Energy Access In Dhaka City Engineering Essay

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This chapter presents the result of the analyses of energy access in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh, in four main slum areas. Some general analysis of primary and secondary data collected at Dhaka city during the field survey are presented in this section. The primary data is based on questionnaire survey through standardized questionnaire, while the secondary data is based on government and private agencies like Centre for Urban Studies (CUS), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), BRAC NGO, NDBUS NGO, Dhaka City Cooperation (DCC), National Housing Authority (NHA), Petrobangla, Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission (BERC), Dhaka Power Distribution Company (DPDC) and Dhaka Electricity Supply Company (DESCO).

4.1 Profile of urban poor in Dhaka city

Dhaka which is known as the capital city of Bangladesh as well as one of the fastest growing cities in Southern Asia has an population of more than 13 million people, and is expected to accommodate more than 20 million by 2025 (UN-HABITAT-2009). Around 300,000 to 400,000 people migrants to Dhaka city from rural areas annually. The population of the city was 335,928 in 1951 and it increased to 10.7 million in 2001 and further to 12.0 million in 2007. Besides, the average annual growth rate during the last three decades was increasing at an alarming rate which was over 7% (BBS, 2001). Furthermore, population growth rate of the city, slums and squatters have also went up very fast. However, after independence of the country there was substantial influx of low income people from rural to urban areas. They squatted on government lands, road side lands, abandoned lands and buildings. There were 1 million squatters lived in 2,156 clusters in the Dhaka metropolitan area in 1991 and the number climbed to 1.5 million in over 2,800 clusters over the next 6 years (Prashika, 1996). The total slum population of Dhaka has become double from 1.5 to 3.4 million from 1996 to 2005, while the figure of slum risen by roughly 60%, i.e., from 3,007 to 4,966. The proportion of the population of Dhaka living in slums increased from 20% to 37% (CUS, 2006, p.12).

Table 4.1: Number of wards, area, total population and slum population of five study cities, 2005

City

Number of

Wards1

Total Area

in sq. km1

Total City

Population 20011

Total City

Population 2005

(Estimate)2

Slum

Population 20053

Slum Population

as % of City

Population (2005)

Dhaka Metropolitan

Area (DMA)

90 Wards

and 12

Unions

306

6,550,209

9,136,182

3,420,521

37.4

Chittagong

41

177.39

3021,618

4,133,014

1,465,028

35.4

Rajshahi

30

51.29

367,314

489,514

156,793

32

Sylhet

27

27.50

265,372

356,440

97,676

27.4

Barisal

30

51.04

273,384

365,059

109,705

30.1

Total six cities

249

660.74

1,121,0617

15,447,04

5,438,165

35.2

Source: (1) BBS, 2003, Population Census 2001; (2) Estimated by CUS Slums Study Team, 2005; (3) CUS Slums Study, 2005

Only 5.1% of the city's total land (1,542 hectares) is occupied by urban poor in Dhaka city which is accommodating 37.4% of the total city population. The overall gross population as a whole density for Dhaka is less than 121 persons/acre while the number is 891persons/acre in Dhaka slums, which is at least 7 times higher than the average for the city as a whole. As the government has become more vigilant in guarding its land against squatters and slums, there is a substantial increase of slums and squatters in private lands compared to public lands. Regarding hosing pattern, 52.3% live in semi-pucca houses while 39.7% live in kutcha and jhupries (flimsy impoverished dwellings) (CUS, 2006).

There are two reasons which are responsible for growth of slum settlements in the city. Firstly, due to its topography, the city has limited habitable land as well as limited infrastructure and public services which failed to respond to the high demand. Secondly, the poor people who migrant from rural areas to find a suitable job in the low-paid informal sector do not have enough income to pay for the housing in the formal sector. As a result, they look for cheaper housing in slum areas. So, a regular influx of rural migrants into the city contribute to the densification of slums that leads to further shelter crisis and deterioration of living environment. Several attempts have been undertaken by the national government and local authorities since 1975 to address the slum/ squatter situations in the city. However, other than fragmented studies, no comprehensive study has been carried out to evaluate these attempts in order to arrive at appropriate policies. Due to differences in land price between core and peripheral areas, there was more conspicuous growth of slums in peripheral and suburban areas (CUS, 2006). The comparison of population growth among urban, slum and rural has been shown in Figure 4.1, which reveals that, growth rate of slum is higher than urban and rural areas.

Figure 4.1: Population growth in Bangladesh (1971-2005)

(Source: Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005 & World Bank, 2012)

The study (CUS, 2006) reported that, 85.4% residents living below the poverty line in Dhaka city [1] and most of them were found to live in slum areas. The largest single slum was situated at Korail in Mohakhali, where more than 100,100 people lived. To avoid water-logging during heavy rainfall, only 10% of slums had sufficient drainage facility. During monsoon, over half were typically fully or partially flooded. There were no mechanism for regular garbage collection with more than 50% of the slums had no fixed place for garbage disposal. However, 96% of urban poor got connected to electricity. Almost 58% had access to natural gas. Majority of them use firewood for cooking. There was also scarcity of safe drinking water supply with around 5% of slum households did not share their drinking water source, while 40% shared it with more than 11 families. There was no access to safe latrines (65%) while it was shared by at least 6 families in 50% slums. Slum dwellers (6%) also experienced fire at some point. Due to illegal settlement, urban poor were either facing the threat of eviction or had been evicted (7%). Housing structure in the slums were made of low quality materials, where less than 1% housing materials could be considered high quality. Over 70% of the slums dwellers got services form the different NGOs (CUS, 2006).

4.2 Location of the study

The study is based on primary data collection among poor inhabitants from four different Thanns: Gulshan, Pallabi, Hazaribagh, Shaympur. Total 185 households and 35 SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) from ten different slum communities namely as Korail, Beunia Badh, Bihari Camp, Beri Badh Balur Ghat, Lau Tola Balur Ghat, Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi (front, behind & east), Nampara Soba Potti, Rail Gate were surveyed.

