Airstrips Constructed By The LTTE Engineering Essay

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07 airstrips constructed by the LTTE, were captured by the Sri Lanka security forces during the recently concluded Humanitarian mission. Among those 7 airstrips, Iranamadu and Muliaittivu airstrips can rebuild and use as SLAF airfields in the future. Other 5 airstrips are in very primitive stage, terrorists built those for purpose of emergency take off and landing and deception planning. Taking into account varies conditions such as future requirement of Sri Lanka Air Force, security aspect, soil condition of location, weather and wind patterns, surroundings ,civilian desires and expenditure, SLAF higher authority has to select one airstrip out of them to convert as future Airfield.

LTTE has built all these airstrips to suite their single engine small aircraft Zlin Z-143. They have built these runways such a way that it is sufficient enough to carryout training and operation. Even though LTTE acquired the area in a lager scale for the propose, both runways constructed in shorter length that would not even cater the minimum requirement of SLAF. The standard of existing runways are far below, tar poured on the normal ground even at Mullaittivu merely half way. At the moment both runways are unsuitable for any kind of operation for fixed wing aircraft because airstrips have been damaged by LTTE on their withdrawal at the final phase of war. SLAF has to construct both the runways from the bottom line. Now a day's government is constructing an International runway in Mattala in southern part of Sri Lanka. Because of that government does not have money for construction of Wanni both runways; SLAF has to decide which runway should construct firstly.

After the humanitarian mission Sri Lanka government has an obligation to secure the North and East areas from any uprising, it is necessary to deploy sufficient troops in both areas. In eastern area the situation is at a satisfactory level. Army and special task force deployed for ground security while Navy secured Eastern coast centralised at Trincomalee harbour. SLAF has the dominance over the area by possessing 3 airfields including China bay air base in the eastern region very effectively. In Wanni region SL Army already deployed 4 Divisions and 6 task forces and Navy shouldering the security of east and west of Wanni costal line. SLAF also deployed troops in Palammpiddi to Omanthe, Kanagarikulam to Mankulam, Iranamadu and Mullaittivu airstrips area for ground security but lacking with air supremacy. During the humanitarian mission also SLAF had this problem; SLAF couldn't provide large scale of transportation to the ground force because of our heavy fixed wing aircraft couldn't operate in Wanni region due unavailability of sufficient length airfield. SLAF operated only helicopters for transportation. Those helicopters also return to Vavynia for refuelling and for other requirements due to unavailability of air base in Wanni region, it was wasting money as well as time consuming.

In this quest researcher will explain the requirement of an airfield to Wanni region and how to establish runway in suitable location by analysing the primary and secondary data obtained from interviews and questionnaires.

CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

AIM

This paper is aimed to find out most suitable location to construct new military airfield in Wanni region, considering the next Sri Lanka Air Force runway and Air superiority and government budget.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In Wanni region, between Vavniya and Palaly airfields, 1/6 of Sri Lanka does not have a serviceable runway for SLAF and civil air movement activities. Mullaittivu and Iranamadu LTTE runways suitable for the above uprising problem. Government dose not have a capability develop the both runways, owing to another International runway construction launched at Mattala. SLAF has to decide what should be next runway in SLAF, considering the simply to build and what are the profitable for SLAF as well as for the Government.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Iranamadu offers the best solution to the requirements to establish an airfield in Wanni region.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

To select the most suitable location in Wanni region to construct an airfield for SLAF.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

Following are the specific objectives of this research.

To study the existing condition of airstrips, built by LTTE in Wanni region.

To study the prerequisite of an airfield in Wanni region for SLAF.

To study Sri Lanka Air Force future plans for the newly acquired areas in Wanni in air aspect.

Select and recommend the most suitable between Iranamadu and Mullaittivu for next SLAF runway in Wanni region, base on research.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research covers the Sri Lanka Air Force future plans for the newly acquired areas in Wanni in air aspect, and to study on selecting suitable runway to develop. The ideas have been extracted from SLAF Pilots, civil engineers, air traffic control officers and other services officers by interviews and questionnaires. The researcher will not examine on the civil air operation regarding to the tourism. The research will analyze which should be the SLAF next airfield in Wanni region among the main locations of Iranamadu and Mullaittivu.

