Derived From Fermentation Of Agricultural Carbohydrates Engineering Essay

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Abstract

Succinic acid, derived from fermentation of agricultural carbohydrates, has a specialty chemical market in industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants and detergents, green solvents and biodegradable plastics, and ingredients to stimulate animal and plant growth. As a carbon-intermediate chemical, fermentation-derived succinate has the potential to supply over 2.7 ´ 108 kg industrial products/ year including: 1,4-butanediol, tetrahydrofuran, c-bu-tyrolactone, adipic acid, n-methylpyrrolidone and linear aliphatic esters. Succinate yields as high as 110 g/l have been achieved from glucose by the newly discovered rumen organism Actinobacillus succinogenes. Succinate fermentation is a novel process because the greenhouse gas CO2 is fixed into succinate during glucose fermentation. New developments in end-product recovery technology, including water-splitting electro dialysis and liquid/liquid extraction have lowered the cost of succinic acid production to U.S. $ 0.55/kg at the 75 000 tone/year level and to $ 2.20/kg at the 5000 tone/year level. Research directions aimed at further improving the succinate fermentation economics are discussed.

Introduction

Succinic acid is a common metabolite formed by plants, animals and microorganisms. Many anaerobic microbes produce succinate as the major end-product of their energy metabolism. Nonetheless, only recently has interest focused on the development of succinic acid as an important industrial fermentation process. This review will explain why succinic acid fermentations may, in the future, involve larger production volumes than citric acid, and could, perhaps, approach that of ethanol.

Green technology is becoming more of a driving force in the chemical industry because of the current need to decrease pollution caused by petrochemical processing and the future need to replace the dwindling hydrocarbon economy with a renewable, environmentally sound, carbohydrate economy.

Physical and chemical properties

Appearance: White crystals.

Odor: Odorless.

Solubility: 100 g/l00 ml water @ 100C (212F). 1g/13mL cold water.

Specific Gravity: 1.57 @ 25C/4C

pH: 2.7 (0.1 molar solution)

% Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 0

Boiling Point: 235C (455F)

Melting Point: 188C (370F)

Vapor Density (Air=1):

No information found.

Vapor Pressure (mm Hg):

No information found.

Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1):

No information found.

Biochemical role

Succinate is a component of the citric acid cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transport chain by the reaction:

succinate + FAD →fumarate+ FADH2.

This is catalyzed by the enzyme succiniate dehydrogenises (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone. Intermediate electron carriers are FAD and three Fe2S2 clusters part of subunit B.

Safety and storage

The acid is combustible and corrosive, capable of causing burns. In nutraceutical form as a food additive and dietary supplement, is safe and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. As an excipient in pharmaceutical products it is used to control acidity and, more rarely, in effervescent tablets.

Store in a tightly closed container. Protect container from physical damage. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat or ignition. Isolate from oxidizing materials. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

Interactive pathway map

Organisms and diversity

Succinic acid is a common intermediate in the metabolic pathway of several anaerobic and facultative microorganisms. Most of the succinate-producing microorganisms have been isolated from the rumen because, in this ecosystem, succinate serves as an important precursor for propionate, which is absorbed through the rumen wall for subsequent oxidation to provide energy and biosynthetic precursors for the animal. Animals receive both forage (such as hay) and grains (such as corn) as

part of their diet, which allows for a great diversity of rumen microorganisms.

All succinic-acid-producing bacteria form mixed-acid fermentations, producing varying amounts of succinate as well as other products, including, ethanol, lactic, acetic, and formic acid. We use the Actinobacillus succinogenes as the organism to producing succinic acid.

A. succinogenes, unlike E. coli or A. succiniciproducens, is a moderate osmophile and has high tolerance to succinate salts, which is crucial to process requirements for product recovery (see next section). A. succinogenes variant strains can yield 110 g/l succinic acid (Guettler et al. 1996). It should be pointed out that industrial strains of Corynebacterium can make mono sodium glutamate at 150 g/l. Thus 15% succinate is a potential target product yield for future genetic strain improvements.

Location of the industry

We are going to locate our industry in Nantong, Jiangsu China.