F:\AIT\MY thesis_ Energy Access @ Dhaka City\slum map & data\4 locations.jpg

Korail slum

Gulsahn Thana (sample size=60)

Baunia Badh, Bihari Camp slum,

Pallabi Thana (Sample size =54)

Beri Badh Balur Ghat, Lau Tola Balur Ghat, Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi (front, behind & east) slum

Hazaribagh Thana (sample size=41)

Nampara Soba Potti, Rail Gate slum Shaympur Thana (sample size=30)

Figure 4.2: Dhaka city map (Location of surveyed slum areas)

(Source: Google Map, 2012)

The survey was mainly aimed at finding the household details in terms of family size, total income; identifying the major fuels used for lighting and cooking purposes, and the key issues (accessibility, affordability, reliability) related to fuel usage and expenditure in the households. A questionnaire survey was conducted with household head who plays the main role in the decision-making process of a family. If household head was absent, then the interviewed was conducted with the second-important adult member of the family. The survey was conducted in Bengali language and each survey lasted for approximately 20-25 minutes.

4.3 Sample Size

The Survey was based on cluster sampling strategy. It was conducted in four major slum areas in Dhaka city namely as Gulshan, Pallabi, Hazaribagh, Shaympur. Out of four areas, ten slum communities were randomly selected. The sample consisted of 185 households from four Thanas which is representative of slum in Dhaka city.

The sample size was determined by using below equation:

Where,

Z = Based on confidence level: 1.96 for 95% confidence, 1.64 for 90% and 2.58 for 99%

P = Estimated variance in population (degree of variability), as a decimal: (0.5 for 50-50, 0.3 for 70-30)

C = Level of precision desired (sampling error), expressed as a decimal (i.e., 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 for 3%, 5%, 10%)

For this study, confidence level, Z is chosen as 95%, P is 0.36 for Dhaka slums reported in a study conducted by ICCDDR,B (Jamil et al., 1993) and sampling error is taken as 7%. Therefore, the number of family surveyed is 185 according to above sampling formula. Sample size was divided according to the number of households in each Thana. Thana with higher number of households has higher sample size. Table 4.2 gives the number of households surveyed in each district.

Table 4.2: Number of houses and sample size of Thanas in Dhaka city

Thana

No. of households

Sample size

Gulshan

20,840

60

Pallbi

17,840

54

Hazaribagh

12,000

41

Shaympur

10,800

30

Total

61,480

185

(Source: CUS slum study, 2005)

Occupation

The surveys of low income communities in urban areas of Bangladesh conducted by LGED in 2002 showed that, majority of male were working as a rickshaw/van/ pushcart puller (27.8%) and day laborer (16.22%) while female were involved in doing household activities (43.87%).

A recent field survey conducted in 2012 also confirms the result, where 25.9% male worked as Rickshaw/Van/Pushcart Puller, 10.8% were Day Laborer, 28.6% were Petty Trader/ Shop Keeper, 13.5% of them were working in garments and other factories and 8.1% were working as drivers. In case of female workers, majority (59.5%) of them were housewives. Some of them worked as housemaid/servants (14.1%) and others (11.4%) were involved in small business.

Table 4.3: Occupational status of slum dwellers

2012 Survey1

2002 Survey2

Occupation

Male

%

Female

%

Male

%

Female

%

Rickshaw/Van/Pushcart Puller

48

25.9%

-

-

27.8%

Day Laborer

20

10.8%

4

2.2%

16.22%

7.6%

Petty Trader/ Shop Keeper

53

28.6%

21

11.4%

11.2%

2.23%

Vendor/Hawker

7

3.8%

-

-

3.9%

1.7%

Garment/Other Factory Worker

25

13.5%

17

9.2%

5.94%

15.75%

House Maid/Servant

5

2.7%

26

14.1%

8.35%

12.78%

Auto Scooter/Baby Taxi/Tempo/Bus/Truck Driver

15

8.1%

-

-

6.2%

-

Others

7

3.8%

7

3.8%

13.83%

10.23%

Unemployed

5

2.7%

-

-

6.56%

5.84%

Housewife

-

-

110

59.5%

-

43.87%

Total

185

100%

185

100%

100%

100%

(Source: 1Field survey, 2012, 2LGED, slum improvement project, 2002)

4.5 Monthly income

The survey by LGED in 2002 showed that, around 74% families' monthly income range was between 1,000-3,000 BDT. Only about 21% of respondents have incomes above Tk. 3,500 per month. The survey of 185 households in Dhaka city during 2012 showed that, the predominant range of monthly income is between 5001 and 7500 BDT, which constitutes 42.2% of the total sample of households. About 22.7% of families have monthly income between 2500-5000 BDT and 20% of families earned between 75001 and 10,000 BDT per month. Only about 5.3% of respondents have incomes above 12,500 BDT per month. The number, however, suggests that, not all the slum dwellers are income poor.

The comparison result clearly indicated the increase of monthly income of urban poor households. It is understandable that, monthly income has been increased over the ten years period (2002-2012) due to high inflation rate (2.2%-7.8%) (World Bank, 2012).

Table 4.4: Monthly income of slum dwellers

2012 Survey1

2002 Survey2

Monthly income (BDT)

Percentage

Monthly income (BDT)

Percentage

<2,500

1.1

<1,000

3.81

2,500-5,000

22.7

1,000-1,500

18.36

5,001-7,500

42.2

1,501-2,000

16.02

7,501-10,000

20

2,001-2,500

22.27

10,000-12,500

8.6

2,501-3,000

17.38

12,500>

5.3

3,500>

21.08

Total

100%

Total

100%

(Source: 1Field survey, 2012, 2LGED, slum improvement project, 2002)

4.6 Type of Houses

To characterize the slum settlements, the quality of housing is considered as one of the most basic indicators. As settlement of slum is not permanent, that's why, slum dwellers made house with materials (wood, C.I sheet) which they can carry with them if they get evicted. A survey by CUS (2005) found that, 45% of slum households in six cities of Bangladesh was made of very poor quality (flimsy structure or kutcha units), while another 42.4% were made with brick walls and tin roofs which is called semi-pucca house (Table 4.5). A little proportion (1.1%) was found as dilapidated older buildings, while only 0.5% was good quality homes. The physical quality of slum housing was generally better in Dhaka and very poor in Khulna and Barisal. However, the overall housing situation was not good since such houses normally had very high room crowding and very low per capita floor space (CUS slum study, 2005)

Table 4.5: Housing structure (Percentage of households)

City

Shacks, Jhupris, Mud

Kutcha flimsy structure

Semi pucca flimsy structure

Dilapidated older buildings

Others (better quality)

All houses

Number of households

Dhaka

6.3

39.7

52.3

1.2

0.5

100

673,883

Chittagong

12.5

54.1

32.6

0.3

0.5

100

266,182

Khulna

36.9

48.5

12.3

1.7

0.5

100

37,665

Rajshahi

30.9

20.2

45.2

3.5

0.1

100

27,665

Syslhet

0.9

65.1

33.1

0.5

0.4

100

18,313

Barishal

24.1

62.9

11.6

0.4

0.9

100

19,460

Total

11.3

44.8

42.4

1.1

0.5

100

1,043,329

(Source: Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005)

Like CUS survey (2005), the filed survey (2012) also found three category of houses which were are jhupri [2] , kutcha [3] and semi pucca [4] house (Figure 4.3).