THE METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

Primary Data Collection. Primary data collection is done by collecting data from relevant persons (Civil engineering officer) of Iranamadu and Mullaittivu units through the telephones and interviews with staff officers from directorate of Air operation and civil engineering.

Secondary Data Collection. Secondary data collection is done through a questionnaire in order to get the views of pilots, civil engineers in SLAF, other services officers and other branch offices in SLAF.

LIMITATIONS

For this research, the information and details from the both locations have been taken through the telephone with out any visit to the locations. The time allocated for this research is totally about two and half months, which is not sufficient to gather the information and details from the both locations.

CHAPTER 3

RUNWAY STANDARDS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A AIRFIELD IN

SRI LANKA

HISTORY OF AIRFIELDS IN SRI LANKA

Indian history records in "Ramayana", a wooden aircraft shape like peacock had flown by the king of Sri Lanka Ravana around 300B.C. But there were no sign of a runway.

During World War II, Royal air force established the British eastern fleet in Sri Lanka to over come Japanese invasion. In 1942, an airstrip was constructed at Colombo racecourse, then Ratmalana, china bay, Koggala, Katukurunda, Negombo, Minnerya, Vavyniya, Kankesanthurai, Sigiriya, Dambulla, Mawanella, Kalametiya and Puttalam. Ampara and Batticalo airfields have built for Galoya project in 1958. Anuradhapura Airfield opened on 06 March 1983.

AIRFIELD

The airfield is a compulsory requirement for takeoff and landing of an aeroplane. To obtain the lift in a takeoff which is required for forward movement, and the gradually break down of the speed for the smooth landing of an aircraft, are provided by an airfield. Helicopters have the capability of vertical take off and landing whereas most of the fixed wing aircraft require an airfield for takeoff and landing.

To construct an airfield, the primary requirement is to find a suitable location. Higher authority and civil engineers of SLAF have different approach on this. SLAF higher authority to be concerned about the suitability of the area, ground security condition of the location, air defence system, alternative air base for fighter squadrons, sustainable for ground forces, easy accessible to the main city, 2nd transportation system, area safety for flying (ground and sea) and distance to every corner of Wanni region. Civil engineers to be looked at location environment impact report, soil condition of the place, runway directions considering the wind flow pattern, weather pattern, approaches path and take off path clearance, nearest availability materials require for construction and roads for transport of materials.

HUMANITARIAN MISSION AND CAPTURING OF LTTE AIRSTRIP

When Sri Lanka Air Force fighter jets bombed several LTTE camps around Mavil Aru anicut, government enter to the Eelam war IV from the eastern Trincomalee district on 26 July 2006. The government military has taken the total control of the eastern province after capturing the Thoppigala (Baron's cap) on 11 July, 2007 nearly a year of fighting, security forces had a thought about airstrip in Wavnaittivu but there were not airstrip even the eastern province.

11th of August 2006, northern war has been begun by LTTE. SL army had announced the sea tiger base in Silavaturai on 2nd September 2007 by opening the northern war. The two major battle fronts in Wanni area were Mannar and Welioya. In Mannar front, 57 Division has captured 500m long track in north of Vannivilankulam near to the Mankulam. Task Force 1 found a little airstrip 200m long and built on the B-69 Pooneryn-paranthan main road near Nevil. Both airstrips in west of A-9 road, but those are not suitable for aircraft take off and landing. Task Force 3 found an airstrip 200m long and 10m wide, near Ampakaman north. Welioya front, 59 Division captured an airstrip located in Mullaitivu about 5Km west of Nanthikadal lagoon which is 1.5 Km long and 100m wide, also 2 hangers were found on 10th January 2009.

14th January 2009, Army troops found the 5th and main airstrip east of Iranamadu tank, 1Km long and 50m wide. The runway is situated in the thick jungle with a massive bunker line and a trench line around the runway complex with mind and it has a hanger. 57 Division captured 6th airstrip, 300m long and 20m wide is located southeast of the Iranamadu tank bund. It's used for training and emergency landing. 2nd March 2009, 58 Division founded 7th LTTE air strip at West of Sudambaranpuram, Puddikuruppu. It was an open area of 2Km but only 400m long area prepared for aircraft manoeuvre area.

