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In this assignment I describe about aviation meteorology which important factor in aviation industry. Today aviation industry is growing very rapidly as well as weather patterns also change due to human activities on the earth. Therefore it is important to discuss about aviation meteorology. In this report, as a second topic is explained how meteorological information is used in aviation. Next report is described aviation accidents caused by issues involved in meteorology. And also I propose a strategy to avoid accidents caused by issues involved in meteorology.
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology).
1.3 Aviation meteorology
Aviation meteorology (MET) is an essential element of the complex system that constitutes Air Traffic Management (ATM) in its broadest sense. Weather conditions all aspects of ATM operations, as example by variations in head and tail-wind components, through changes in pressure and temperature values at airports, and in imposing low visibility operating conditions. Adverse meteorological conditions have the greatest impact on the ATM system creating disruption and the consequent problems of disturbed flow rates, lost capacity and induced additional costs.
Therefore aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic management. It is important for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the Aeronautical Information Manual.
2. Meteorological Information
2.1 Meteorological Information
The Pilot Request Meteorological Information for In-Flight Re-planning Service provides weather information upon request to support in-flight planning or re-planning for hazard avoidance or for flight efficiency.
Pilots need to be informed about meteorological conditions along the routes to be flown and at their destination aerodromes.
2.2 What is the meteorological information
The data gathered from surface and upper altitude observations form the basis of all weather forecasts, advisories, and briefings. There are three types of weather observations: surface, upper air, and radar.
Aerodrome reports and forecasts are required by aeronautical users to carry out their functions. Aerodrome reports include surface wind, visibility, runway visual range, present weather, cloud, air and dew-point temperature and atmospheric pressure, and are issued either half-hourly or hourly.
To assist pilots with their flight planning, most States provide meteorological briefings which are increasingly carried out using automated systems. Briefings comprise details of en-route weather, upper winds and upper-air temperatures, often given in the form of meteorological charts, warnings related to hazardous phenomena en-route, and reports and forecasts for the destination aerodrome and its alternates.
They prepare warnings of hazardous weather conditions, including thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, severe squall lines, heavy hail, severe turbulence, severe icing, mountain waves, sandstorms, dust storms and volcanic ash clouds. Moreover, these offices issue aerodrome warnings of meteorological conditions that could adversely affect aircraft or facilities on the ground: for example, warnings of expected snowstorms.
2.2.1 Standard weather briefing
A standard briefing is the most complete report and provides the overall weather picture. This type of briefing should be obtained prior to the departure of any flight and should be used during flight planning. A standard briefing provides the following information in sequential order if it is applicable to the route of flight.
This includes information about adverse conditions that may influence a decision to cancel or alter the route of flight.
The synopsis is an overview of the larger weather picture. Fronts and major weather systems that affect the general area are provided.
This portion of the briefing contains the current ceilings, visibility, winds, and temperatures. If the departure time is more than 2 hours away, current conditions will not be included in the briefing.
En Route forecast
The en route forecast is a summary of the weather forecast for the proposed route of flight.
The destination forecast is a summary of the expected weather for the destination airport at the estimated time of arrival (ETA).
Winds and Temperatures aloft
Winds and temperatures aloft are a report of the winds at specific altitudes for the route of flight. However, the temperature information is provided only on request.
2.2.2 Aviation weather reports
An aviation routine weather report, or METAR, is an observation of current surface weather reported in a standard international format. While the METAR code has been adopted worldwide, each country is allowed to make modifications to the code. Normally, these differences are minor but necessary to accommodate international procedures or particular units of measure.
METAR BTR 161753Z 14021G26 3/4SM -RA BR BKN008 OVC012 18/17 A2970 RMK PRESFR
Type of Report:
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
16th day of the month
Winds 140° at 21 knots gusting to 26 knots
3/4 statute mile
light rain and mist
Skies broken 800 feet, overcast 1,200
Temperature 18°C, dewpoint 17°C
29.70 in. Hg.
Barometric pressure is falling.
2.2.3 Why is the meteorological information
It has been found that the key decisions related to operating in potentially hazardous weather conditions include:
â€¢ Go/no-go, or the decision to launch or delay a flight;
â€¢ Route selection;
â€¢ Tactical adverse weather avoidance;
â€¢ Tactical escape from adverse weather conditions;
â€¢ Aircraft systems management.