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\jhupri.jpg

Jhupri

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\kutcha.jpgKutcha

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\semi-paca.jpg

Semi-pucca

Figure 4.3: Different type of houses in slum areas

Among them, Jhupri type house was predominant in Hazaribagh (48.78%) and Shaympur (70%) Thana. Besides, majority of kutcha type houses were found in Gulshan (98.33%) and Pallabi (92.59%) Thana. Kutcha type house was common in all the slum areas (74.59%) surveyed. Moreover, the percentage of semi-pucca house was relatively small where slum areas under Pallabi Thana had the highest percentage share (7.41%) and only 2.7% house were semi-pucca type in total.

Figure 4.4: House pattern in four slum areas of Dhaka city

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

A survey conducted by Center of Urban Studies (CUS) in 2005 reported that, slum dwellers lived in very small, mostly single room homes. The mean size of a house/room in the six cities was 102.8 sq. ft., the median being 100 sq. ft. (9.55 m2 and 9.29 m2 respectively). In many of slums (46%), the average room size varied between 76 and 100 sq. ft. Slum dwellers in Dhaka usually lived in smaller homes/rooms compared with other cities. In one-fifth of Dhaka's slums (20%), room size was below 76 sq. ft. (7.06 m2), while in three-fifths of clusters (61%) size varied between 76 and 100 sq. ft. Only 2.2% of slums in Dhaka had an average room size above 125 sq. ft., compared with 34 % in Chittagong, 25.6 % in Khulna, 33 % in Rajshahi, 15 % in Sylhet and 43.9 % in Barisal.

4.7 Land and House ownership pattern

The distribution of the slum population by land ownership patterns is presented in Table 4.6. Two-thirds of the slums were located on private land, while 27% were on government land and the rest on land owned by various other agencies.

Table 4.6: Percentage distribution of slum population by land ownership type

Land ownership Type

Dhaka

Chittagong

Khulna

Rajshahi

Syslhet

Barishal

All Cities

Government Land (%)

25.7

32.6

27.1

21.4

2.5

30.5

27.1

Private Land (%)

70.3

58.7

54.3

60.3

97.2

63.4

66.7

Others (%)

4.0

8.8

8.8

18.3

0.3

6.1

6.2

Total (%)

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

(Source: Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005)

As majority of slum dwellers migrate to Dhaka city, and due to limited income, they are looking for houses which they found at cheapest cost. Almost three-fourths (73.9%) of slum dwellers rented their residence, a figure which varied from 17.7 % in Rajshahi to 96.3 % in Sylhet (Table 4.7). In Dhaka and Chittagong, the figures were 77.2% and 73.6 %, respectively. In Rajshahi, a high proportion of slum households (58.9%) were owner occupied. A significant proportion of households (around 25%) in Barisal, Khulna and Rajshahi did not pay any rent.

Table 4.7: Rental Pattern of Slum Households by City (percentage of households)

Rental Pattern

Dhaka

Chittagong

Khulna

Rajshahi

Sylhet

Barishal

All Cities

Owner (%)

11.7

16.5

17.5

58.9

0.5

24.9

14.5

Rented (%)

77.2

73.6

59.4

17.7

96.3

49.2

73.9

Rent free (%)

11.1

9.9

23.1

23.4

3.1

25.9

11.7

Total (%)

100

100

100

100

100

1001

100

(Source: Slums of urban Bangladesh: Mapping and Census, 2005)

However, the survey also showed that, majority of the surveyed householders (68%) lived as tenants. About 27% of urban poor lived in the houses without payment. Some householders (5%) did not have land ownership as their houses were built on rented lands owned by private or government (Figure 4.5).

Figure 4.5: The distribution of housing tenure in low income households

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

4.8 Access to electricity

Out of the 185 slum households interviewed during the field survey in 2012, Gulshan (N=60) and pallabi (N=54) Thana have 100% electricity access. Besides, Hazaribagh and shaympur Thana have 68.3% and 83.3% electricity access respectively (Table 4.8). In total, 90.3 % households have electricity supply. But the slum areas have very limited access to electricity supply in terms of affordability, availability and reliability.

Table 4.8: Frequency and percentage of households have access to electricity

Area

Frequency & percentage

Electricity Access

Total

Yes

No

Gulshan (N=60)

Count

60

0

60

% within area

100%

0%

100%

Pallabi (N=54)

Count

54

0

54

% within area

100%

0%

100%

Hazaribagh (N=41)

Count

28

13

41

% within area

68.3%

31.7%

100%

Shaympur (N=30)

Count

25

5

30

% within area

83.3%

16.7%

100%

Total (185)

Count

167

18

185

% within area

90.3%

9.7%

100%

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

4.8.1 Status of Electricity connection

Although 90.3% of the slum households in the surveyed areas have access to electricity, it does not mean that every slum households has individual metered electricity connection. Dhaka Electricity Supply Company (DESCO) is in charge to provide electricity supply in Gulshan and Pallbi Thanas. Slum areas under Gulshan and pallabi Thanas were connected by meters which are situated at the pole (Table 4.9 and Figure 4.8). Many slum households were electrified through a single pole meter. However, electricity supply in Hazaribagh and Shaympur Thana's slum areas were distributed by Dhaka Power Distribution Company (DPDC) through shared meter (Table 4.9). The shared meter was situated at the convenient place and it was placed inside the room.

