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An efficient operation of the Switched Reluctance Motor can be achieved only by proper estimation of the rotor position. The rotor position information in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives is essential for generating the proper firing sequence and for controlling the speed of the drive. And also SRM drives in now-a- days are more costly than their counterpart AC and DC drives. This is to a large extent caused by the need of designing a modern and low cost power electronic converter for SRM drives. Due to this fact the application of SRM in variable speed drives and other application such as automobile application are limited .This paper describes a new and simple method for determining the rotor position of an switched reluctance motor (SRM) based on motor design structure and a low cost converter for low and high speed operations. The scheme is successfully implemented with optimal number of switches and position sensors to control the speed of the switched reluctance motors in either direction. This controller executes controller algorithms through micro-controller to generate necessary firing signal to drive SRM
Keywords: Switched Reluctance motors, position sensors, micro-controllers.
The switched reluctance motor (SRM) is coming out as a new substitute in the rising industrial market for high performance variable speed drives on account of numerous advantages. Most significant among these are the simplicity, rugged construction, controllability and high efficiency . Besides these advantages, the major drawback of this motor is the requirement of rotor position sensors, rotor position information and the presence of large torque ripple. Therefore rigorous research has been in progress in several countries using position sensors (sensor method) or to eliminate (sensor less method) position sensor, while providing the necessary rotor position information for the gate drive circuit of the controller. But both sensor and sensor less provide mixed advantages and disadvantages. In both the techniques, there is a need to carry out huge mathematical calculation and certain experiments set up's are required to find out performance parameters of the SRM . It is also very essential, that rotor position should be correctly coordinated with stator phase excitation; for that reason, the information about the rotor position is necessary for proper switching of stator phases . In general encoder  or a resolver is generally used to detect the position of the rotor, however the resolution of the position sensor is more, and the unit price increase. In addition to this increasing price of the encoder, the proper arrangement of position sensor(external arrangements), massive mathematically calculation, and the experimental
Fig. 1 Four Phase Switched Reluctance motor
set up's, increases the complicity in designing the control circuit. As a result over all cost of the total drive is becoming more expensive
Chappell et al  and Oza et al  have reported the use of microprocessor, and Siemens 80535 microcontroller  for control of SRM
In this paper, a new way of finding the rotor position is presented, which requires neither high cost resolution encoder, nor a huge mathematical calculations or any extra experimental set up. A micro-controller is used to generate the necessary firing pulses to each phase device based on the information received from the position sensors to have a proper control in either direction.
The scheme is tested for speed control of a 1kW, 4 phases, 15000 rpm, 8/6 pole switched reluctance motor. The proposed converter and control scheme is simple, cost effective and is useful for high speeds and low rated applications. The power and control circuits of the SRM drive are designed, developed and tested in the laboratory.
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 
The switched reluctance motor is a doubly salient,single excited variable reluctance motor .The SRM with eight stator poles and six rotor poles is shown in Figure 1. Acoil wound around each stator pole is connected in serieswith the coils on the diametrically opposite statorpole to form a phase winding .The reluctance of the flux path between two diametrically opposite stator poles pairsvaries as a pair of rotor poles pair rotates into and out of alignment with them. When the rotor pole completely overlaps with stator pole,
theinductance of a phase winding is maximum (reluctance is minimum),i.e. rotor is in the aligned position (e.g. phase Din Fig. 1) and when there is no overlap of rotor and stator pole ,then the inductance is minimum ,i.e. rotor is in the unaligned position (e.g. phase Bin Fig. 1).A pulse of positive torque is produced, if the current raise is properly synchronized with the inductance raise of that particular phase winding. A negative torque contribution is avoided if the same fall in phase current is properly reduced to zero before the inductance of the same phase starts to decrease again. The rotor speed can be varied by changing the switching frequency or the duty cycle of phase devices or by input voltage control, i.e. varying the magnitude of the input pulse voltage, while retaining synchronism with the rotor position
II.DESCRIPTION OF THE HARDWARE
The prototype drive comprises of four phase, IGBTinverter  and position sensors,voltage control, gate drive circuit for IGBT'S and power supply unit as shown in figure 2(a). Position sensors are used for rotor position sensing.The details of power and control circuits are given below
Fig 2(a). Configuration of SRM drive
A Power Circuit
The inverter consists one switching transistor per phase. IGBT's are used in allfourphases. Furthermore the supply unit consists of six sealed maintenance free (SMF) Lead-acid batteries each rated for 12V, 18Ah and a potential divider to get a variable voltage. Fig 2.(b)shows a converter configuration with one IGBT and one diode. A set of two capacitors in series provides three wire dc supply Equal value resistances are connected across each capacitor to balance the voltage .Each phase windings is energized by turning on the respective phase device. If phase A is to be energized, the transistor Q1 has to be turned on, then the current circulates through Q1, phase A and the capacitor C1 and when Q1 is turned off, the current continues to flow through winding, D2 and C2 .The energy stored in the phase A winding during on period is dumped to C2. The phase A during off period is subjected to negative supply through C2, which helps in quick demagnetization of the Motor phase A and reducing the effect of negative torque. Similar process is followed for other phases.
