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Succinic acid, derived from fermentation of agricultural carbohydrates, has a specialty chemical market in industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants and detergents, green solvents and biodegradable plastics, and ingredients to stimulate animal and plant growth. As a carbon-intermediate chemical, fermentation-derived succinate has the potential to supply over 2.7 Â´ 108 kg industrial products/ year including: 1,4-butanediol, tetrahydrofuran, c-bu-tyrolactone, adipic acid, n-methylpyrrolidone and linear aliphatic esters. Succinate yields as high as 110 g/l have been achieved from glucose by the newly discovered rumen organism Actinobacillus succinogenes. Succinate fermentation is a novel process because the greenhouse gas CO2 is fixed into succinate during glucose fermentation. New developments in end-product recovery technology, including water-splitting electro dialysis and liquid/liquid extraction have lowered the cost of succinic acid production to U.S. $ 0.55/kg at the 75 000 tone/year level and to $ 2.20/kg at the 5000 tone/year level. Research directions aimed at further improving the succinate fermentation economics are discussed.
Succinic acid is a common metabolite formed by plants, animals and microorganisms. Many anaerobic microbes produce succinate as the major end-product of their energy metabolism. Nonetheless, only recently has interest focused on the development of succinic acid as an important industrial fermentation process. This review will explain why succinic acid fermentations may, in the future, involve larger production volumes than citric acid, and could, perhaps, approach that of ethanol.
Green technology is becoming more of a driving force in the chemical industry because of the current need to decrease pollution caused by petrochemical processing and the future need to replace the dwindling hydrocarbon economy with a renewable, environmentally sound, carbohydrate economy.
Physical and chemical properties
Appearance: White crystals.
Solubility: 100 g/l00 ml water @ 100C (212F). 1g/13mL cold water.
Specific Gravity: 1.57 @ 25C/4C
pH: 2.7 (0.1 molar solution)
% Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 0
Boiling Point: 235C (455F)
Melting Point: 188C (370F)
Vapor Density (Air=1):
No information found.
Vapor Pressure (mm Hg):
No information found.
Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1):
No information found.
Succinate is a component of the citric acid cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transport chain by the reaction:
succinate + FAD â†’fumarate+ FADH2.
This is catalyzed by the enzyme succiniate dehydrogenises (or complex II of the mitochondrial ETC). The complex is a 4 subunit membrane-bound lipoprotein which couples the oxidation of succinate to the reduction of ubiquinone. Intermediate electron carriers are FAD and three Fe2S2 clusters part of subunit B.
Safety and storage
The acid is combustible and corrosive, capable of causing burns. In nutraceutical form as a food additive and dietary supplement, is safe and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. As an excipient in pharmaceutical products it is used to control acidity and, more rarely, in effervescent tablets.
Store in a tightly closed container. Protect container from physical damage. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat or ignition. Isolate from oxidizing materials. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.
Interactive pathway map
Organisms and diversity
Succinic acid is a common intermediate in the metabolic pathway of several anaerobic and facultative microorganisms. Most of the succinate-producing microorganisms have been isolated from the rumen because, in this ecosystem, succinate serves as an important precursor for propionate, which is absorbed through the rumen wall for subsequent oxidation to provide energy and biosynthetic precursors for the animal. Animals receive both forage (such as hay) and grains (such as corn) as
part of their diet, which allows for a great diversity of rumen microorganisms.
All succinic-acid-producing bacteria form mixed-acid fermentations, producing varying amounts of succinate as well as other products, including, ethanol, lactic, acetic, and formic acid. We use the Actinobacillus succinogenes as the organism to producing succinic acid.
A. succinogenes, unlike E. coli or A. succiniciproducens, is a moderate osmophile and has high tolerance to succinate salts, which is crucial to process requirements for product recovery (see next section). A. succinogenes variant strains can yield 110 g/l succinic acid (Guettler et al. 1996). It should be pointed out that industrial strains of Corynebacterium can make mono sodium glutamate at 150 g/l. Thus 15% succinate is a potential target product yield for future genetic strain improvements.
Location of the industry
We are going to locate our industry in Nantong, Jiangsu China.
Nantong was traditionally an agricultural land and an old site for salt-making in history. Its principal agricultural products include cotton, rice, wheat, fishing, fruit, and more. Currently, the city is making more efforts to upgrade its farming sectors and increase production of organic foods.
