Automobiles Effect On The Environment And Carbon Emission Engineering Essay

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The environmental effect of a car does not only end with its use stage emissions. A major significance in the contribution to carbon emission are the manufacturing, as well as end of the vehicle (disposals).

Carbon emission effects start when a vehicle is manufactured this consist of the production of all the materials and components that join the car. Environmental effects begin with mineral extraction and the manufacturing of the raw materials that enroll the parts of a car. For example, iron ore converted into steel, which currently uses for most share of the mass in vehicles. Steel could be reused. Certainly. Today's vehicles are around 75% recyclable, and can be reduce energy use and emission when using recycled steel. Other metal parts, such as aluminum, copper are also largely recycled.Aluminium used in some engine parts and wheels. Copper used for wiring. Plastics, which are typically prepared from petroleum, are harder to recycle. Anyhow, some amount of carbon emission is related with all of these parts, a lot of it due to air pollution, energy consumption, and emits of toxic materials that happen when vehicles are manufactured and delivered.

Fast rising energy requirement and related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles, passenger cars are special, so paying attention worldwide. Because most analysis were focused

on the vehicle use stage, this study try to assess the GHG emissions and energy requirement

Throughout the vehicle production, this typically consists of two main stages

Material production

Vehicle assembly

Energy requirement and GHG emissions in the stage of material production are analyzed using the below data

The mass of the vehicle

The share of material used by mass

Energy requirement and GHG emissions related with the manufacturing of each material

Energy requirement in the vehicle assembly process is measured as a linear function of the vehicle mass; the related GHG emission is estimated according to the primary energy supply. It is completed that the primary energy requirement, petroleum requirement and GHG emissions during the production of a midsized passenger car in China are 69,108 MJ, 14,545 MJ and 6575 kg carbon dioxide (CO2). A analysis of the newly available life cycle studies for cars run by internal combustion engines was first carried out to gain some insights. GHG consist of CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) .CH4 and N2O emissions were controlled to CO2 equal according to their global warming. It was discovered that energy requirement and GHG emissions related with vehicle manufacturing differ significantly on a case-by-case base mainly due to different assumptions on energy resource for electricity production and vehicle specifications for example materials used in vehicle production and vehicle mass. Vehicle production was typically assumed to be included of two stages vehicle assembly and material production. The material production stage accounts for the major part of primary energy requirement and GHG emissions in all studies. Energy requirement and GHG emissions in the vehicle assembly process does not differ in most cases.

while GHG emissions and energy requirement in the material production step account for the main share in the whole, they show to differ largely in various studies. These information applied in various studies are shown in Table 2. The material mass sharing in various studies are in rough values. but, GHG emissions and energy requirement related with the making of each material show to differ mostly [6,7,11]. The major cause for that is the dissimilar assumption on the recycle degree for different materials. as the making of materials

from main source is much more energy and GHG concentrated than from recycled source [7,10]. For example, GHG emissions and energy requirement related with the manufacturing of each material in [7] were lesser than those in [6] mostly because 95% of every metals and 50% of plastics and glass were assumed to be created from recycled resource in [7]. as well, use of outdated data might effect in overrate of GHG emissions and energy requirement in this step. For example, energy requirement to create 1 kg steel in China decreased mainly from 47 MJ in 1990 to 29 MJ in 2000 [16]. These are possibly the causes for the uncommonly high energy requirement and GHG emissions related with material creation in [13]. It is so critical to decide an suitable recycle degree for each material and use the newest information when existing.

The vehicle selected to be considered in the current study is a midsized car with a weight of 1140 kg .The information accepted for the material manufacturing step of the car are listed in Table 3. Energy demand in the vehicle assembly stage was typically estimated as a linear function of vehicle mass. It was found to be in a range of 16.5-22.8 MJ/kg vehicle mass [6-8,10,13]. This value is assumed to be 20 MJ/kg vehicle mass in the present study. Half of the energy demand at this stage is usually assumed to be electricity and the other half oil on a final energy basis [6,7]. Since electricity generation in China is mainly from coal-fired power plants [1], it is assumed that coal is the only primary energy source for electricity in China. According to [21], 2.875 MJ coal is needed to deliver 1 MJ electricity to end users in China. Therefore, primary energy demand per kg vehicle mass in the vehicle assembly stage would be 5.2 MJ oil and 14.8 MJ coal (to produce 5.2 MJ electricity). The GHG emissions for oil and electricity are assumed to be 0.082

[6] and 0.261 [21] kg CO2-eq/MJ, respectively.

[1] Yan X, Crookes RJ. Study on energy use in China. J Energy Inst 2007;80:110-5.

Vehicle in Use

Global Warming and Climate Change are considered, which are greatly facing environmental threats the World now a days. When petroleum products (petrol, diesel or certain alternative fuels) are burnt for power in an engine the major waste components are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and water. There are not directly damaging to human being health. But it is the most important to the way of greenhouse gases emitting to environment. It will be effect to climate change and global warming.

CO2 emissions of a car are directly relative to the amount of fuel used for a known kind of fuel. But in recent times the average fuel consumption of cars transfer not fast. This is because while, car weight had increased because of extra features to introduce safety requirements and the ordinary adding up of features for example air conditioning and power assisted steering.

the European Commission and industrial links of the main car makers in the EU, agreed into lower the average carbon dioxide emissions (g/km) of new vehicles. These agreement aims should reduce this amount to 140g/km as a percentage 25% by 2010/2011.so Average fuel consumption has to reduce to achieve the agreement targets.

[1]Car Emissions Information. Carbon Dioxide, Mileage and Emissions dat a for cars

http://www.car-emissions.com/

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