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The question of what a furniture product is seems very simple on the surface. However, when the definition of a furniture product is thoroughly examined, the question becomes more complex. To be precise, a furniture product is both tangible and intangible, with many features and benefits intended to satisfy the consumer. A piece of furniture has a certain style that makes it a form of art and it performs a function. The choice of furniture is often considered a reflection of a person's lifestyle and personality. Therefore, the design of furniture must be carefully thought out so that the products will appeal to specific and targeted consumers. The product also includes the manufacturer's and retailer's reputations and commitment to service. In other words, a consumer may decide to buy particular brand or form a particular store because of a good reputation for quality products and the organization willingness to stand behind them (Richard, 2004).
The term design is used to describe a variety of components that have been subject to a creative process. Charles Eames interpreted design as a plan for arranging elements in such as a way as to best accomplish a particular purpose. This is classical definition of design and necessary rational (Charlotte and Peter Fiell, 2001).
Malaysia's basic metal industries, which include the iron and steel industries and the non-ferrous metal industries, have seen significant developments since the last three decades in tandem with the country's industrial development. The Malaysian iron and steel industries sector cover the primary steel products like direct reduced iron and a very wide range of down stream flat and long products like coated steel coils, stainless steel pipes or pipes fittings and stainless steel wire and fasteners. There are currently 230 companies producing these products with an annual output of RM32.2 billion and total employment of 30,100 workers. This industry provide for the supply of basic raw materials and components to other sectors of the Malaysian economy, especially the construction industry, electrical or electronic industry, automotive industry, furniture industry, machinery industry and engineering fabrication industry (Anonymous, 2010a).
Metal furniture dates back almost as far as the use of wrought iron. Society had witnessed an extraordinary increase in the use of metal furniture by the end of the eighteenth century. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, both English and American craftsmen began constructing Windsor-style chairs in wrought iron. In 1851 at the Great Exhibition in London, England, the American Chair Co. of New York exhibited a metal-framed, sprung, revolving chair, one of several styles with frames made largely of cast iron, steel, or a combination of the two. By the 1890s, metal beds had become one of the most popular-selling furniture items in America. This new material had the combined advantages of being light, strong, and modern. The role that bent metal furniture played in the design culture of the 1920s and 1930s has never been equaled by any other material or at any other time in design history. The designs seemed to encompass an era. The development of modern tubular steel furniture can be seen in terms of the technical accomplishments of modern industrialization with its improved methods of steel production, metal plating, and welding all of which helped to disseminate the new furniture to a wider market. This is the fact that steel furniture came from the world of modern art and architecture and its preoccupation with the idea and image of the machine (Anon, 2010b).
For that reason the major drawback to metal furniture was that its look appealed to a small, sophisticated market that enjoyed what was, at the time, called the Modern style of design. For that same reason, there remained for several years a great deal of resistance to its use in the home, with many feeling that it was too impersonal for domestic use, but perfectly suitable for hospitals and offices. The Kroehler Manufacturing Co. of Chicago, Illinois, also employed Rohde, who designed furniture not only from tubular steel, but from stainless steel, aluminum, and chrome. Rohde's pieces were advertised by the company as functional and modern (Anon, 2010b).
The Dexon one of the company was established in1974 as a pioneer welded steel cabinet manufacturer to cater for Malaysia's local market requirements. Dexon was acquired in 1990 by SMPC, a specialized in Steel Service Center business and introduced a knock down steel furniture range for export market. In 2006 SMPC Dexon Sdn Bhd was formed as a fully owned subsidiary of SMPC Corporation Bhd, a Public Listed company in the Malaysian Stock Exchange. This is an evidence that a furniture metal industry in Malaysia become more advance in the market depend on the customer need and wants (Anon, 2010c).
Nowadays, furniture metal industries at Malaysia are still available in the market because of the characteristic such as durability and fire resistant. The problem is occurring waste of the metal in the industry from the starting of the process until the end. This situation occurs in many of company without the effective ways for minimizing and automatically to solve this problem. Beside that, the company are not possesses recording about the wasting in the process cause the productivity under controlling. The characteristic of metal like a difficult to decompose will give pollution to environment which part of company or individual trying to burn it although the metal are not suitable to burn at open combustion. So that, the consumption of metal in the furniture industry must be effective and efficient with maximize the utility and minimize the waste.
Significance of study
The data of research wasting at the cutting and punching process will be calculated the total of waste in the starting of process to produce the components of furniture and become the recorded for the company. Thus, the data obtained will be used to compare the different waste at the both of process and make an analysis in statistical control. In addition, the waste can be minimized with the suitable ways when the cause of the waste already recognized.
It is important for ensure the metal industry especially in the Profitech Engineering Sdn Bhd will get the highest profit from sales with the lowest investment for bought the material and produce the product. Beside that, there also increase the productivity and decrease the wasted. Then, the company will be improved the quality of the product and management process.