Table 4.9: Status of connection in slum areas

Thana

Gulshan

Pallabi

Hazaibagh

Shaympur

Connection status

Pole meter

Pole meter

Shared meter

Shared meter

No. of single phase meter (< 8 kW)

5

-

30

20

No. of three phase meter (>8 kW)

15

19

-

-

Total no. of meter

20

19

30

20

Total load

196 kW

138 kW

60 kW

40 kW

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

The utility companies give them legal electricity connection regardless of the illegal status of the slum areas, by taking highly amount advanced electricity bill as security deposit. The meter is authorized under the name of the slum representative/local leader/area committee of the slum areas. Figure 4.6 represents the different type of electricity connection status in the slum areas where 62% households got connected by pole meter while 27% had access to electricity through shared meter. However, a small portion of slum households in Hazaribagh Thana (1.6%) were connected by diesel generator.

Figure 4.6: Connection status in urban slum areas of Dhaka

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Though utility company allows the slum dwellers to use pole/shared meter, but the lack of governance as well as lack of monitoring and evaluating system in slum settlements results in slum dwellers are charged heavily for access to electricity service. Banks (2008) stated that, local government officials do not engage directly with slum communities. Instead, they work via intermediaries known as mastaans. These are unofficial local leaders in each slum, who draw upon their political affiliation to legitimate their power. The literal translation of mastaan is '"muscleman", and these figures play a role somewhere between a local strongman and a local leader. They act as intermediaries, making connections between under-served informal settlements and political leaders.

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00490.JPGMeter is situated at the pole

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00494.JPG

Pole meter

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00229.jpg

Shared meter

Figure 4.8: Different types of connection status

Rashid (2009) also reported that, usually local mastaans or other influential leaders are the only service provider in slum areas who extort money for electricity, natural gas, water and access to other facilities. The mastaans take control of the meters where they charge the residents at exorbitant prices for using different appliances.

The first reasons for accessing this type of connection is the illegal status. A legal individual connection that requires a sets of documents like registered deed of ownership/occupancy, mutation document for land, attested copy of RAJUK/ City Corporation approved building plan, attested copy of document regarding holding no. issued by City Corporation/ competent authority. The second reasons is the high upfront cost of connection, 34,350 Tk. (US$430) which consists of security deposit, meter cost (single phase=1500-2000 BDT, three phase=8000-10000 BDT) and installation cost including labor charge and wiring cost. In addition, the utility company will not allow any new connection more than 100 feet (30 meter) from the substation which is one of the barriers to give them power supply as most of the slum areas are located on the periphery of the city. Lastly, since the drive of resettlement of many slums has not been undertaken in a planned manner by the government and is largely driven by the availability of land for resettlement at any point in time in the city, slum-dwellers do not feel encouraged to pay for permanent and legal electricity connections and consequently bear the high upfront costs. Instead they find it cheaper to pay the local contractor for pole/shared metered connection.

4.8.2 Mode of payment

The payment for the electricity for pole/shared meter connected households is made in many ways. The most popular payment modes for electricity services are payment by equipment type (83.8%) (Figure 4.9). Slum dwellers pay a fixed amount according to the type of appliances used. Table 4.11 shows the average electricity charge paid by the urban poor in different slum areas. According to the table, it shows that, the price is not only depends on equipment type but it also differs in different areas. For example, people living in the Korail slum, Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi (Behind) slum and Rail Road slum pay higher amount electricity bill for different appliance compared to other slum areas surveyed.

Table 4.11: Unit price for use of electrical equipment in slum areas, Dhaka city

Thana

Gulshan

Pallabi

Hazaribagh

Shaympur

Name of slum (Bastee)

Korail

Baunia Badh

Bihari Camp

Beri Badh Balur Ghat

Lau Tola Balur Ghat

Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi

(Front)

Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi

(Behind)

Rayer Bazar Boddho Bhumi (East)

Nampara Soba Potti

Rail Road Bastee

Incandescent lamp (bulb)

150

100

20

200

100

100

200

100

80

200

Florescent tube light

150

100

20

200

100

100

200

100

80

200

CFL (Energy saving light)

150

100

20

200

100

100

200

100

80

200

TV

150

120

N/A

100

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

100

Fan

150

200

40

200

100

100

200

100

80

200

Refrigerator

300

N/A

150

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

The others (16.2%) paid the electricity bill, house rent and other charges all together and this mode of payment was fixed (agreed sum) through negotiation. The people who rented house from the house owner got the electricity supply without paying any upfront cost. Poor people are paying more for the electricity service than the people who have an individual legitimate account with DESCO and DPDC.

Figure 4.9: Mode of payment in slum areas, Dhaka

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

4.9 Fuel used for lighting

The primary sources of energy used for lighting in the slum households in Bangladesh are electricity, kerosene and others (candle, charge light etc). A survey was conducted by BBS in 2001 where source of lighting was characterized according to the construction of housing structures of the slum households. The survey showed that, a total of 33.86% of slum households lived in the tin (CI sheet) made houses, 14.35% lived in the housing structure made of cement and tin, 8.42% in mud and tin made houses, 3.06% in tin and wooden and 3.06% in pucca houses. Regarding source of lighting, tin made households had higher percentage usage of kerosene (22.71%) and electricity (41.6%) for lighting than other category households.

Table 4.12: Construction material of of slum households by source of light, 2004

Construction material of slum households

Percentage of households

Source of Light (%)

Kerosene

Electricity

Others

Cement-Cement

3.06

1.5

4.12

2.9

Cement-Tin

14.35

5.71

20.31

11.62

Cement/Others

0.02

N.A

0.04

N.A

Mud/Tin

8.42

12.84

5.45

8.29

Mud/Others

0.11

0.29

N.A

N.A

Tin/Tin

33.86

22.71

41.6

29.05

Tin/others

0.56

0.35

0.72

N.A

Wood/Tin

3.06

5.18

1.77

N.A

Wood/Others

0.16

0.23

0.12

N.A

Others/Others

36.4

51.18

25.87

48.14

Total

100

100

100

100

(Source: Population Census-2001, Socio-economic and Demographic Report, National series-4, 2004)

Consistent with the national statistics, the survey in 2012 reveal that, all the low income households in Dhaka had good access to electricity. Out of 185 households interviewed during the field survey in 2012, 88.6% reported to use electricity as the primary source of lighting. But, those who did not have access to electricity used kerosene (9.7%) as the primary source for lighting. The survey also identified 7.3% households in Hazaribagh thana to be dependent on diesel generator for lighting (Table 4.13).