18th of May 2009 end of Eelam war IV and end of the LTTE, Sri Lanka armed forces seized the all island of security. Then air force established unites at Iranamadu and Mullaittivu for ground security and demarcate the area around the both airstrip. The Commander of the Air Force visited SLAF Units in Wanni to review the progress of construction and development of the unit on last month also.

SELECTED MAIN AIRSTRIPS SITUATED IN WANNI REGION

Iranamadu was the main airstrip to the LTTE and Mullaittivu was the 2nd option of airstrip. Iranamadu has 7000 acres and situated between Iranamadu and Kolamadu tanks on old Kandy road, Mullaittive has 3500 acres and situated southern of Kochchakadi aru west of Nanththikadal lagoon and village of Keppapularu. Mullaittive airstrip longer than to Iranamadu airstrip because of their last movement of battle they thought to receive battle items through air and land at Mullaittivu therefore extend the airstrip but did not prepare even tar.

CHAPTER 4

MOST SUITABLE LOCATION IN WANNI REGION TO CONSTRUCT AN AIRFIELD FOR SLAF

REQUIREMENTS OF AN AIRFIELD IN WANNI REGION

Wanni region is located in Northern Province, and bounded by Jaffna peninsula from north, north central province from south and east and west by sea. Vavyniya, Manner, Mullaittivu and Kilinochchi districts are in the region. 1/6 of Sri Lanka does not have an airfield in between the Palaly and Vavniya airfields. LTTE constructed 7 airstrips in Wanni area, only 02 airstrips can develop as runways due to their existing favourable condition but those 2 also fully damaged by LTTE during their withdrawal. In this scenario SLAF require new runway in Wanni area, for that there are various factors to be consider, and also to select a location SLAF has to find the facts and analyse what location should be the next runway in SLAF. Factors to be consider in selection of an airstrip are location, ground security, air defence system, fighters next stable air base, to sustain ground forces, reachable to the main city, 2nd transportation system, area safety for flying (ground and sea) and reachable distance to every corner of Wanni region.

When consider the area, Iranamadu located in the middle of the Wanni region and Mullaittivu situated in the east costal line of Mullaittivu district. Distance in relation to Iranamadu and Mullathive airstrips and other nearest airfields shown on the table -1. Palaly airfield is being renovated by the SLAF and to be completed in near future and it can be used as the fighters' diversionary airfield. China bay airfield has the capability of fighters operation but Vavniya airfield does not have the capability of fighters operations and heavy transportations operations.

Airfields

Iranamadu

Mullaittivu

Palay

37 Nm

50 Nm

Vavniya

32 Nm

35 Nm

China bay

62 Nm

52 Nm

Table-1 Nearest airfield distance to the both airstrip

Sri Lanka army has the dominance over the Wanni area 4 divisions and 6 Task forces established by now, Iranamadu encircled by the forest and two tanks Iranamadu and kolamadu located in west and east respectively. Mullaittivu surrounded comparatively less forest density and villages and Nanthicadal lagoon from east. Interview conducted with ground security experts reviled that Iranamadu is better than Mullaittivu when taking into consideration the ground security; since Mullaittivu faced to the Nanthikadal lagoon from east.

Except northern area Sri Lanka Air Force has an effective air defence system to secure vulnerable areas and points and the capability of denying the enemy air force freedom of penetration in to air space. To improve air defence system, air defence radar, interceptors and anti aircraft artillery guns are to be deployed in Wanni region. Since Palaly hasn't any air defence radar or interceptors, in an emergency, from north air borne radar interceptor has to fly from Katunayake. In an interview with an air defence officer he stated that air defence system should be with multiple layer defence against enemy aircraft. It should have defence in depth, early warning, long range interceptors, interceptors and destruction weapon. Iranamadu located in the middle of the Wanni region, and can provide above facility to form a good air defence system. Comparatively Mullaittive can't provide those facilities as it located in east cost, inability to reach west cost than Iranamadu. When consider about ground security of airfields, Iranamadu superior to Mullaittivu because Iranamadu is in the centre and will have the defence in depth, layer air defence security.