Nantong was traditionally an agricultural land and an old site for salt-making in history. Its principal agricultural products include cotton, rice, wheat, fishing, fruit, and more. Currently, the city is making more efforts to upgrade its farming sectors and increase production of organic foods.

China is the second largest corn producer in the world, has currently annual output of nearly 160 million tons.(20% in the world)

Jiangsu province is belongs to the southern hills corn area which has 6% of the corn output in the whole country.

It is the highest yield per unite area in China.

Nantong is the best place of our industry because it is very near the Yangzi River as a harbor city.

Marketing

Nowadays, Chinese succinic acid production accounts for 25-30% of the world's total, with the total capacity and output of 15,550 t/ha and 8,650 tones respectively in 2009. By Q1 2010, there are 12 major active succinic acid producers in China. From 2005 to 2009 Chinese succinic acid industry stably developed in China. However, in 2008, domestic succinic acid market was shank due to the financial crisis. China is the major consumption country for succinic acid, with total apparent consumption volume of 7,393 tons in 2009. Succinic acid is widely used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.

PRODUCTION OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR

Corn steep liquor is a by-product of corn wet milling process.

Steps of corn wet milling process

Preliminary step:

After reception, the corn kernel could be stored before being cleaned by mechanical cleaners. This last agitate the corn through several perforated metal sheets. The small unwanted material is eliminated through the holes. In the same time metal particles are removed by an electromagnet above the sheets, and corn kernel could be dry by a blast of hot air if necessary.

Steeping:

Steeping prepares the corn kernel for the milling and the others steps of the process. It breaks down part of the protein witch hold the starch particle. Steeping also removes some soluble component. During this step, the corn kernels pass through several tanks. Inside this last the corn is submerged in a dilute sulphurous acid solution at the temperature of about 52â-¦C during 24 to 48hours. The solution circulates at counter current of the corn kernels. The liquid from the first tank (so the most used solution) is sent through an evaporator. This solution contains about 6% of the original dry weigh of corn kernel and is called light steepwater. This last goes through a second evaporator to obtain the heavy steepwater or corn steep liquor. It contains about 55% of solid.

http://www.winbco.com/corn-wet-milling-process.html

PROCEDURE

DESIGN OF THE EQUPMENTS USED IN THE PROCESS

Given: 50km diameter of land.

Location: Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Area= = 1963.50km2 = 485,191 acres.

In China, the annual output of corn is 163,118,097 tonnes in 17.14 million hectares.

Our industry produces 50,000 tonnes of corn in 12973.03 acres(5250 hectares).

PRODUCTION OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR

EQUIPMENT

CAPACITY

(tonnes)

VOLUME

(m3)

HEIGHT

(m)

DIAMETER

(m)

SHAPE

MATERIAL

OF CONSTRUCTION

Storage Tank

50,000

105,000

20

82

Vertical Cylindrical

Steel

Steeping Tank

139600.2

15

108.8

Cylindrical

Steel

Water Tank

62,500

15

73

Cylindrical

Steel

Sulphurdioxide Tank

24500.25

10

56

Cylindrical

Steel

Boiler

62,500

15

108.8

Cylindrical

Steel

Light steepwater tank

80,569

10

101.3

Cylindrical

Steel

Plate Falling Film type Evaporator

Carbon Steel

Steep Liquor tank

68483.91

15

76.2

Cylindrical

Steel

DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR

Viscosity of corn steep liquor is determined using Ostwald's viscometer. According to Poiseuille's equation,the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid having streamlined flow through a tube is given by

η=

where η is the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid, v is the volume of the liquid flowing out of the tube, t is the time taken for liquid flow, r is the radius of the tube, l is the length of the tube, p is the driving pressure needed for uniform rate of flow of volume V of the liquid.

Ostwald's viscometer is commonly used for measuring the coefficient of viscosity of liquids and also for comparing the viscosities of liquids. In an Ostwald's viscometer, a fixed volume of liquid is allowed to fall under its own weight and the time required for flow is noted. In such an experiment, the driving pressure, P=hρg where h is the length of the liquid, ρ is the density and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The poiseuille's equation now becomes

η=

If equal volumes of two liquids 1 and 2 are allowed to flow through the same tube under identical conditions of temperature and pressure, then according to the above equation

=

where η1 and η2 are the coefficients of viscosity of the two liquids, d1 and d2 their respective densities and t1 and t2 are the times for flow. In this way, the viscosities may be compared. If the viscosity of one of the liquids is known, that of other can be calculated.

