Components And Raw Materials Car Engineering Essay

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Before we build a car, we need gather some materials such as wheels, fiber glass, plastic, rubber, leather, glass, carbon fiber and titanium. Next, cars contain a variety of metals, including steel, iron, copper, aluminum, zinc, lead and etc. Steel and lead are metal that more heavier and due to the price of fossil fuels continue to raise, the preference for lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles will become more pronounced. The light weight materials derived from petroleum have helped to lighten some models by as much as thirty percent. These all materials will be distributed to Weld, Assembly and Paint Department for ready to further process. Any spoilt or problem materials will be packaging again and send to a specific distribution centre then return to suppliers.

Steel- frame

Copper- electrical wiring

Aluminum- radiator and platinum, palladium and rhodium in the catalytic converter. It used for wheel hubs also.


Plastic- bumpers, body panels and fenders to dashboard and headlamps

Rubber- To make tires, hoses, gaskets and belts

Lead- used in the lead-acid batteries for run the electrical system

Titanium- for exhaust system

Iron and steel- for car bodies

Fiber- for seats

After all material is reached at a specific distribution centre, material logistic department is responsible for maintaining the accurate inventory control of production parts. This is supported by zone controllers who regularly undertake parts cycle couting.

Cutting the basic car shape

Before we start to cut the steel, we need to have idea for profile and plan view of car. Next, we need have the accurate length and width for car. We need be careful to measure the final overall dimensions of the finished car to insure that the car design does not violate the car's specifications. Besides that, we also need to consider the size of door and seats that we want. After these all is done, we can start our work.


First, works will draw and form the panel. The steel sheet is cut according to the size of the part and is cut in a stamping machine. The workers will use machine to bend the panel to create flanges for later processes. After that, workers need to pierces holes for other fittings. Honda will use the most advance equipments to produce high quality car body parts. The tool production process is equipped with machining centre that can fulfill complex orders such as producing stamping dyes for car side plates.

Welding/ Chassis

First, the process begin with weld front and rear floor and combined it to make the floor complete. The stamped part is heated and melted then joint together during assembly. This is typically a welded frame that's initially attached to a conveyor that moves along a production line. As the frame a progress, the car is literally "build from the frame up" to create a final product. Parts that are sequentially applied to the chassis include the engine, front and rear suspension, gas tank, rear-end and half shafts, transmission, drive shaft, gear box, steering box, wheel drums and the brake system.

Making and Installation of engine

Making an engine has four step of process, follow by High Pressure Die Casting, Low Pressure Die Casting, Machining and Tooling, and Engine Assembly. In high pressure die casting, aluminum ingots are loaded into furnaces that are capable of melting 800kg of aluminum an hour to be melted and produce the cylinder block. After that, the molten aluminum is then fed into the base of a die using low pressure air in order to produce the cylinder heads. After the block and heads had been produced, they have to undergo various cutting, milling, drilling, boring, honing and reaming operations. After the first three steps have been done, it comes to the Engine Assembly step. In this step, engine block, cylinder heads and clutch and transmission cases meet together with other engine components in order to do the final engine assembly process.

All parts of engine are made by casting and forging. These parts are then used to assemble the engine and suspension. This is an off-line operation at this stage of production mates the vehicle's engine with its transmission. Workers use robotic arms to install these heavy components inside the engine compartment of the frame. In the first stages of automobiles manufacture, robots weld the floor pan pieces together and assist workers in placing components such as the suspension onto chassis.

Hybrid car is built up of hybrid technology that is electric motor and gasoline engine. Honda Hybrid car combine fuel and emission -reducing technology of the electric vehicle with the typical comforts and familiarity of a gasoline- based automobile. The electric motor's fuel source is the battery tank, which is recharged both by the gasoline engine when engaged and system like regenerative breaking that capture the kinetic energy in braking to recharge the batteries. The gasoline engine in Hybrid car work similarly to non- hybrid car. But that will have a computer in hybrid car; the computer will turn on the gas engine automatically when at high speed. The gas- electric power system and the energy storage sources are integrated in the hybrid vehicle to strike a balance between performance and fuel economy.

Honda Hybrid car is supported by a hybrid system called Integrated Motor Assists (IMA). It's a descriptive moniker of electric motor that is integrated between the engine and transmission and only assists the gasoline. This motor normally will used when passing or climbing hills, namely low- speed driving, it can even move the car on its own, though the engine always turns. Honda offers paddle shifters mounted behind the steering wheel that give the driver the experience of a seven-speed gearbox. The system uses electronics to direct the transmission to up or downshift in specific ways when a driver hit a paddle. Sometimes, IMA will shut off the engine when car comes to stop and then fires up again when it's time to go. This auto idle stop system contributes to both greater fuel efficiency and lower emissions. The IMA system will automatically switch to back-up, conventional 12 volt starter to start the engine if the IMA system is disabled or if the car is started at extreme cold temperature.