China is the second largest corn producer in the world, has currently annual output of nearly 160 million tons.(20% in the world)
Jiangsu province is belongs to the southern hills corn area which has 6% of the corn output in the whole country.
It is the highest yield per unite area in China.
Nantong is the best place of our industry because it is very near the Yangzi River as a harbor city.
Nowadays, Chinese succinic acid production accounts for 25-30% of the world's total, with the total capacity and output of 15,550 t/ha and 8,650 tones respectively in 2009. By Q1 2010, there are 12 major active succinic acid producers in China. From 2005 to 2009 Chinese succinic acid industry stably developed in China. However, in 2008, domestic succinic acid market was shank due to the financial crisis. China is the major consumption country for succinic acid, with total apparent consumption volume of 7,393 tons in 2009. Succinic acid is widely used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.
PRODUCTION OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR
Corn steep liquor is a by-product of corn wet milling process.
Steps of corn wet milling process
After reception, the corn kernel could be stored before being cleaned by mechanical cleaners. This last agitate the corn through several perforated metal sheets. The small unwanted material is eliminated through the holes. In the same time metal particles are removed by an electromagnet above the sheets, and corn kernel could be dry by a blast of hot air if necessary.
Steeping prepares the corn kernel for the milling and the others steps of the process. It breaks down part of the protein witch hold the starch particle. Steeping also removes some soluble component. During this step, the corn kernels pass through several tanks. Inside this last the corn is submerged in a dilute sulphurous acid solution at the temperature of about 52â-¦C during 24 to 48hours. The solution circulates at counter current of the corn kernels. The liquid from the first tank (so the most used solution) is sent through an evaporator. This solution contains about 6% of the original dry weigh of corn kernel and is called light steepwater. This last goes through a second evaporator to obtain the heavy steepwater or corn steep liquor. It contains about 55% of solid.
DESIGN OF THE EQUPMENTS USED IN THE PROCESS
Given: 50km diameter of land.
Location: Nantong, Jiangsu, China.
Area= = 1963.50km2 = 485,191 acres.
In China, the annual output of corn is 163,118,097 tonnes in 17.14 million hectares.
Our industry produces 50,000 tonnes of corn in 12973.03 acres(5250 hectares).
PRODUCTION OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR
Light steepwater tank
Plate Falling Film type Evaporator
Steep Liquor tank
DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY OF CORN STEEP LIQUOR
Viscosity of corn steep liquor is determined using Ostwald's viscometer. According to Poiseuille's equation,the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid having streamlined flow through a tube is given by
where Î· is the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid, v is the volume of the liquid flowing out of the tube, t is the time taken for liquid flow, r is the radius of the tube, l is the length of the tube, p is the driving pressure needed for uniform rate of flow of volume V of the liquid.
Ostwald's viscometer is commonly used for measuring the coefficient of viscosity of liquids and also for comparing the viscosities of liquids. In an Ostwald's viscometer, a fixed volume of liquid is allowed to fall under its own weight and the time required for flow is noted. In such an experiment, the driving pressure, P=hÏg where h is the length of the liquid, Ï is the density and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The poiseuille's equation now becomes
If equal volumes of two liquids 1 and 2 are allowed to flow through the same tube under identical conditions of temperature and pressure, then according to the above equation
where Î·1 and Î·2 are the coefficients of viscosity of the two liquids, d1 and d2 their respective densities and t1 and t2 are the times for flow. In this way, the viscosities may be compared. If the viscosity of one of the liquids is known, that of other can be calculated.
A definite volume of the liquid (say 10 ml) is introduced into the bulb C. the liquid is then sucked into the bulb A using a rubber tube attached to the other end D. The time for the free flow of liquid from the mark X to the mark Y is noted. The experiment is repeated with the other liquid. In each case, the time for flow is measured. Knowing the density of liquid the viscosities may be compared.
Time of flow-1(min)
Time of flow-2(min)
Time of flow-mean(min)
= = = 1.33
Relative viscosity = 1.33
Absolute viscosity = 0.008Ã-1.33
= 0.01064 = 0.010 poise
PRODUCTION OF SUCCINIC ACID
DESIGN OF STEAM STERLIZER
1. Steam required is generated from a small boiler which in turn is connected to a water tank.
2. Steam required for sterilization = twice the volume of CSL = 2 x 6843.91m3 = 13687.82m3
3. Volume of dextrose required = 10% of steam volume = 684.39m3
4. Volume of nutrients required = 20% of steam volume = 1368.78m3
5. Total water to be supplied by water tank = water equivalent of 13687.82m3 of steam
Steam volume at 212F/ Water volume at 80F = 1667/1
6. Volume of water required = 13687.82/1667 = 8.211 = 9m3
7. Providing a rectangular tank of width/length ratio of Â½ and height = 3m, we have,
Volume of tank= length x width x height ; 9= 3/2 x length x 3
Therefore, length = 2m, width = 1m.