Fig. 2(b) Inverter schematic circuit for SRM.
B. Position Sensor Conditioning Circuit
Fig. 2(c) Position sensor circuit of SRM
Two photo diodes and two infra -red (IR) diodes are used as sensors. Two number of IR diodes are directly connected in series to the in built dc supply of regulated 5V through a current limiting resistor in order to ensure constant current. The photo diodes are individually reversed biased from 5 volts dc regulated source. The photo diodes and the IR diodes are placed facing each other mounted on the stator in specific position so that, the infra red light emitted by the IR diode directly fall on the photo diode. A slotted disc is mounted on rear end of the rotor with similar number of slots to that of the rotor so that the slots appear in between the space of the IR diode and the photo diode. Thus while the rotor makes arotation the IR light falling on the photo diode is interrupted through the slots of the disc. While the light is interrupted the photo diode resistance falls sharply to a low value. This fall of resistance forms a difference in potential to a comparator made out of Op-Amp, thus the output of the comparator is either 0 or1 .Two comparators are used to get states such as 01, 11, 10, 00, which fall in synchronization with rotor position.
For the starting purpose the corresponding state decides triggering of appropriate stator pole and while running it follows the sequence from there onwards.
C. Location of position sensors and Exciting sequence.
A pair of IR transmitting and receiving sensors are used to sense the rotor position which are placed on the stator and an external rotor disc respectively. Based on the over-lapping of the rotor pole face with stator pole face, sensors generate four states. When the sensor signals were both low there is no overlapping of rotor pole face with stator pole face. If both signalswere high, rotor pole face completely overlaps with the stator pole face.
These states are shown in the truth tables. Based on this the respective phases are being excited to rotate the motor in clock-wise direction as well as in anti-clock wise directions.
Table I: Truth Table for forward direction (Clock-Wise direction)
Position Sensor 1
Position Sensor 2
Phase to be excited
Table II: Truth Table for forward direction (Anti Clock-Wise direction)
Position Sensor 1
Position Sensor 2
Phase to be excited
Fig3(a) depicts State: 3 3(b) depicts State: 0
3 (c) depicts State: 1 3(d) depicts State: 2
Fig.5 (i) depicts state "0". As per the truth table I, the phase "a" should be given excitation, as the rotor pole in this state is misaligned. When the stator phase "a" is excited, then the current in the phase i.e. Ia increases , then the rotor will turn
Fig 4. Inductance profile and arrangement of Position sensors
clockwise to thealigned position as in Fig 5 (ii), because this is the nearestaligned position; If phase a is switched off so that the current in phase "a" is Ia = 0 and phase b is switched on (excited) when the rotor reaches the aligned position in Figure 5 (ii),the rotor will keep its clockwise rotation from its currentmisalignedpositionto the nearest aligned position Figure 5 (iii) with respect tophase c; Now the rotor turns to be at themisalignedposition in Figure 5 (iii)with respect to phase d, if phase d is switched on (excited) instead of phase c,the rotor will keep clockwise rotation to Figure 5 (iv), etc. Therefore, the stator phase exciting sequence a, b, c, d, a, generates clockwise rotation. For the same reason, the sequence c, d, a, b, c, yields counterclockwise rotation.
The truth table for the clock wise direction is shown in the table I. The truth table for the anti-clock wise direction is shown in the table II.The speed of the SRM drive can be changed by varying the stator phase excitation sequence frequency
Figure. 5. Stator exciting sequence and Rotor movement in Clockwise direction
The micro controller receives two separate input signals from the position sensor circuits, which will be read, stored, and processed to determine the pulse-width modulated output signals that will excite and control the motor. The output of the micro-controller is fed to the input buffer circuit .A quad operational amplifiers is used as four comparators and, the output of which are used for driving the IGBT's through gate driving circuits. .The inverting output of each comparator is given to a reference voltage through a potential divider from inbuilt regulated 5Volts D.C. The non inverting inputs of the four comparators are driven from the micro controller output.
As per program written in C, output generated from the micro-controller drives respective comparators to output trigger pulses to respective gates of the IGBT's.
