Atmospheric Temperature Monitoring Engineering Essay

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Since changes in solar angle azimuth and length of days depend on latitude, these differences are responsible for high temperatures and low temperatures in the tropics in places near the poles [1]. But discretion can not control the temperature, because it is known that the settlements on the same parallel class are characterized by annual average temperatures, different.

Other factors contributing to temperature control are: differential heating of land and water, ocean currents, height and geographical position.

For any location, daily temperature variation is a phenomenon called diurnal variation. After reaching a minimum at around sunrise to sun, temperature increases, reaching a maximum between the hours of 2:17 p.m. the following afternoon, then it decreases until dawn, the next day. Control of the diurnal cycle is provided by the sun. Normally, air temperature in the layer of air is determined to a depth of 2 m from the earth's surface, with thermometers installed in the station shelter weather instruments. When are sudden changes in weather, the deviations of the daily variation of air temperature appear. For a rainy day, change has much smaller amplitude.

Fig. 2: Variation of atmospheric temperature in the range

14 September 2009 to 14 January 2010 [3]

Low latitude (northern hemisphere) the amplitude of diurnal variation in temperature decreases of 1.5-50C. The thickness of this layer depends on the thermal stability of the atmosphere and wind intensity. The atmosphere is more unstable and higher wind speed, with greater and height which is propagated by turbulent mixing [2]. Diurnal variation in temperature is: season as hot during the height of the sun above the horizon at noon and the day are higher, the amplitude of diurnal variation in air temperature reaches the middle latitudes from 10 to 15 0C. If the soil is covered with vegetation, the amplitude of diurnal variations in temperature changes in luxuriant vegetation that reduces the amplitude of these variations.

Landforms influence the amplitude of diurnal variation of air temperature. This is the biggest night in valleys where cold air flows more difficult, and on strong heating occurs due to multiple reflection of the solar stocks are subjected by the valley walls. The altitude increases, the temperature variations are smaller.

Latitude location affects daytime air temperature variation, meaning that the maximum amplitude of 15 to 20 0C of this variation occurs on continents in the right latitudes of 30-40 0C (the deserts).

Fig. 3: Diurnal variation of air temperature at different heights [1]

Experimental processing

In Figures 4a - 4d are shown variations of weather station recorded air temperatures in the months September to December 2009. The temperature values recorded, and statistical analysis was performed, obtaining the minimum, maximum temperatures recorded.

Fig. 4a: September 2009 Changes in temperature 1-24 hours

According to a chart of the temperature values are presented in September, the lowest September temperature was recorded on September 23 at 8 (12.6 0C) and the highest value in September was on September 14, 2009, at 12 (24.8 0C).

Fig. 4b: Temperature variations recorded by station 24 hours of 24 October 2009

According to schedule 4 b in which the temperature values in September, the lowest October temperature was recorded on October 14 at 8 (4.7 0C) and the highest value in October was on October 8, 2009, at 3 (26.4 0C).

Fig. 4c: Temperature variations recorded by 24-hour station on 24 November 2009

According to the graph in Figure 4 c, highest temperature was registered on November 3, 2009 at 5 am, with a value of 200C, and the lowest value was registered on November 3 at 4 AM as the - 0.4 0C.

Fig. 4d: Recorded temperature variation of 24-hour station on 24 December 2009

Based on statistical analysis carried out after recordings made by the station, the lowest value was recorded in atmospheric temperature on December 21 at 8 and had a value of -10.7 0 C and the highest was 14, 3 On December 12 0C in 16 hours.

Conclusions

The work on this, air temperature was monitored weather station in the period September to December 2009. Atmospheric temperature monitoring was performed 24 hours 24 hours. It was made on state registration and statistical analysis of all values could see the highest and lowest temperatures in the months analyzed. It is known that temperature variations have influence on pollutant dispersion and transport and health implication. Because temperature decreases with altitude, when a layer of cold air is absorbed in a layer of warm air, there is a thermal inversion, the pollutants accumulating in the earth's surface is more harmful to human health. Once this phenomenon occurs and a destruction of the ozone layer about located at 24 km of land.

This layer is designed to filter out harmful sun rays, ultraviolet radiation. When they are stopped there is no greenhouse effect, that causes the average temperature of the planet and main A responsible in training the effect is carbon dioxide. Everything related to thermal inversion, it is important that thermal inversion layer acts as a lid preventing dispersion and transport of pollutants. These layers are more conducive to fog formation due to condensation of water vapor and the existence of pollution in the form of powders, so sometimes the smog.

Temperature may cause several types of atmosphere, depending on dry adiabatic gradient, namely: indifference atmosphere, the atmosphere unstable and stable atmosphere. Dry adiabatic gradient is a quantitative measure of particle cooling time is up, adiabatic, dry atmosphere. So in such an atmosphere concentration of pollutants is the same in all directions, whatever the position of particle air mass is equal to air temperature, so the dispersion and transport of pollutants are influenced, but only to the kinetic parameters of the flow of pollutants.

Unstable atmosphere is favorable dispersion and pollution transport, less the situation when the air mass loaded with pollutants is bound to fall. Stable atmosphere meets the vertical decrease when the temperature is lower dry adiabatic gradient. Particularly if the air is subject to upward it is colder than ambient, has higher density and a tendency to descend. If a particle of air has been directed vertically downward momentum, it is warmer than average and tends to climb. Both trips have resulted in a return to baseline. In such an atmosphere conditions diffusion and pollutant transport are not favored.

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