Water Tank Dimensions: (2x1x3)m
8.Boiler Capacity =9m3
Provide a cylindrical boiler of 3m height
Volume = Ï€ r2h ; r = 1m.
Provide a boiler of radius 1m and height 3m.
9.Design of sterilizer
Provide a pre-vaccum cylindrical steam sterilizer with a height 10m
Volume of sterilizer = Ï€ r2h = 13687.82+1368.787+684.39=14540.9m3
So, Sterilizer of diameter 45m and height 10m with material of construction - Carbon steel
DESIGN OF FERMENTER
Material: Stainless steel
Parts of a fermenter: Fermenter vessel, heating and cooling apparatus, sealing assembly, baffles, impeller, sparger, feed ports, foam control, valves(butterfly valves and safety valves)
Fermenter input = Sterilizer input = 0.75 x 14540.9 = 10905.7m3
Designing 3 cylindrical fermenters placed one below the other, input for 1 fermenter = 3635.23m3
Assuming a height of 5m, Volume = Ï€ r2h; diameter = 31m
CALCULATION OF THICKNESS
1.Outside diameter Do of fermenter =31m
Maximum Work Gauge Pressure (MWGP) =3bars=3Ã-105 N/m2
5% of MWGP = 150KN/m2
2. Pressure due to static head =hÏg =5mÃ-1.3g/cm3Ã-9.8m/s2 = 63.696 kN/m2
Since pressure due to static head is less than 5% of MWGP,
Design pressure =1.05MWGP = 157.5 kN/m2
3. Design Temperature = 1500c
4. Material of construction: Stainless steel
5. Allowable stress value (f) for the material at design temperature= 25ksi = 172.25 MN/m2
6. Weld joint efficiency factor, J = 0.6
7. Selection of equation for finding thickness.
= PD0/ (2fJ+P) (if P and f are of same unit)
8. t = (157.5Ã-10-3MN/m2Ã-31m)/[(2Ã-0.6Ã-172.25 MN/m2)+(157.5Ã-10-3MN/m2)] = 0.24m
9. Corrosion allowance, c is zero since the material is corrosion resistant.
10. t'= t+c =0.24m
11. Di= Do-2t = 30.52m
DESIGN OF HEAD
The end caps on a cylindrical shaped pressure vessel are commonly known as heads. The ellipsoidal head is more economical because the height of the head is just a quarter of the diameter.This is also called a 2:1 elliptical head.Its radius varies between the major and minor axis.
1. Outer Diameter Do=31m ;Di=Do-2t = 30.52
2. Thickness of head = (t/1.06) - c = 0.23m
3. Ri=Do=31m; ri =0.06Do= 1.86m
4. Ro=D0+t = 31.24m ; =+ t = 2.1m
5. = 9.97m
= âˆš)= 5.71m
The lesser value is to be selected.therefore hE=ho=5.71m
7.. t = PDo/200fJ = (157.5Ã-31)/200Ã-172.25x103Ã-0.6 = 2.50x10-4m
8. Blank diameter is the diameter of the plate from which the head can be formed.
= 3t = 7.51x10-4m
= Do = 1.86m
= 10%Di = 3.05
And in this case Sf is like 7.51x10-4m <Sf < 3.05
Therefore Sf = 1m
BD= 31+ +( Ã- 1.86)+(2Ã-1)= 34.1m
DESIGN OF IMPELLER
From the standard data ratio of impeller diameter to fermenter is 0.3 to 0.5.
The ratio of sparger to impeller spacing to bioreactor diameter is 0.33
= 0.33 ;
The ratio of impeller pitch length to impeller diameter is 1.0 to 1.2
The ratio of impeller blade width to impeller diameter is 0.2
= 0.2 ;
The ratio of impeller blade length to impeller diameter is 0.25
Baffle ratio = = 0.06m
Baffle height is usually 3times that of impeller diameter.
Hb=3Di=312.4 = 31.2m
Ratio of impeller clearance height to diameter is 1.