Procedure

A definite volume of the liquid (say 10 ml) is introduced into the bulb C. the liquid is then sucked into the bulb A using a rubber tube attached to the other end D. The time for the free flow of liquid from the mark X to the mark Y is noted. The experiment is repeated with the other liquid. In each case, the time for flow is measured. Knowing the density of liquid the viscosities may be compared.

Observation

Lliquid

Time of flow-1(min)

Time of flow-2(min)

Time of flow-mean(min)

water

1.30

1.29

1.29.30

CSL

1.35

1.34

1.34.30

Calculation

= = = 1.33

Relative viscosity = 1.33

Absolute viscosity = 0.008Ã-1.33

= 0.01064 = 0.010 poise

PRODUCTION OF SUCCINIC ACID

DESIGN OF STEAM STERLIZER

1. Steam required is generated from a small boiler which in turn is connected to a water tank.

2. Steam required for sterilization = twice the volume of CSL = 2 x 6843.91m3 = 13687.82m3

3. Volume of dextrose required = 10% of steam volume = 684.39m3

4. Volume of nutrients required = 20% of steam volume = 1368.78m3

5. Total water to be supplied by water tank = water equivalent of 13687.82m3 of steam

Steam volume at 212F/ Water volume at 80F = 1667/1

6. Volume of water required = 13687.82/1667 = 8.211 = 9m3

7. Providing a rectangular tank of width/length ratio of ½ and height = 3m, we have,

Volume of tank= length x width x height ; 9= 3/2 x length x 3

Therefore, length = 2m, width = 1m.

Water Tank Dimensions: (2x1x3)m

8.Boiler Capacity =9m3

Provide a cylindrical boiler of 3m height

Volume = π r2h ; r = 1m.

Provide a boiler of radius 1m and height 3m.

9.Design of sterilizer

Provide a pre-vaccum cylindrical steam sterilizer with a height 10m

Volume of sterilizer = π r2h = 13687.82+1368.787+684.39=14540.9m3

So, Sterilizer of diameter 45m and height 10m with material of construction - Carbon steel

DESIGN OF FERMENTER

Material: Stainless steel

Parts of a fermenter: Fermenter vessel, heating and cooling apparatus, sealing assembly, baffles, impeller, sparger, feed ports, foam control, valves(butterfly valves and safety valves)

Fermenter input = Sterilizer input = 0.75 x 14540.9 = 10905.7m3

Designing 3 cylindrical fermenters placed one below the other, input for 1 fermenter = 3635.23m3

Assuming a height of 5m, Volume = π r2h; diameter = 31m

CALCULATION OF THICKNESS

1.Outside diameter Do of fermenter =31m

Maximum Work Gauge Pressure (MWGP) =3bars=3Ã-105 N/m2

5% of MWGP = 150KN/m2

2. Pressure due to static head =hρg =5mÃ-1.3g/cm3Ã-9.8m/s2 = 63.696 kN/m2

Since pressure due to static head is less than 5% of MWGP,

Design pressure =1.05MWGP = 157.5 kN/m2

3. Design Temperature = 1500c

4. Material of construction: Stainless steel

5. Allowable stress value (f) for the material at design temperature= 25ksi = 172.25 MN/m2

6. Weld joint efficiency factor, J = 0.6

7. Selection of equation for finding thickness.

t=PD0/ (200fJ+P)

= PD0/ (2fJ+P) (if P and f are of same unit)

8. t = (157.5Ã-10-3MN/m2Ã-31m)/[(2Ã-0.6Ã-172.25 MN/m2)+(157.5Ã-10-3MN/m2)] = 0.24m

9. Corrosion allowance, c is zero since the material is corrosion resistant.

10. t'= t+c =0.24m

11. Di= Do-2t = 30.52m

DESIGN OF HEAD

The end caps on a cylindrical shaped pressure vessel are commonly known as heads. The ellipsoidal head is more economical because the height of the head is just a quarter of the diameter.This is also called a 2:1 elliptical head.Its radius varies between the major and minor axis.