Table 4.13: Slum households use primary fuel for lighting

Area

Frequency & percentage

Primary source for lighting

Total

Electricity

Kerosene

Diesel (Generator)

Gulshan

Count

60

0

0

60

% within area

100%

0%

0%

100%

Pallabi

Count

54

0

0

54

% within area

100%

0%

0%

100%

% of Total

29.2%

0%

0%

29.2%

Hazaribagh

Count

25

13

3

41

% within area

61%

31.7%

7.3%

100%

Shaympur

Count

25

5

0

30

% within area

83.3%

16.7%

0%

100%

Total

Count

164

18

3

185

% within area

88.6%

9.7%

1.6%

100%

% of Total

88.6%

9.7%

1.6%

100%

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

However, in the absence of electricity during the time of load shedding, slum dwellers used kerosene, candle and charge light as a secondary fuel for lighting purposes. The average monthly expenditure for kerosene is 120 BDT (70 BDT/liter) and candle is 100 BDT (5 BDT/candle). The most common kerosene lamp used by the slum dwellers is traditional wick lamps (Kuppi and Hurricane). For lighting, as figure 4.10 shows, electricity was the predominant energy options followed by kerosene, candle and charge light.

Figure 4.10: Percentage of households using different energy sources for lighting

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Compare with the slum areas with other cities, it is seen form the figure 4.11, electricity was the main source of lighting in most of the slum areas. Among them, Bangkok, Buenos Aires and Khon Kaen have 100% electricity access. Urban poor in Cape Town, Dakar, Delhi, Dhaka and Nairobi used kerosene where 55 % households in slum areas of Nairobi (55%) was predominant users among them. Some slum resident in Delhi and Nairobi were also found to use candle for lighting.

Figure 4.11: Percentage of households using primary energy sources for lighting in slum areas of different cities

(Source: Field survey, 2012 and GNESD, UPEA study, Technical Country Reports, 2008)

4.10 Electrical appliances ownership

The level of access to electricity can be estimated by ownership of electrical appliances. Due to limited power supply available at house as well as limited income, it is expected that urban poor in Dhaka city had limited access to different type of electrical appliances. Majority of them used one bulb for lighting and one fan for cooling as minimum basic need. Table 4.14 shows a total of 83% slum households owned CFL (25 W), 38% owned incandescent bulb (60 W), 11% owned fluorescent tube light (40 W). Fans are used by all income groups and 77% of households owned fan. TV is usually owned by middle income groups (34%), while refrigerator is owned by high income households (3%).

A comparative study has also been done between Dhaka and Bangkok slum areas where people living Bangkok slum areas owning more appliances than the slum residents of Dhaka city, though there are various socio-economic factors which has impact on that comparison. Table 4.14 also presents ownership rates of various appliances in slum households of Bangkok, implying the use of electricity for the purpose of comfort and daily activities such as, food preservation or laundering or entertainment.

Table 4.14: Percentage of households owning different appliances in urban poor households of Dhaka and Bangkok

Appliance type

Dhaka-20121

Bangkok-20122

CFL

83

N.A

Incandescent lamp

38

N.A

Fluorescent tube light

11

N.A

Fan

77

100

Television

34

100

Refrigerator

3

90

Washing Machine

N.A

57.5

Air conditioning unit

N.A

25

Electric water heater

N.A

45

Rice cooker

N.A

87.5

Computer

N.A

32.5

Microwave oven

N.A

20

Video player

N.A

57.5

{Source: 1Field survey, 201, 2Field survey (UPEA III)}

4.12 User acceptance on Electricity system

User acceptance is a successful tool to measure of a system's success (Chen et al., 2000). To measure the user acceptance five point average techniques was used in this study where satisfaction is ranked from 1 to 5. Score 5 is considered to have highest acceptance and 1 the lowest (Phuangpornpitak and Kumar, 2011; Jager, 2006 and Chen et al., 2000). A field visit was conducted to get the user opinion of people using electricity system in slum areas by an organized structured questionnaire. Quantitative as well as qualitative study was done regarding the opinion. Out of 185 users, interview of 164 users' were used (164 households had electricity access) to know the user perception about electricity supply in slum areas. User's opinion on various characteristics with their mean and standard deviation is listed in Table 4.14.

Table 4.14: Electricity supply index-quality level for households

Satisfaction Parameter

Level of acceptance

Mean

SD

1

2

3

4

5

Amount of power supplied by system

N

4

68

26

66

0

2.94

0.957

%

2.4%

41.5%

15.9%

40.2%

0%

Time of hours of electricity supplied by the system

N

2

87

48

27

0

2.61

0.772

%

1.2%

53%

29.3%

16.5%

0%

Electricity bill

N

2

81

26

55

0

2.82

0.922

%

1.2%

49.4%

15.9%

33.5%

0%

Quality of power supply of the system

N

2

20

108

34

0

3.06

0.614

%

1.2%

12.2%

65.9%

20.7%

0%

Safety of the power supply

N

3

25

77

59

0

3.17

0.748

%

1.8%

15.2%

47%

36%

0%

Code: 1=Very unhappy, 2=Not happy, 3=Neutral, 4=Satisfied, 5=Very much satisfied

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Amount of power supplied by system:

The users were not satisfied with the amount of power supplied by the system. The mean value for this satisfaction parameter is 2.94 with standard deviation of 0.957. This is because they had limited access to use all the appliances irrespective of their affordability to buy them. Slum dwellers lived as a tenant with very less facility of energy services. They paid the electricity bill by equipment type and most of the houses had minimum two electric points for using electrical appliances. One point is used for lighting purposes and another point is used to run fan. Regardless of their interest or buying capacity to use other appliances, house owner cannot allow slum dwellers to use more than two electric point due to limited capacity load of the pole/shared meter.

Time of hours of electricity supplied by the system:

Dhaka city has already been shortage of electricity supply. Frequent of load shedding is very common in summer time. According to the DESCO report (2011), there are at least 6-7 hour load shedding of electricity in cities and this is sometime around 12 hours in the villages. The existing demand is nearly 2000 MW, but around 1000-1200 MW of electricity is supplied. As a result, load shedding takes place at regular intervals in a day. During the survey, it was found that, slum dwellers have been suffering not only to limited access to amount of power supply but also the unavailability of the power supply. Out of 164 households surveyed, 87 correspondents showed dissatisfaction towards availability of electricity provided by the utility company. Some correspondents also reported that, the power line was cut off without giving any prior notice. Sometimes the contractor does not pay the electricity bill to the utility office regularly. Besides, poor people used kerosene, candle, charge light during the time of load shedding. So, the unavailability of electricity not only hampered the daily life of the slum dwellers but also penalized extra payment for using secondary fuel for lighting. Figure 4.12 shows that, load shedding depends on season. As demand is very high in summer, so power outage is worse in summer than winter. According to the survey, the percentage of occurring load shedding during summer was 58% (3-4 hours/day) and 37% (5-6 hours/day), while it was 71% (1-2 hours/day) during winter.