2.3 How meteorological information is used in aviation.
2.3.1 Expected benefits.
Improved flight safety through hazard avoidance (i.e., reduced flight attendant and passenger turbulence injuries) (I/P)
Informed escape from hazardous weather (I)
Improved aircrew decision making in adverse weather situations (I/P)
Improved aircrew / passenger confidence in avoiding hazardous flight conditions
Improved flight profiles resulting in exploitation of latent capacity
Efficiency - ATS
reduced impact of flight diversion through early pilot decision to avoid weather hazard
Reduced voice radio communications by reducing amount of weather information required to be relayed to pilots
Improved flight efficiency through advantageous use of changing flight levels winds
Reduced pilot/controller/dispatcher workload through more efficient weather information processing
Reduce fuel costs through more efficient flight profiles
Reduce aircraft maintenance costs through reduced exposure to hazardous weather
Reduced cost of system disruption
Reduced cost of fatalities, injuries and/or hull losses
Reduced demand for voice frequencies and associated infrastructure
Reduced impact of fuel consumption
3. Aviation accidents
3.1 Aviation accidents
Weather-related aviation accidents, in both large and small aircraft, still remain one of the most significant causes for concern in aviation safety today, despite all the research and development which has been carried out over the last hundred years since the Wright Brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk Field.
3.2 Caused by issues involved in meteorology
Aviation weather hazards associated with Convection / thunderstorms:
Tornado / Water Spout
Vertical displacements, velocities and accelerations
Gust front from horizontal outflow from down draft spreading out from storm base / wind shears
Up / down draft boundaries within the cloud
Leading edge and upper surface of the gust front:
Strong vertical and horizontal wind shears
Funnel clouds (e.g., tornadoes)
Upper extent of updraft within cloud
Vertical Motion Close to Convective Clouds
Cruising Above Cumulonimbus Tops
Turbulence Associated with a Large Cumulus Cloud
Turbulence Associated with a Downdraft
Wind Shear: Shears in Horizontal Winds
Downburst Wind Shears: Effects on Landing and Taking Off
Icing in Thunderstorms
General Icing Regimes
Hazardous Effects of Aircraft Icing
Accumulated icing may lower aircraft performance:
Increase stalling speed
Destroy optimal aerodynamic flow over the aircraft
Horizontal visibility - Due to precipitation, Showers of rain, snow and hail
Vertical visibility - Due to obscuring cloud, Cumulonimbus, Stratus
A high-current electrical discharge caused by a thunderstorm â€¦
Lightning: Aircraft Damage
Puncturing the fuselage
Burning, melting or distorting aircraft parts
Fire in the fuel system
Visual or instruments
Tornado / Water Spout
Tornadoes / water spouts are usually identified by a funnel cloud
Tornadic winds are extremely destructive - the most violent weather phenomenon
Can cause structural damage to an aircraft
Tornado formation depends on the wind shear environment of the severe storm
Thunderstorms are capable of extreme rainfall intensities
Heavy precipitation can be reduced visibility in flight and on the ground interferes with radio transmission
Wet runways are reduced stopping ability upon landing and decrease steering control on the ground
If thunderstorm updraft suspends sufficient water droplets â€¦
Jet engine may ingest more water than design specifications
Can lead to engine flame-out
There is no known successful operational recovery procedure
3.3 Statistics of Aviation accidents
According to the statistics of last 60 years aircraft accident from PlaneCrashInfo.com, I can identify there are taken place considerable number of weather related accident. "Pilot error (weather related)" represents accidents in which pilot error was the cause but brought about by weather related phenomena.
Pilot Error (weather related)
Pilot Error (mechanical related)
Total Pilot Error
Other Human Error
4. Strategy to avoid accidents caused by issues involved in meteorology
4.1 Existing Strategies
Uses International Standards and Recommended Practices related to ICAO standards. (Annex 3-Meteorological Services-provision of meteorological services for international air navigation and reporting of meteorological observations from aircraft.)
In aircraft technology, short-wingspan aircraft will be more sensitive to a specific vortex than long-wingspan aircraft. Even high-performance aircraft will be more sensitive to wake turbulence than a civilian transport aircraft, because of its short wingspan. Always notify the ATC of what separation is needed, in order to avoid suspected wake turbulence.
They also support the development of new forecast products, graphical and integrated cockpit weather displays, improved capabilities for weather data link, as well as enhanced interfaces and tools for the dissemination of weather information.
4.2 Proposed a strategies
Introduce new system with the rapid development of technologies, improved scientific understanding, advancements in weather forecasting processes, dissemination and presentation of weather related data.
Improved meteorology training and weather interpretation skills, at all levels and areas of the aviation industry, have become more frequent as the result of the numerous studies and investigations of weather occurrences.
Improve knowledge of meteorology and develop practical interpretation skills of traditional and modern technologies, including numerical weather prediction models, with an international focus.
The meteorological service is contributed to the safety, efficiency and regularity of air navigation
Forecasting thunderstorm activity in a timely and accurate way has great utility to the aviation Industry
While weather forecasts are not 100 percent accurate, meteorologists, through careful scientific study and computer modeling, have the ability to predict the weather patterns, trends, and characteristics with increasing accuracy.
We have to develop models for forecast accurate data using latest technology for forecast accurate weather condition in future.