1. Outer Diameter Do=31m ;Di=Do-2t = 30.52

2. Thickness of head = (t/1.06) - c = 0.23m

3. Ri=Do=31m; ri =0.06Do= 1.86m

4. Ro=D0+t = 31.24m ; =+ t = 2.1m

5. = 9.97m

6.==9.97m

==

= √)= 5.71m

The lesser value is to be selected.therefore hE=ho=5.71m

7.. t = PDo/200fJ = (157.5Ã-31)/200Ã-172.25x103Ã-0.6 = 2.50x10-4m

8. Blank diameter is the diameter of the plate from which the head can be formed.

BD =

= 3t = 7.51x10-4m

= Do = 1.86m

= 10%Di = 3.05

And in this case Sf is like 7.51x10-4m <Sf < 3.05

Therefore Sf = 1m

BD= 31+ +( Ã- 1.86)+(2Ã-1)= 34.1m

DESIGN OF IMPELLER

From the standard data ratio of impeller diameter to fermenter is 0.3 to 0.5.

; =12.4m

The ratio of sparger to impeller spacing to bioreactor diameter is 0.33

= 0.33 ;

The ratio of impeller pitch length to impeller diameter is 1.0 to 1.2

=

The ratio of impeller blade width to impeller diameter is 0.2

= 0.2 ;

The ratio of impeller blade length to impeller diameter is 0.25

=0.25;

Baffle ratio = = 0.06m

Baffle height is usually 3times that of impeller diameter.

Hb=3Di=312.4 = 31.2m

Ratio of impeller clearance height to diameter is 1.

=1 ; Hi=Di= 12.4m

DESIGN OF SUPPORT

The type of support chosen for the design of the fermenter for succinct acid production is bracket or lug support.

The following is the design of the bracket or lug support:

Calculation of the thickness of horizontal plate:

The main load on the bracket supports are the dead weight of the vessel with its contents and the wind load. The maximum total compressive load in the support is:

Where,  total force due to wind load

H  height of the vessel above foundation

F  vessel clearance from foundation to vessel bottom

 diameter of the bolt circle

 maximum weight of the vessel with attachments and contents

n  number of brackets = 4

The wind load is neglected because the vessel is placed indoors and the height of the vessel is limited. Thus the load P would then be only due to the weight of the vessel and its contents.

The maximum weight of the vessel = weight of the medium + weight of the steel used for the fermenter + weight of the motor + factor of safety.

Mass of the medium used in the fermenter = working volume density of corn steep liquor (CSL) = 10905.7m3 = 14177410kg

Therefore the weight of medium used = 14177410kg x 9.81m/s2 = 139080392.1N

Mass of steel = volume of steel used density of steel

Volume of steel used for the entire fermenter setup = total outside volume - total inside volume

= π

Where, the total outside diameter (Do) = outside diameter of vessel + thickness of jacket

= 31 + (2x0.24) = 31.48m

Total outside height (Ho) = height of the fermenter + outside height of head + thickness of jacket= 5+ (2x9.97) +(2x0.24) = 25.42m

Total inside diameter (Di) = inside diameter of vessel = 30.42m

Total inside height (Hi) = height of the fermenter + inside height of head =

= 5+(2x5.71) = 16.42m

∴ Volume of steel used for the entire fermenter setup = = 7851.07m3

Density of steel used = 7.99 g/

∴ Mass of the steel used = 7851.07 Ã- 7.99 g/ = 62730049kg

Weight of steel = 62730049kg Ã- 9.81 m/ = 615 MN

Mass of the agitator motor and shaft = 80 kg

Safety element added (in kg) = 100 kg

∴ The maximum weight of the vessel = weight of the medium + weight of the steel used for the fermenter + weight of the motor + factor of safety. = 6286.5 MN

∴ The maximum total compressive load in the support,

=

DESIGN OF BROTH HARVEST TANK

Input for harvest tank = 0.75 x 10905.7(Assuming 25% loss) = 8179.275m3

Assume a factor of safety of 1.5, Volume = 1.5 x 8179.275 = 12268.9125m3

Let height be 5m, then volume = π r2h ; r = 28m

Provide a tank of diameter 56m and height 5m.