Objectives of study
The main objective of this researches project is:
To determine the waste in the manufacturing of product at the cutting and punching process.
The specific objectives of the research are:
To satisfy the causes of the waste in the company for the cutting and punching process follow the human, machine and method aspect.
To identify the way for minimize the metal waste from the production of product.
2.1 Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet (EG)
2.1.1 General descriptions
Electro galvanized is sheet steel in coil and cut lengths that are zinc coated by electro-deposition for a light or thin coated mass. Zinc plating process whereby the molecules on the positively charged zinc anode attach to the negatively charged of the sheet steel. This product is manufactured for use as formed or miscellaneous parts where corrosion resistance is necessary as opposed to an uncoated sheet. The thickness of the zinc coating is readily controlled. By increasing the electric charge or slowing the speed of the steel through the plating area, the coating will thicken (Anon, 2010d).
The characteristic of the pure zinc coating are formability which there is no mechanical properties change with coating and so superior formability of the base metal is attained. Then, the metals are weldability, paintability because finished surface after painting is good because of smooth surface. With phosphate treatment, paint adhesion is excellent without pre-treatment for painting. Beside that, the metals have a corrosion resistance where oxidation of zinc is inhibited by chemical treatment or oiling, so it has good corrosion resistance even if base metal is exposed by scratches during working, red dust is delayed. Others, the metal are anti-fingerprint, lubricity and surface conductivity (Anon, 2010e).
Normally the metals are used in automobile for door fender, trunk lid, hood and gas tank. In the electrical appliance used for washer, refrigerator, cleaner, air conditioner, audio and video apparatus. Then, the metal is used vender, lighting, oil fan heater, electric distributor panel, elevator panel in the electric facilities. Beside that, the uses in steel furniture such utensils for desk, chair, locker and cabinet (Anon, 2010e).
2.2 Cold Roll Sheet (CRS)
2.2.1 General descriptions
Cold rolling occurs with the metal below its recrystallization temperature (usually at room temperature), which increases the strength via strain hardening up to 20%. It also improves the surface finish and holds tighter tolerances. Commonly cold-rolled products include sheets, strips, bars, and rods; these products are usually smaller than the same products that are hot rolled. Because of the smaller size of the work pieces and their greater strength, as compared to hot rolled stock, four-high or cluster mills are used. Cold rolling cannot reduce the thickness of a work piece as much as hot rolling in a single pass. To assist the users of cold rolled sheet product, the steel producer needs to be aware of the many specific attributes required for the intended application. (Anon, 2010f).
The cold roll sheet also have great characteristic like electro galvanized steel sheet. The cold roll sheet has a high formability, deep drawbility, high strength, good magnetic properties, enamelability and paintability. The enamelability and paintability of the material can give the smooth surface appearance at finishing (Anon, 2010g).
Beside that, that metal are ease of resistance spot welding in the process to make welding are clean and strong to support the component of furniture. Steel also has a lower cost per pound than aluminium although adding corrosion protection (plating and painting) may consume a great dea; of the cost saving over aluminium. The advantage of this metal is high dent resistance. So, the product are used this material must suitable with the function because the dent will easy damage the product when occur the careless (Anon, 2010h).
Today, the cold roll sheets are used in manufacturing of refrigerators, washers, dryers and small appliances. Then, in the automobiles industry used this material for exposed as well as unexposed parts, electric motors and bathtubs. In furniture industry also used that material as a basis component for produce the furniture because the specialty properties of materials (Anon, 2010i).
2.3 Wastes in Furniture Industry
2.3.1 General dcescriptions
Waste generation encompasses those activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown away or gathered together for disposal. From the standpoint of economics, the best place to sort waste materials for recovery is at the source of generation. Basel convention definition of wastes is substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law which disposal are means are any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel convention). The two type of kind waste is solid waste in domestic, commercial and industrial waste especially common as co-disposal of wastes and liquid wastes are from liquid form. The examples for solid waste are plastics, containers, bottles, scrap iron, cans and other trash. The examples of the liquid waste are domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources. The classification of wastes according to their properties is bio-degradable where there can be degraded such as a paper and wood. Another type is non-biodegradable where there cannot be degraded like plastics, old machine and cans (Thomas, 2010).
The cause of the material waste in the furniture industry is basis the human error because human are not perfectly doing their work when have a something interfere the focus. The example is error during the mark of the measurement for cut the metal into specific sizes. Beside that, the machine also become a causes happened the waste in the productions. The failure of the workers or manufacturing department to arrange the material can cause the waste like incorrect dimension to produce the components of the furniture product. One of the cause for become a waste is when the mentality of the human think that balance or small damage at the material are cannot be used despite the material can use for another usages.