=1 ; Hi=Di= 12.4m
DESIGN OF SUPPORT
The type of support chosen for the design of the fermenter for succinct acid production is bracket or lug support.
The following is the design of the bracket or lug support:
Calculation of the thickness of horizontal plate:
The main load on the bracket supports are the dead weight of the vessel with its contents and the wind load. The maximum total compressive load in the support is:
Where, ï€ total force due to wind load
H ï€ height of the vessel above foundation
F ï€ vessel clearance from foundation to vessel bottom
ï€ diameter of the bolt circle
ï€ maximum weight of the vessel with attachments and contents
n ï€ number of brackets = 4
The wind load is neglected because the vessel is placed indoors and the height of the vessel is limited. Thus the load P would then be only due to the weight of the vessel and its contents.
The maximum weight of the vessel = weight of the medium + weight of the steel used for the fermenter + weight of the motor + factor of safety.
Mass of the medium used in the fermenter = working volume density of corn steep liquor (CSL) = 10905.7m3 = 14177410kg
Therefore the weight of medium used = 14177410kg x 9.81m/s2 = 139080392.1N
Mass of steel = volume of steel used density of steel
Volume of steel used for the entire fermenter setup = total outside volume - total inside volume
Where, the total outside diameter (Do) = outside diameter of vessel + thickness of jacket
= 31 + (2x0.24) = 31.48m
Total outside height (Ho) = height of the fermenter + outside height of head + thickness of jacket= 5+ (2x9.97) +(2x0.24) = 25.42m
Total inside diameter (Di) = inside diameter of vessel = 30.42m
Total inside height (Hi) = height of the fermenter + inside height of head =
= 5+(2x5.71) = 16.42m
âˆ´ Volume of steel used for the entire fermenter setup = = 7851.07m3
Density of steel used = 7.99 g/
âˆ´ Mass of the steel used = 7851.07 Ã- 7.99 g/ = 62730049kg
Weight of steel = 62730049kg Ã- 9.81 m/ = 615 MN
Mass of the agitator motor and shaft = 80 kg
Safety element added (in kg) = 100 kg
âˆ´ The maximum weight of the vessel = weight of the medium + weight of the steel used for the fermenter + weight of the motor + factor of safety. = 6286.5 MN
âˆ´ The maximum total compressive load in the support,
DESIGN OF BROTH HARVEST TANK
Input for harvest tank = 0.75 x 10905.7(Assuming 25% loss) = 8179.275m3
Assume a factor of safety of 1.5, Volume = 1.5 x 8179.275 = 12268.9125m3
Let height be 5m, then volume = Ï€ r2h ; r = 28m
Provide a tank of diameter 56m and height 5m.
DESIGN OF MICROPOROUS FILTER
Material: Epoxy Fibreglass.
Thickness: Single layer of 150Âµm thickness.
Porosity: Approximately 80%
Strength: They withstand both (longitudinal) and tensile(lateral) strength,
Wetting agent: 0.1-3% by weight.
Thermo-stability: withstand temperature upto 130Â°C.
DESIGN OF ION EXCHANGE COLUMN
Connections at top
Waste chemical and rinse outlet
Volume = Ï€ r2h =8179.2m3(assuming zero loss)
Assume a height of 10m, diameter = 34m
So, Ion exchange column is of diameter 34m and height 10m(Bed- 124cm deep)
DESIGN OF CRYSTALLIZER
Input volume = 8179.2m3
Assuming a factor of safety of 1.5, input volume = 12268.8m3
Volume of frustum,V1 = Ï€h/3 (R2+Rr+r2)
Let r/R = Â½ and height of section be 5m, r = 10m.
Then V1 = 3665.19m3
V2 = 12268.8- V1 = 8603.61m3
Provide 10m height for V2 section,
Volume = Ï€ r2h = 8603.61 ; r = 16.54 = 20m.
Crystallizer diameter - 20m and height - 10m.
Plant & Machinery:
Company incorporation expenses
Administration expenses(up to commercial
Trial run expenses
TOTAL FIXED ASSETS
Stock Raw Materials
Total Project Cost
4. Production per annum
Finished Products Stock(15 Days)
Recievables (1month Sale)
5. Raw materials consumed (P.A)
Quality control and research chief
Net profit ratio(on sales)
10. Break Even point
40% Of Salary, Admn. Exp, Selling Expense
Total Fixed Cost (A)
Net Profit (B)
BEP - A/(A+B)