First, the right and left side panels are transferred to General Welder, Heart of the Department that weld sides panels, floor, roof, upper dash and rear parcel tray all parts together to produce a complete body. The entire proceeded is typically executed by robotic machines. The car body is then transferred to a manual lone for additional welding and door hinge installation. The shell of the automobile assembled in this section of the process lends itself to the use of robots because articulating arms can easily introduce various components braces and panels to the floor pan and perform a high number of weld operations in a time frame. Due to advance technology, robots had become an important position in industrial area and they can pick and load about 100 kilograms roof panels and them in proper position. After this stage, the car's body is fully assembled doors, deck lids; hood panel, fenders, trunk lid and bumper are installed.


Before the painting process starts, the car's body must pass through a rigorous inspection process. The shell of the vehicle passes through a brightly lit white room where it is fully wiped down by visual inspectors using clothes soaked in hi-light oil. Under the lights, this oil allows inspectors to see any defects in the sheet metal body panels. After the shell has been fully inspected, the assembly conveyor carries it through a cleaning station where it is immersed and cleaned of all residual oil, dirt and contaminants. Honda completely immerses the car bodies in power chemicals to prepare the steel for painting. Next, the corrosion proof paint is applied to every metal surface both inside and outside and all parts are sealed to guarantee they are watertight. Once this step is completed, the car is automatically dipped with primer, followed by a layer of undercoat and dried in a heated paint bay. When the primer process is finished, the car is again dipped with the base coat and again dried before moving to final stage. Vehicle's body is paint and spray by robots that has been programmed for an exact amount of paint in the right areas by right length of time.

After the shell is fully painted with a base coat of color paint and clear top coat, the workers transfers the car bodies through baking ovens where the paint in cured at a high temperature.

Exterior Assembly

Honda will use a shape to define that is a hybrid and electric car, a four or five door hatchback with a smooth front and a high, abrupt tail. Normally the Honda will design the rear bumper with diffusers added to smooth airflow while the aerodynamic strakes forward of the front wheel have been extended. As you all seen, Honda has a design that truncated rear, called Kammback for reduce air resistance and it helps improve fuel consumption. Honda had been made a hard impression to people that a low nose, swept-back windshield, and a long, gently arched roof is a hybrid car.

Interior Assembly

Now, the car is moved into interior department. In order to that workers can access the cars much more easily; the painted door is removed and then transferred to a sub-assembly area to prevent damage to the door. In this stage, workers will assemble all components or parts into car, including wiring systems, dash panels, interior lights, seats, door panels, headliner, radio, speakers, glass, steering column, body weather strips, brake and gas pedals, carpeting and front/ rear fascias. Moreover, Honda also prepared a center-console beverage holders and a front armrest. For the convenience of customers, the navigation system is available that includes a rearview camera and a 16 GB flash memory system.

Now every Honda Hybrid car has a Honda Eco Assist system, this system designed to help the driver develop and maintain a fuel-efficient driving style that changing the background color of speedometer. This system will accumulates data on driving patterns, so drivers can analyze their history to improve driving strategies. It will display green color leaves at screen for the good behavior's driver.

Wheel Installation

In this stage, wheel and tires are put in place. For safety, all Honda Hybrid models is equipped with four-wheel anti lock brakes with electronic brake distributions.

Vehicle Quality Control

This is the final stage before the car is send to its final dealer destination. This process is to inspect the car that executed via computer and control machines to ensure speed, and the perfect fit between the body assembly and the chassis. The car will drive to a checkpoint line, where its engine is audited, its light, horn, windshield wipers, water leakage checked, its tires balanced, and its charging system, emissions and brake system examined. Besides that, workers will fill up the fluids including screen wash, coolant, and brake fluid. Next, we also need to check the wheel alignment to ensure that the car is driving at a straight line on a number of various types of surface. A crew of skilled trouble-shooters at this stage analyzes and repairs all problems. A final series of quality verification processes are carried out to ensure that vehicles passed to our customers that meet Honda's high quality standards. A legal record of each manufactured vehicle, which is retained for future reference. When the car is passing all final audits, it will give a price tag and drive to its destination.