DESIGN OF MICROPOROUS FILTER

Material: Epoxy Fibreglass.

Thickness: Single layer of 150µm thickness.

Porosity: Approximately 80%

Strength: They withstand both (longitudinal) and tensile(lateral) strength,

Wetting agent: 0.1-3% by weight.

Thermo-stability: withstand temperature upto 130°C.

DESIGN OF ION EXCHANGE COLUMN

Connections at top

Service inlet

Backwash outlet

Rinse inlet

Bottom connections

Service outlet

Backwash inlet

Waste chemical and rinse outlet

Construction

Cylindrical Tank

Volume = π r2h =8179.2m3(assuming zero loss)

Assume a height of 10m, diameter = 34m

So, Ion exchange column is of diameter 34m and height 10m(Bed- 124cm deep)

DESIGN OF CRYSTALLIZER

Vessel sizing

Input volume = 8179.2m3

Assuming a factor of safety of 1.5, input volume = 12268.8m3

Volume of frustum,V1 = πh/3 (R2+Rr+r2)

Let r/R = ½ and height of section be 5m, r = 10m.

Then V1 = 3665.19m3

V2 = 12268.8- V1 = 8603.61m3

Provide 10m height for V2 section,

Volume = π r2h = 8603.61 ; r = 16.54 = 20m.

Crystallizer diameter - 20m and height - 10m.

PROCESS ECONOMICS

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Fixed Assets

Land

1000000

Building

2000000

Plant & Machinery:

Dryer

100000

Filtration setup

500000

Bioreactor

1600000

Weighing balance

22000

Electrical installation

500000

Generator

200000

Piping

250000

Preoperative expenses:

Company incorporation expenses

300000

Administration expenses(up to commercial

Production)

500000

Trial run expenses

100000

TOTAL FIXED ASSETS

7072000

Working capital

Stock-Finished Product

937,500

Stock Raw Materials

84,500

Receivables

1,875,000

Total

2,897,000

Total Project Cost

Fixed Assets

7072000

Working Capital

2897000

Total

9969000

4. Production per annum

Quantity (Kg)

Rate (Rs)

Value

Sales

-

-

-

Citric Acid

45000

210

63000000

Finished Products Stock(15 Days)

-

-

937500

Total Production

63937500

Recievables (1month Sale)

1875000

5. Raw materials consumed (P.A)

Quantity

Rate

Value

Water Hyacinth

90kg

-

-

Lime

5000kg

150

750000

Sulphuric Acid

5000L

86

430000

Miscellaneous

200000

TOTAL

1380000

Personnel Details

Managing director

1

35000

420000

Production manager

1

25000

300000

Marketing manager

1

25000

300000

Finance manager

1

25000

300000

Quality control and research chief

1

15000

180000

Operators(skilled personnels)

3

10000

360000

Helpers(unskilled personnels)

5

4500

270000

Lab staffs

2

7500

180000

Marketing staff

1

7500

90000

Office staff

2

7500

180000

Store keepers

2

5000

120000

TOTAL

2700000

7. Power

Units P.M.

Rate

Total P.A

Consumption

20000

3.5

840000

8. Depreciation

Value

Rate

Total P.A.

Building

400000

5%

20000

Plant

7152000

15%

1072800

Total

1092800

9. Profitability

Sales

23487500

TOTAL

23487500

Raw materials

1380000

Power

840000

Packing expenses

300000

Salary

2700000

Administrative expense

500000

Selling expenses

700000

Depreciation

1092800

TOTAL

7512800

Net profit

15974700

Net profit ratio(on sales)

68.01%

10. Break Even point

Fixed Cost

40% Of Salary, Admn. Exp, Selling Expense

1560000

Depreciation

1092800

Total Fixed Cost (A)

2652800

Net Profit (B)

15974700

BEP - A/(A+B)

14.24%

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