The effects of waste if not managed wisely are affects our health, our socio-economic condition, our coastal and marine environment and our climate. The specific effect in the furniture industry is increase the expends for buy the material from local and international of supplier company to get the greater quality with the special price. Then, the wasting of material without ways to minimize or solve this problem can make for the product with the lower of quality when the company just want maintain in the market and increase the sales without care about the satisfy of customer. The wasting in the industry also will make the price of the material increase and automatically the price of the product become expensive. In this case, the popularity of metal furniture can drop because the demand is decrease. Beside that, the big effect is environment pollutions because the metal is difficult to decompose or vanish (Anon, 2010j).
3.1 Source of Materials
The types are used in the manufacturing furniture product for Profitech Engineering Sdn Bhd is EG and CRS. Normally, the EG and CRS are bought from the local supplier company and certain of the material is imported from Korean.
Figure 3.1 Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet
Figure 3.2 Cold Roll Sheet
3.2 Experimental Design
This study embodied the uses of EG and CRS metal. This experimental design involved cutting and punching to estimate the waste of the material in the steel drawer 3 storey. 15 samples are used to become the data before make a analysis. The summary experimental design was shown at Figure 3.3.
Back Full Height
Bottom Front Shelving
Figure 3.3 Experimental design
3.3 Flowchart of Metal Furniture Manufacturing Choose metal
Figure 3.4 Flow chart of metal furniture manufacturing process
3.4 Flow Chart for Estimate Waste in Cutting Processing
From the flow chart, each step in processing have a waste but for the research the focusing on the cutting and punching because both of the steps is maximum of waste compared another process.
Prepared the metal into required standard
(4 feet X 8 feet)
Setting the machine followed the measurement part of component
Cutting the component
Measured the size of component after cutting
Measured the balance piece of metal
Figure 3.5 Flow chart for collect waste data in cutting process
3.5 Flow Chart for Estimate Waste in Punching Processing
Measured the size of metal
Setting the machine follow the shape of punching
Punching the metal
Estimated component from each sheet of metal
Measured the balance piece of metal
Figure 3.6 Flow chart for collect waste data in punching process
3.4 Preparation Process for Cutting Process
3.4.1 Prepared the metal into required standard
The preparation of the metal is the general step before start the cutting process. The sizes sheet of metal is 4 feet X 8 feet. The suitable method for cutting the metal and reduce the waste with less of human error.
3.4.2 Setting the machine followed the measurement part of component
The process for cutting the metal must follow the mark at the metal for get the accurate sizes of the component. The consumption of measurement at the machine gives the precision component before the component transfer to another level of processing.
3.4.3 Cut the component
The process for cutting the components must be precise. The error of sizes can give effect for another step of process and automatically the quality of product will drop when manufacturing department fail to solve it.
3.4.4 Measured the size of component after cutting
Measured the sizes of component is to estimate the precision size after cutting process. The size become different if have an error during the cutting process.
3.4.5 Measured the balance piece of metal
The balance of the metal after the cutting process must be estimate for become a data to know the overall waste at this process. From the data, there can make an analysis and compared it.
3.5 Preparation Process for Punching Process
3.5.1 Measured the size of metal
The sizes sheet of the metal must be measure before punching because the waste can calculated starting from this step. The components are produce from the punching process can attain maximum when the measurement are precise.
3.5.2 Setting the machine follow the shape of punching
The different of the shape to each component for used in the furniture manufacturing become a reason for setting the machine to get the want of the component shape. The careless during the setting of machine would change the useful of metal to the waste.
3.5.3 Punching the metal
After the machine for the punching already setting depend on the shape, there can start a punch the piece of metal until finished. The process must be alert for avoid occurred the reluctant in shape of components.
3.5.4 Estimated component from each sheet of metal
From the piece of metal are changes to small piece of components and the total of outcome have to calculate for compared different of the target estimation cause of human or machine error during the process.
3.5.5 Measured the balance piece of metal
The balances from the metal punching have to collect and calculate as a data for know the sum of waste in the punching process before make an analysis and conclusion. Without the data, the ways for improvement of quality for reduce the waste become fail.
The all data from the sample are collected in a form for ensure the research are making with the systematic steps because the data is most important to get the resulted. The measuring tape are used to measured the sizes of the component before record the sizes.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is the method are used in the research study to determine data for arise the result through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The method can compare the different variable from the cutting and punching process. The control chart are developed after all of data are completed analyze and determine because this method are shown the difference of the waste in a clearly. David and Stanley (2006).
4.1 Expected Result
In this research, I expected the wasted are decreased which the part of wasted from the component are reused for the other usage such as produce the clip in the punching process or produce the other component. Beside that, the productivity of the company will be changed with the implementation and the applicable alternative ways to improvement their performances. The greater overall controlling in the process also improved the quality of the product. The quality will make the sales of product and the profit for the company increased at the targeted period time.
Identify a proposed title
Submission of contract
Plan of research design
Presentation of proposal
Submission of proposal
Assembly of apparatus
Run research and compile data
Analysis of data
Presentation of project
Final draft of report
Submission of final report (hard bound)
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