Energy Utilization Of Large Industrial Plant Engineering Essay

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The aim of this assignment is to undertake the responsibility of a Plant Operations and Maintenance Engineer. The installation in question for this assignment will be within a large scale Industrial Pharmaceutical Facility.


O&M managers have the responsibility of interfacing with other department managers and making their case for budgets. Their roles also include project implementation functions as well as the need to maintain persistence of the program and its goals. ( O & M 2010)


An O&M manager also highlights the most important factors and considerations that are needed in order maximise the utilisation of energy and its consumption in an installation, e.g a Pharmaceutical.


Project Information


Industrial Pharmaceutical Facility:

The company has notably been forced to reduce output significantly on its production lines and a number of production buildings within the facility have been closed indefinitely.


Current level of output:

50% below peak production and a three shift operational cycle has been reduced to two shifts with the night shift permanently suspended.


Current Operating Cycle:

The plant is now operating on a 5 day cycle as opposed to the 7 days that it had initially been designed for.


Project Information & Related Assumptions

With regards to the company's ongoing energy efficiency utilisation programme, it will be seen that selected services within the plant will be considered to be in excess of requirements.


This is due to the adjustments that will be implemented in the production plant. This in turn may have an adverse effect on the energy efficiency programme if these issues are not addressed as soon as possible.


The factors which relate to this are:

  • The company has a large thermal process (Boiler for production)

  • A number of production plants within the facility have been shut down indefinitely.

  • There is one centralised compressed air facility designed for full operation.

  • Power factor correction has been designed to load.

  • The facility is fed by parallel, 20Kv feeders from the grid for supply security.

Thermal Efficiency

The Industrial Pharmaceutical Facility has a large thermal Process using a boiler for production.


NOTE: For the purposes of this report only, it will be assumed that there is a single boiler only within the system.


In order to comply with the company's energy efficient program within the plant, the following procedures must be taken:


Boiler

The efficiency of the Boiler must be inspected as soon as possible: This is due to the face that the optimum and accurate controlling of a boiler is of upmost importance. This is one of the key factors in steam generation and the basis of a successful energy efficient programme.


NOTE: A maintenance plan must be implemented with the following methods to increase the efficiency of boilers:

  • Minimize Costs
  • Use Lower Cost Fuel
  • Preheat Combustion Air
  • Operate at Peak Efficiency
  • Reduce Scale and Deposit Formations
  • Minimized energy loss from Boiler Blow-down
  • Reduce Pressure of Boiler
  • Switch from Steam to Air atomization

Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes:

Thus with these changes implemented, the boiler will not be at full load. The result of this will be that the thermal process of the plant will see a reduction in efficiency. To offset this and increase the overall efficiency of the system the load demand of the boiler must be of upmost importance in a boiler plant. This will also ensure that the existing plant services will be maintained.


Thus the pressure of the steam is continuously supplied whenever there is a demand on the plant load.


Plant Operations


Assumptions Old Production Plant Cycle

The plant is now operating on a 5 day cycle as opposed to the 7 days that it had initially been designed for.

24 Hours x 7 Days= 168 Hours per Week = 672 Hours per Month


Current level of output:

50% below peak production and a three shift operational cycle has been reduced to two shifts with the night shift permanently suspended


Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes


New Plant Cycle

14 Hours x 5 Days= 70 Hours per Week = 280 Hours per Month

The production plant will now run 70 hours per a week or a combined total of 280 hours per month.

Peak Demand: 672 Hours / 100 = 6.72 x 42 = 280 Hours

Plant will now only be running at 42% of Peak Demand

Overall Energy Demand: 100% - 42%= 58%

This results in a 58 % decrease in overall Energy Demand.


It can be seen that significant Energy Savings will be achieved with the implementation of the new cycle and maintenance plan.


Now that the issue of the overall Energy Demand has been reduced it is necessary to review the MIC.


This is to certify that the company is correctly billed with regards to use of electricity supply and to ensure that the company is not being pointlessly penalised.