Fig. 6Stator exciting sequence and Rotor movement
in Ant-Clockwise direction
D. Basic Controller and Gate Drive circuit.
Fig. 7 Basic Controller and Gate Drive Circuit of SRM
III. TESTING OF SRM DRIVE SYSTEM
The hardware consisting of position sensing circuit, controlcircuit and gate drive circuit are tested individually using linear lamp load and inductive prior to using SRM. After successful testing with linear load and inductive loads, first the SRM position sensor circuit is tested for getting appropriate logic four different states .Then the power supply circuit is tested for different dc voltages .There after the unit was tested with different DC voltages through potential divider from 12 to 72V with SRM as loadandthe response is experimentallyrecorded evaluating the performance of the drive. The testing is repeated for different operatingconditions such as starting, reverse rotation and speed reversal. Experimental results arerecorded to evaluate the performance of the drive. These arediscussed in the next section. Before explaining the drive operation for different operating conditions, the generation of firing pulses for phase A and Phase C in both Clock wise for different voltages in fig 8 (a) 8 (b) and 8(c).The pulses are generated in accordance with the information received from position sensors
Fig 8(a) Firing pulses for phase A and phase C in Clock -Wise direction V=24 Volts
Fig 8(b) Firing pulses for phase A and phase C in Clock -Wise direction V=48 Volts
Fig 8(b) Firing pulses for phase A and phase C in Clock -Wise direction V=68 Volts
IV.EXPERIMENTAL TEST RESULTS
The excitation pulse for a particular phase is decided from the information received from position sensors. The IR position sensor continuously monitors the rotor position with respect to the arrangement of IR receiving sensors on the stator pole surface and gives the signal micro-controller I/O port which generate necessary gate drive as per the
program written in some other I/O ports to feed to the driver circuit comprising of OP-Amp to excite the correct phase accordingly through IGBT'S gate switching .The steady state current recording of two phase currents (Phase A and Phase C) while the motor is running in clock wise direction at high speed are shown in Fig 9(a) ,9(b) and that of (Phase B and Phase D) are shown inFig 9(c) and 9(d) respectively, and the line current in clock wise direction at high speeds is shown in Fig 9 (e) and the voltage and current in phase C is shown in Fig 9(f).
Fig 9 (a) Steady State Currents of Phase A and Phase C in Clock wise direction V=68Volts
Fig 9 (b)Steady State Currents of Phase A and Phase C in Clock wise direction V=24Volts
A Variable Speed Response:
The motor is started initially with a voltage of 24 Volts. The motor attained nearly an initial speed of 8000 RPM in 3 sec. The no load current under steady state condition is observed to be 0.5 A (average) .The speed of the motor can be controlled by controlling the magnitude of input voltage. Different speeds can be obtained with different input voltages.Figure 10(a), 10(b) and 10(c) shows the performance curves in anti-clock wise direction at low speed operation.Fromthe experimental results it is observed that for the input voltage of 72V the voltage across the input capacitor is not exceeding more than 40Volts. Figure 11 shows the input voltage and the speed response.
Fig 9 (c)Steady State Currents of Phase B and Phase D in Clock wise directionV=24Volts
Fig 9 (d) Steady State Currents of Phase B and Phase D in Clock wise direction V=68Volts.
Fig 9 (e) Line Current in Clock wise direction V=68 Volt
The results confirm the ability of the low cost controller for satisfactory starting and the performance in either direction. The raising characteristics of the speed curve show that, the drive can be applicable for automobile applications and also for low cost application such as washing machines and other high speed applications.
9 (f) Steady State Voltage & Current through phase C at V=68Volts in clock wise direction
Fig 10 (a) Phase Currents of Phase A and Phase C in Anti-Clock wise direction,V=48Volts
Fig 10 (b) Phase Currents of Phase B and Phase D in Anti-Clock wise direction, V=48Volts
Fig 10(c) Steady State Voltage & Current through phase C in Anti - clock wise direction ,V=48V
Figure 11. Speeds for different Input voltages.
This paper presents a new way of finding the rotor position of an SRM based on motor construction symmetry with optimal number of switches and sensors and a simple and low cost micro-controlled based controller for control of switched reluctance motor speeds in both the directions. Thecontroller is capable of implementing voltage controlled and current controlled operation during high speed and low speedregion respectively. The hardware developed for speedcontrol of SRM is successfully tested in the laboratory for real timeimplementation. The results demonstrate that the motorworks satisfactorily over a wide range of speed and operating conditions .The excitation pulses to each phase are not equal, as the excitation of each phase winding is decided by the rotor position and the sensors locations. Experimental results validate thepractical design of controller and prove the attractive,features of such a control for industrial applications as well as automobile applications. The split dc inverter is found to be more attractive when compared to R-dump or any other inverters. Based on the experience, it can be concluded that the Laboratory model is best suitable for low cost applications
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