the 2nd type of port the air will be polluted more at the 2nd type of port.
All types of animals as air pollution will cause problems.
In general the amount of pollution from all those emissions dust, transportation emissions, and construction plants can be measured by its concentration in air. There are various methods to measure air pollution, with both simple chemical and physical techniques and with more sophisticated electronic methods.
Passive sampling methods are cost effective method to do air quality analysis and give reliable results as they give an accurate indication of the concentrations of pollutant in the atmosphere over a period of weeks or months. The pollution in the atmosphere near ports can be monitored by physical process e.g diffusion tubes that provide useful information about the air quality and can measure the emissions created from the ships especially is reliable to measure no2.
Automatic methods that create high-resolution measurements of hourly pollutant concentrations can be used in order to analyze the fuels emitting from the ships, lorries, car and construction plants, and therefore can be analysed using various methods including spectroscopy and gas.
Mitigate air changes:
Techniques for monitoring the levels of dust emission are water scattering in the construction site, use of eco friendly transport means to get around the construction site. A green belt zone or open space between the construction site and the local community could be an effective way of achieving a less air pollution. Temporary pavement of roads in a construction site could significantly reduce the amount of dust emission.
Policies and accurate examination of emissions from ships are efficient mean to minimise pollutants. Heavy diesel oil used as fuel has to be forbid by the law as by this way any source of pollutants can be diminished. If the basic level of air pollution is significantly high, measures and policies against air pollution should be introduced and applied on a regional basis, including port activities.
Monitoring of air quality is essential in order to ensure that only adequate levels of emissions are composed in the atmosphere. Dust emission can be reduced by covers, screens, enclosures, sprinkling water or other similar methods. Regulations on emissions should be established for all the ports associated with a regional environment management plan.
Noise will be a minor issue in the environmental impact when no container port or RoRo ferry is built at the area. Considering the opposite both construction and operational noise has to be addressed.
Noise and vibration arise during construction in site. RoRo ferry terminal demands to have more lanes therefore bigger roads. This might lead into disturbing the soil to move into the water and the animals that are currently there. Other problems of noise and vibration generated during construction can be the following construction activities; construction equipment, truck traffic, work vessels and other similar sources.
Therefore considering the existence of RoRo ferry noise will increase because of extra products coming into the port.
Number of receptors is exposed in certain levels of noise from different groups of noise sources, which can be from the industry, railway, road and the ferries. Receptors can be:
A study that might be appropriate to measure the level of noise in the area while the port is operating is stated at the picture below:
Figure 1: Noise measurement 
Mitigate noise changes:
There are three main options for reducing the noise distribution:
Elimination directly at the source is one way of mitigating the noise in site. In the RoRo terminal the main sound sources are the train, trucks and ferries at berth although a plant can also be considered as a sound source. The only way to mitigate the sound sources is set by international organisations and equipment with less production of noise can be used in site if approved by the international organisations (such as International Maritime Organisation).
Classically, this takes the form of a type of physical barrier that mitigates or deflects the noise transmission. Another way is by looking into the infrastructure and the RoRo terminal layout for example noise may be avoided by reducing the driving distances for the handling equipment or by planning noise-optimised areas.
Limitation of working hours can also be considered as one possible way to mitigate the nuisances of working activities.
These measures may mostly set so as to mitigate the noise in residential areas and by reducing the noise there the residents will be protected from noise pollution.
Ways to reduce this is by:
Increasing the insulation of existing houses, sound insulting windows
Decreasing of openings in existing housings
Introduce community to the port operations by bringing inhabitants into the port and explain about port operations
Contact residents and operators at the port to increase trust
In conclusion all these three points are affecting the everyday life of the residents near the area. Personally, I believe there will be only a small increase in traffic and therefore noise and air pollution by constructing the Ro-Ro ferry. Making use of the extra space will give more advantages rather than disadvantages as the construction at the extra space will be as economic efficient as possible and more products will be entering in the UK through this port.