Summer Time

Winter Time

Figure 4.12: Hours of load shedding in two different seasons

(Source: Field Survey, 2012)

Electricity bill:

Slum dwellers pay the electricity bill by equipment type which is higher than the domestic electricity tariff rate. For example, consider a typical slum house where a 25 W CFL and a 70 W ceiling fan is used for monthly fee of 150 (light) + 150 (fan) =300 taka. As slum settlement is very much congested and overcrowded, therefore, it has very little chance to enter sunlight into the house. It was found that, most of them switch on their light and fan even in the day time. Considering 15 hours daily usage time and 30 days a month a slum typical slum house consumes {(25 WÃ-15 hÃ-30 day/1000) kWh/month + 70 WÃ-15 hÃ-30 day/1000) kWh/month)} = 43 kWh/month. Using calculation, urban poor pay (300 BDT/month ÷ 43 kWh/month) =7 BDT/kWh where domestic tariff rate is 3.33 (0-75 unit) which means slum residents pay 2 times higher than normal tariff rate set by the Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission (BERC). Therefore, the users were not satisfied about the electricity bill with an average score of 2.82 (SD=0.922). The price of electricity has been increased over the last few years. According to the interviews with the various correspondents, payment by equipment type is raised with increment of electricity tariff. That means, there is a correlation between electricity tariff rate and payment by equipment type. Table 4.15 depicts the electricity tariff structure in Bangladesh which has an increasing trend over the last five years. From September, 2012, Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission extended the tariff slabs to six from three. The slabs are categorized as zero to 75 units, 76 to 200 units, 201 to 300 units, 301 to 400 units, 401 to 600 units and the sixth from 601 units and above. The electricity tariff has correspondingly increased due to the global increase of the prices of oil and natural gas.

Table 4.15: Electricity tariff structure in Bangladesh

Class

Effective Date

Slab

Tariff

(Tk/kWh)

Tariff increase

Tariff increase (%)

Domestic (0.23/0.4 KV)

February 01, 2011

0-100 unit

2.60

0

0%

101-400 unit

3.46

0.16

4.85%

400 unit>

4.96

0.28

4.96%

December 01, 2011

0-100 unit

2.73

0.13

5%

101-400 unit

3.81

0.35

10.12%

400 unit>

6.88

0.95

16.02%

February 01, 2012

0-100 unit

2.87

0.14

5.13%

101-400 unit

4.04

0.23

6.04%

400 unit>

7.43

0.55

7.99%

March 01, 2012

0-100 unit

3.05

0.18

6.27%

101-400 unit

4.29

0.25

6.19%

400 unit>

7.89

0.46

6.19%

September 01, 2012

0-75 unit

3.33

-

-

76-200 unit

4.73

-

-

201-300 unit

4.83

-

-

301-400 unit

4.93

-

-

401-600 unit

7.98

-

-

600 unit>

9.38

-

-

(Source: Bangladesh Energy Regulatory Commission, BERC)

Quality of power supply of the system:

About 66% correspondents are neutral about quality of power supply. 12.2% slum dwellers are not satisfied with the frequent voltage drop of the power supply which happens repeatedly in the summer season. They claimed that, the level of lighting is the summer period is very low which hampers the study of their children. However, 20.7% correspondents are happy with the quality of power supply. Overall, poor people are quite happy with the quality of power supply with a score of 4.98 (SD=0.14) inspite of voltage up and down in summer.

Safety of the power supply:

Users were happy about safety of the power supply with an average score of 3.17 and standard deviation of 0.748. Around 36% correspondents showed satisfaction towards the safety of the power supply as no major accidents have been happened so far. Besides, around 15.2% users were dissatisfied with the distribution of extension cords which are originated from pole meter/shared meter. It causes a safety hazard to the slum residents. They reported that, the electric cables which were used to supply power to the households had very poor quality. In fact, some users complained about the occurrence of short circuit from these low quality cables. The women and children are the most vulnerable to this threat, who can easily being electric shocked by the loose cable. In addition, there is a risk of having fire due to short circuit. As majority of slum households are flimsy structured, so in case any fire can catch due to short circuit from these low quality cables, it will be very difficult for them to control. A small fraction of around 1.8% users showed very much dissatisfaction towards the safety of the power supply.

4.13 Fuel used for cooking

Though usage pattern of cooking fuel is different in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh, but still firewood was the main choice for cooking fuel among 88.4% people in Bangladesh (BBS, UNICEF, 2007). As expected, usage of firewood was higher in rural areas than urban areas. Besides, urban people (32.10%) had higher access to supply gas connection than rural people (0.90%). The usage of dung among urban and rural people was 5.5% and 8.8% respectively. Moreover, a very few percentages of people used kerosene (0.90%) and electricity (0.20%) for cooking.

Table 4.16: Percentage of population use different cooking fuel in Bangladesh

Fuel

Electricity

Natural Gas

Kerosene

Firewood

Dung

National

0.20%

10.10%

0.30%

79.50%

8.10%

Urban

0.70%

32.70%

0.70%

58.70%

5.50%

Rural

0.10%

0.90%

0.10%

88.40%

8.80%

(Source: BBS, UNICEF, 2007)

The survey conducted in 2012 also had similar results where firewood was the primary fuel used by the majority of the slum households. However, usage pattern of cooking fuel depended on availability of fuel in that location. Figure 4.13 shows; korail slum under Gulshan Thana had the highest access of natural gas connection. Out of 60 households surveyed in this area, 36 households (60%) used supply gas and 24 households (24%) used firewood for cooking. In pallabi Thana, firewood was used by 82% of households. A small portion (15%) of houses used supply gas for cooking as gas was not available in all the slum areas. In Hazaribagh and Shaympur Thana, usage of firewood in these two areas was 85% and 100% respectively. A very small percentage of households used kerosene, crop and wood residues for cooking purposes. None of households found to be dependent on LPG for cooking during the survey. In total, out of 185 respondents interviewed, firewood (71.4%) was still considered as the baseline cooking fuel in majority of households followed by natural gas (26.5%).