Utility Tariff Setting for Economic Efficiency

NOTE: It can be assumed that the company is with the utility company E.S.B. for the purposes.


The ESB state that:

This MD tariff is suited to customers who are supplied at 400/230V and whose Maximum Import Capacity (MIC) is 50kVA or more. (ESB,2010).


Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes

It is recommended that the current utility provider that the company is with is reviewed a as a number of other utility providers have commenced a power saving programme specifically aimed at small/medium sized businesses.


This is achieved by encouraging business's to reduce energy costs and consumption with a reduction of energy demand at peak times, e.g. 9am-5pm.


Thus in the case of the plant production cycle, if the operating shifts were re-introduced on the basis that it is outside of peak times, energy savings could well be achieved with this tariff.


Based on the level of energy and peak demand further it is recommended that the company may reassess its current Tariff to a Small to Medium Commercial and Industrial Tariff. A standard General Purpose Tariff may be considered as the there is little to no night cycle in the production plant on the premises.


Compressed Air Facility Efficiency

The Industrial Pharmaceutical Facility has one centralised compressed air facility designed for full operation.


Air Facility Efficiency

The efficiency of the Air Facility must be inspected as soon as possible: This is one of the key factors in steam generation and the basis of a successful energy efficient programme.


NOTE: A maintenance plan must be implemented with the following methods to increase the efficiency of the Air Facilities


In order to comply with the company's energy efficient program within the plant, the following procedures must be taken:


  • Size/ Select Energy Efficient Compressors
  • Monitor Energy /Flow
  • Size/ Select Storage Tanks
  • Size to the Required Loads
  • Efficient motors
  • Minimise System Air Pressure

Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes

The methods use here must be used in conjunction which allows the current system to operate normally and as efficient as possible.


Variable Speed drives are recommended to be installed on air compressors. This ensures a fully controllable system


Where applicable, the installation of electronic control on each compressor is advised.


Power Factor Issues

The Industrial Pharmaceutical Facility Power factor correction has been designed to load.


A number of production plants within the facility have been shut down indefinitely


As a direct result of the plant services selected been shut down indefinitely, the issue arises whereby the power factor has reduced significantly. Plant services such as motors, pumps and compressors affect this as they create an inductive load under the old plant cycle plan.


However as Power factor is ideally required to be at unity, e.g. 1 or 100%, the results of the implemented plant services will directly influence the unity of the Power Factor in the installation. This is due to the plant services such as motors and pumps and compressors, reactive power which impacts on the power factor.


Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes

The methods use here must be used in conjunction which allows the current system to operate normally and as efficient as possible:


  • Power Factor must be re-assessed after shut down of the selected plant facilities.

This provides an accurate report on whether the plants facilities power factor correction system is high-quality low quality or of average quality. This then should be calibrated and tested before reconnecting.


In order to ensure that the company is not being pointlessly penalised by the utility company, an annual Power Factor system review should be implemented. This is in order to ensure that an acceptable Power Factor is being attained.


Supply Security-Cable Feeders

The facility is fed by parallel, 20Kv feeders from the grid for supply security


Estimated Results due to Implementation of Changes

It is recommended that on the entire above basis that parallel 20Kv feeders are unnecessary due the peak, and energy demand. One 20Kv cable is required.


REFERENCES

ESB - Tariffs for Business (2010) Available:http://www.esb.ie/esbcustomersupply/business/tariffs_for_business/index.jspAccessed: [30 April 2010]


Energy Efficiency in Air Compressors Available: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/32/31312.pdf


http://www.esb.ie/esbcustomersupply/business/tariffs_for_business/index.jspAccessed: [30 April 2010]


Improve Load Factor and Power Factor Available(2009) http://www.p2pays.org/ref/15/14375.pdf Accessed: [30 April 2010]


BOILER CONTROL (2009)SYSTEMShttp://www.esb.ie/esbcustomersupply/business/tariffs_for_business/index.jspAccessed:Available http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_3_430_11.pdf Accessed [30 April 2010]


O&M Management(2010)Available http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/OM_3.pdf Accessed [30 April 2010]

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