Computer Integraed Manufacturing (Cim)
Kaizan signify of continues improvement in. It encompasses every person in an organization including managers and employee. Every person is urging to give the improvement suggestion to the company continuously. A Japanese Company Toyota is based on this concept, the employees written, shared and finally implemented their suggestion is the company.
Its idea is based on doing little changes in the company but not the major changes such as increase the productivity, safety, efficiency at the same time lower the waste produce in the process.
Kaizan in Japan consist of business, social activities and home life. It's applied in every part of a person's life. Kaizen comprise setting standards and then keep on improving those standards. To support the higher standards Kaizen also include providing the training, materials and supervision that is required for employees to attain the higher standards.
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When the company wants to implement kaizan, they need to standardize the process. There are some ways to standardize .First is time standard follow by place standard and action standard. Next is measure the process. Compare actual results versus desired results and make the new result standard.
A system of continues provider of component, parts and supplies such that the employees have what they need, where they need it and when they need. It is a system to attain just in time production. Kaiban gives a few benefits such as increases output, decrease waste, reduces total cost and decrease inventory and product obsolescence. Besides, it has low lead time and highly stable.
Kanban is a pull type of system which depends on the customer demand. The technique to deal with the components is flexible and depends on the necessity of manufacturing process.
If there is any production problem, the flow of the system will stop. As a result it makes all the problems solved as soon as possible. It decrease the waste of time during the production. Next, kanban gives flexibility in production lines and it prevent overproduction.
Six Sigma increase the quality of the process output recognize and eliminate the causes of errors and reduce the variability in the manufacturing process. It means that a process output that did not meet customer's specifications. This system is developed by Motorola in USA.The process can be calculated by using a six sigma calculator to know the chances for a defect.
Six Sigma make out several key roles for its successful implementation: For example executive leadership, master black belts, yellow belts, Green belts, and black belt.
Just In Time
Just in time is and inventory technique to improve the profit on the investment by decreasing the process inventory and correlate carrying cost.
The advantages include:
a) The set up time are greatly decreased in the factory.
b) The workers who own various skills are used more efficiently.
The workers are train in different part so that they can be relocate whenever needed.
c) It also gives enhance scheduling and work hour consistency.
If there is no order, worker do not have to work.
d) Improve on the supplier relationships.
TQM (Total Quality Management)
It is a management philosophy that looks for to integrate the organization such as finance, design, production and engineering) to meets the customer needs and its objective. TQM target to go beyond “meeting customer needs”
To be successful apply TQM; the organization should focus on the eight key elements:
Computer Aided Process Planning
CAPP planning translates the design Information into process steps and instruction to effectively manufacture the product. There are 5 stages to improve and computerize process planning, that is manual classification, and computer maintains process plan, variant CAPP, generative CAPP, and dynamic. These are advantages of CAPP: 58% decrease in process planning effort, 10% cut back in direct labor, 4% cutback in material, 10% decrease in scrap, 12% cutback in tooling, 6% decrease in work-in-process. Besides, it lower the production lead time and produce a more details process plan which utilize the improved technology.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (pronounced eye-jess) characterize a neutral data format that let the digital exchange of information among Computer-aided design systems.
An IGES file is making up by 80-character ASCII records, a record length derived from the punch card era. Text strings are symbolize in "Hollerith" format, the number of characters in the string, followed by the letter "H", followed by the text string. Early IGES translators had difficulty with IBM mainframe computers because the mainframes used EBCDIC encoding for text, and some EBCDIC-ASCII translators would either substitute the wrong character.
A file format subject to the stereolithography CAD software created by 3D Systems. This file format is supported by lots of other software packages; it is broadly use for rapid prototyping and computer-aided manufacturing. STL files illustrate only the surface geometry of a 3-dimensional object with no representation of color, texture or other common CAD model attributes. The STL formats specify mutually ASCII and binary representations. Binary files are more common, as they are more compact.
An STL file describes a raw unstructured triangulated surface by the unit normal and vertices of the triangles using a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.
Surfaces are represented by triangles.
A file with the file extension Ics is known as an iCalendar file, an IC Recorder sound file or an IronCAD 3D drawing file. 3-dimensional model or scene created with IronCAD, a 3D CAD program; Can enclose one or more 3D objects with colors, textures, lighting effects, and animation data. The role are iCalendar file represents a calendar file that can be shared via email or printed, while IronCAD 3D drawing file contain a three-dimensional technical drawing of an object used for manufacturing or engineering. The ICD-R100 sound recorder allows you to record your voice as a digital file on your computer and saves these recordings as an IC Recorder sound file.
CPA (COST PER ACTION)
Cost per Action or CPA is an online advertising pricing model, where the advertiser pays for each particular action (a purchase, a form submission, and so on) linked to the advertisement. The CPA can be established by different factors, depending where the online advertising inventory is being purchased.
Direct response advertisers consider CPA the best way to buy online advertising, as an advertiser only pays for the ad when the desired action has occurred. An action can be a product being purchased, a form being filled, etc. The desired action to be performed is determined by the advertiser.
Combine the system of computer aided design and drafting (CADD), Computer aided engineering (CAE), and Computer Aided manufacturing(CAM).It bring together all the technologies in the management system, coordinating CADD, CAM,CNC, robotics, material handling from the beginning of the design process through the packaging, shipment of the product
CADD: Design can be created graphically using 3D models. The effect of changes can be quickly seen and analyzed.
CAE: Uses 3dimension models of the product for finite element analysis which computer break up the model up finite element. It also allows the engineer to simulate function and motion of the product without the need to build in real prototype.
CNC: Use the computer to write, store, and edit numerical control programs to operate a machine tool.
CAM: Is a concept that surrounds use of computers to aid in any manufacturing process.
CAQC: Information on the manufacturing process and quality control is collected by automatic means while parts are being manufactured, and is the function of computer-aided quality control.