Figure 4.13: Percentage (%) of households using different fuels for cooking

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Figure 4.14 shows the usage pattern of different fuel used for cooking in different cities. According to the figure, slum areas under Dhaka city used highest percentage share of firewood (72%) for cooking followed by Delhi (28%). Natural gas was only used by the urban poor living in Dhaka (5%) and Buenos Aires (4%). LPG was used extensively in Bangkok, Buenos Aires, Dakar, Delhi and khon kaen. Among them, Dakar is leading in LPG consumption for cooking (85%). Slum areas under Dhaka and Nairobi did not use LPG. Only Bangkok and khon kaen slum areas used electricity to cook food. Charcoal was not used extensively for cooing but its usage was found in all cities except Dhaka and Delhi. Kerosene was used in Nairobi, Dhaka, Delhi and Buenos Aires where Nairobi (86%) was the dominant user compared to other cities.

Figure 4.14: Percentage of households using primary sources for cooking in different cities

(Source: Field survey, 2012 and GNESD, UPEA study, Technical Country Reports, 2008)

4.13.1 Firewood:

Though firewood is not a clean source of energy, their usage was found to be predominant options across almost all poor households in Dhaka. For households who were unable to access natural gas, LPG, kerosene, electricity, or households unable to afford these fuels from the local market, using firewood is an obvious choice. The availability and cost of firewood vary from location to location. Slums on the periphery (Hazaribagh, Pallabi Shaympur Thana) of the city have relatively easier access to firewood than those areas near the city center (Gulshan Thana). Slum dwellers buy firewood from the local market at the rate of 8-10 BDT/kg. The average monthly consumption of firewood is 100-120 kg/household. In some slum households, wood residues were also found to be used for cooking. Besides, women and children collect leaves and branches from various places. Slum dwellers prefer wood than other fuels since consumer can purchase firewood on a daily basis depending on his/her daily wage and do not have to pay any upfront costs for it. Firewood also acts as a stopgap fuel in periods of non-availability of other fuels. The most critical issue related to usage of solid firewood is the lack of awareness of the harmful effects of burning it in the conventional manner. The poor usually cook with firewood in the open space, assuming that the smoke created gets diffused into the surroundings. However, as the households are located very close to each other, when all of them cook together, they generate a considerable amount of smoke, thus polluting the local air.

4.13.2 Natural Gas:

Petrobangla, the state owned gas company, regulates the distribution of natural gas in the household and other gas connections. The storage of natural gas in Bangladesh is not sufficient to meet the growing demand of gas connection. To match the existing demand, on the basis of government decision, Petrobangla stopped giving the new gas connection to households since July 2010 and promised to start giving new connection after two years. The plan is to divert gas supply to power plants to increase power production and supply. Urban poor generally prefer line gas connection because this is very cheap and has less smoke emissions. The monthly expenditure of supply gas is 300 BDT for using one stove burner. Same gas burner stove is shared by 3-4 families. Slum dwellers have to make a queue for using gas fuel. The situation becomes worst when gas pressure is not sufficient to cook food. In that situation, poor people use firewood to cook food. As explained earlier, gas connection was not available in all the slum areas. Out of the 185 households surveyed, only 60 households (32%) had supply gas connection.

4.13.3 LPG

While conducting the survey, none of the households used LPG for cooking. People do not prefer LPG for cooking due to its high upfront cost (83.24%) (Figure 4.15). LPG was also perceived by many as a fuel unsafe to use (3.25%). Lack of awareness of handling LPG cylinders and presence of children in the house is a major factor in discouraging people from using LPG. Typical slum structures are small one room accommodation made of inflammable construction act as deterrent to LPG usage. Moreover, women are more comfortable and habituated with the tradition cooking habits which they are following for many years. However, urban poor also made complaints about its high refill cost (18.92%). Some people did not know how to use it (4.86%) while others have not heard about LPG (12.98%). In market, 12.5 kg cylinder is used for domestic purposes. In order to have new LPG connection, total 6,050 BDT is required including price of cylinder (3500 BDT), LPG gas (1750 BDT), regulator (600 BDT) and pipe (200 BDT). A family consists of 5-7 member needs two gas cylinder per month which worth 3500 TK and this cost is higher than firewood and supply gas.

Figure 4.15: Reasons why LPG is not used in slum households

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

4.13.4 Kerosene

The survey shows that usage of kerosene was very much less for cooking purpose in slum households because of the high price of kerosene. The market price of kerosene is 70 taka per liter. The average monthly kerosene consumption is 8-10 liter, which means urban poor had to expense 560- 700 taka per month.

4.14 User acceptance on cooking fuels

As natural gas and fire wood were two major fuels used by slum households, that's why user acceptance of these two cooking fuel have been considered. To measure the user acceptance, five point average techniques was used in this study where satisfaction is ranked from 1 to 5. Score 5 is considered to have highest acceptance and 1 the lowest.

Table 4.17: User acceptance of cooking fuels

Satisfaction Parameter

Natural Gas (N=60)

Firewood (N=125)

Ranking Score

Ranking Score

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Availability of fuel

3.35

0.855

2.83

0.878

Fuel price

3.14

0.913

2.14

0.521

Smoke emissions

3.43

0.577

2.13

0.623

Taste of food

2.88

0.807

4.17

0.470

Reliable and safe

3.86

0.354

2.52

0.715

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Availability of fuel:

The users were happy with the availability of natural gas with mean score of 3.35 (SD=0.855). But some users complained about the lack of pressure of natural gas in the winter season. Though natural gas has some limitation, but most of the users were happy with convenience of this fuel. On the other hand, users were not happy with the availability of firewood with mean score of 2.83 (SD=0.878). They had to spend average 20-30 minutes daily to buy firewood from local market. As price of firewood varies from location to location, some slum dwellers went very far in order to buy firewood at the cheapest rate.

Fuel price:

Slum dwellers were not happy with the firewood price with mean score of 2.14 (SD=0.521). Considering firewood as the primary fuel for cooking, the average monthly expenditure is 700-800 Tk. which is two time higher than the supply gas cost (300 Tk. /month). In addition, price of firewood is variable depending on the demand and availability. Users are satisfied with the natural gas price with average score of 3.14 (SD=0.913).

Smoke emissions:

Slum dwellers were dissatisfied with the smoke emitted form firewood. The average score for this parameter is 2.13 with standard deviation of 0.521. Unhealthy smoke from firewood is extremely hazardous to the women and children. Burning of inefficient firewood produces CO2, CO, NOx, SOx, VOCs, PM and HC emissions. These emissions not only create environmental problems, but also create unexpected health effects like lung infections, respiratory problems, and eye and throat infections (WHO, 2006). However, as less smoke is emitted from the natural gas, users were happy with this parameter with average score of 3.43 (SD=0.577).

Taste of food:

Regarding taste of food, slum dwellers claimed that, food becomes more delicious if food was cooked on firewood. The majority of users showed satisfaction score (average score= 4.17 and standard deviation=0.470) about the taste of food using firewood. Some of the users claimed that there was no taste of rice, vegetables, and other foods that were cooked using natural gas. Users were dissatisfied with a mean score of 2.88 (SD=0.807) about the taste of food on supply gas.

Reliable and safe:

Majority of the users reported that, firewood was not safe to use. The women had to sit all the time in the kitchen and had to be very conscious when food was being cooked by firewood. The women also complained that, she could not do other households activities while cooking activities were going on. As most of the households made of flimsy materials, fire could easily spread out in the house from the firewood. Therefore, users were not satisfied with reliability and safety of using firewood (average score= 2.52 and standard deviation=0.715). On the other hand, natural gas users were happy with reliability and safety of the fuel with mean score of 3.86 (SD=0.354). In case of natural gas, the flame of fire can be easily controlled and the chance of occurring accident is very much less.

4.15 Cook Stove

More than 35% of urban people in Dhaka city live in slum areas (CUS, 2005). Most of them use fuel wood, straw, twigs, leaves, wood residues as fuels for cooking purpose. As mentioned earlier, 125 respondents used firewood for cooking and hence they used traditional cook stove for cooking. There are two types of traditional cook stove; one is clay fixed stove and other is the portable cook stove. The reason behind the usage of portable cook stove is, it can be shifted easily during rainy season. However, a small portion of households (6%) used improved cook stove. To stop inefficient use of valuable fuels and to create healthy and pollution free environment, Nagar Daridra Basteebashir Unnatan Sangstha (NDBOS) NGO has distributed improved stoves suitable for household level use at subsidized price at Pallabi Thana. The price of this stove is 600-700 BDT, but the slum people can get it at a price of 200 BDT.

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00191.JPG

Tradition clay fixed cook stove

Price= 50-100 BDT

Efficiency=5-10%

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00287.JPG

Traditional portable cook stove

Price=100-200 BDT

Efficiency= 5-10%

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00264.JPG

Improved single Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney

Price= 600-700 BDT

Efficiency= 22-25%

C:\Users\Lipu\Desktop\DSC00181.JPG

Supply gas stove

Price= 1200-1500 BDT (double burner)

Efficiency= 50-60 %

Figure 4.17: different type of cook stove used by the slum dwellers

(Price and efficiency taken from Technical Manual of Improved Cooking Stoves 2008

'Bangladesh: Addressing Indoor Air Pollution (IAP)',)

4.16 User acceptance of Cook Stove:

This section shows the users acceptance of different type of cooking stove used among urban poor. Various types of parameters were used to check the users opinion (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree) on cook stove.

Table 4.18: Users acceptance of cook stove

Parameter

Traditional Clay fixed stove

(N=67)

Traditional portable cook stove (N=47)

Improved single Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney

(N=11)

Supply gas stove

(N=60)

Price of stove is acceptable

sd=0%, d=15.9%

n=24.4%, a=59.8%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=4.8%

n=21.4%, a=73.8%, sa=0%

sd=0%, d=27.3%

n=18.2%, a=53.5%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=39.6%

n=12.5%, a=47.9%

sa=0%

Less fuel consumption to cook food

sd=0%, d=78%

n=15.9%, a=6.1%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=88.1%

n=9.5%, a=2.4%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=18.2%

n=27.3%, a=54.5%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=4.2%

n=31.3%, a=64.6%

sa=0%

Less smoke in the house/kitchen

sd=4.9%, d=86.6%

n=6.1%, a=2.4%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=92.9%

n=4.8%, a=2.4%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=18.2%

n=0%, a=72.7%

sa=9.1%

sd=0%, d=0%

n=35.4%, a=64.6%

sa=0%

Less time required to cook food

sd=1.2%, d=63.4%

n=17.1%, a=18.3%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=52.4%

n=31%, a=16.7%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=9.1%

n=45.5%, a=45.45%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=6.3%

n=20.8%, a=72.9%

sa=0%

Opportunity of sparing time to family's works while cooking

sd=2.4%, d=74.1%

n=17.1%, a=6.1%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=76.2%

n=14.3%, a=9.5%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=18.2%

n=36.4%, a=45.5%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=8.3%

n=16.7%, a=75%

sa=0%

Good for women and children health

sd=3.7%, d=79.3%

n=11%, a=6.1%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=85.7%

n=14.3%, a=0%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=9.1%

n=27.3%, a=63.6%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=6.3%

n=33.3%, a=60.4%

sa=0%

Lasts longer

sd=0%, d=61%

n=24.4%, a=14.6%

sa=0%

sd=2.4%, d=71.4%

n=26.2%, a=0%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=0%

n=72.7%, a=27.3%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=0%

n=43.8%, a=56.3%

sa=0%

Keeps cooking pot clean

sd=24.4%, d=34.1%

n=25.6%, a=15.9%

sa=0%

sd=16.7%, d=76.2%

n=7.1%, a=0%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=18.2%

n=36.4%, a=45.5%

sa=0

sd=0%, d=0%

n=27.1%, a=68.8%

sa=4.2%

Easy to use

sd=0%, d=47.6%

n=28%, a=24.4%

sa=0%

sd=2.4%, d=78.6%

n=19%, a=0%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=18.2%

n=45.5%, a=36.4%

sa=0%

sd=0%, d=0%

n=27.1%, a=70.8%

sa=2.1%

sa= strongly agree; a=agree; n=neutral; d=disagree; sd=strongly disagree

(Source: Field survey, 2012)

Regarding price of stove, urban poor agreed that, they could afford the traditional cook stove as well as improved cook stove and gas stove. Around 78% users

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