Presently 3 fighter jet squadrons are positioned in Katunayaka air base and using the international runway. Jet squadrons flying in civil runway is impacts to the civilian. SLAF had a plan to deploy fighters away from Katunayaka, most of the fighters required more than 7000 ft airstrip for safe take off and landing. There are 2 airfields in Sri Lanka have such length such as Palay and Higurakgoda air strips but even those surfaces are not suitable to facilitate operation. 12th squadron had plans to change place to Anuradhapura on completion of construction. But it didn't work after LTTE attack to Anuradhapura base. 5th squadron also had plans to change place to China bay, it also didn't work because of constructions. Those two sifting were planed to go ahead with humanitarian mission. But due to the service requirement those were abounded. But with the existing situation SLAF has freedom to go for good and new airfield to Wanni area.

In Wanni area 4 divisions and 6 Task forces deployed by the SL Army. Nearly 80,000 soldiers encamped with basic facilities. To give a sustainable support to such ground forces SLAF has to use heavy transport aircraft. To fulfil facilitate that requirement a large scale runway more than 7000 ft in length in Wanni region is needed. In last phase of war during the months of October, November and December heavy flooding were experienced in three districts in Wanni region, water, food and medicine were supplied by the SLAF helicopters. Economically heavy transport aircraft such as C-130 and AN 32 are appropriate for these kinds of operationsother than helicopters. SLAF air operation officer stated that, if we are to move a brigade immediately for Army, heavy transport aircraft will be needed for them to operate feasible airfields has to be establish in Wanni area. When comes to airfield location in Wanni region, it has to be centre of the area because of the soldiers who are in west side of the A-9 has to travel to Mullaittivu at eastern coast. Establishment of utility and attack helicopter squadrons will give more effective support to the ground forces in centre of Wanni region. Utility helicopter can easily operate to any location if an emergency arise such as casualty evacuation, search and rescue missions, fire fighting and passenger or very important person movement. If a conflict erupts again in northern part, attack helicopter squadron situated in Iranamadu can be call upon with out delay for action to provide close air support.

An interview with a Executive officer of Sri Lanka Navy, reveals that in case of any enemy air or sea borne attack at north of Manner or east Mullaittivu seas, fighter jet or attack helicopters can reach the location with out any delay if they are positioned at Iranamadu. If positioned at Mullaittivu, a delay will occur to reach north of Manner sea area. There for to carry out search and rescue operations for Navy as well as civil boats, Iranamadu is the most suitable location.

To perform maintenance and other administrative functions in proposed air base, 2 to 3 squadrons to be deployed. To fulfil their necessities, a city in close vicinity will be an added advantage. Killinochchi city located by 15Km to Iranamadu is capable of providing required facilities. Comparatively Mullaitivu town less facilitated. For projected air village concept large area is needed for constructions, Iranamadu has this capability of facilitating the requirement.

Wanni area experiencing heavy weather conditions during north east monsoons. Heavy weather conditions unfavourable for air operations. As alternative transport medium road network can used if Iranamadu runway renovated. Road towards Killinochchi and there onwards A-9 are access roots for Iranamadu. Mullaittivu don't good road network connection, but sea is in near proximity. But in bad conditions make use of sea as alternative transport medium is inadvisable. Even roads from coast to airstrip are not in good condition.

During Humanitarian mission, helicopters which do not have night flying capability were operated, even at nights in Wanni theatre. Flattened ground made the life so easy for the pilots, for fighter training purposes area is very much appropriated due to that. When it come to Mullaittivu, east of the air strip totally sea. To select an airfield to a specified area, consider the reachable distance to every corner of that area Iranamadu is more suitable than to Mullaittive consider to above reason.

TO CONSTRUCT AN AIRFIELD, WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS TO FULLFILLED

Feasibility study has to done by civil engineers of SLAF before the commencement of construction coordinated with Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau. The study should be a comprehensive one, location environment impact report, soil condition of the location, runway directions considering the wind flow pattern, weather patterns, approaches path take off path clearance, nearest availability materials require for construction and roads for transport of materials. During the interview with civil engineers in construction level, they stated that examine the above matters to get beneficial solution for next runway in SLAF.

Iranamadu and Mullaittive partially constructed airstrips are located in Mullattivu forest and Iranamadu and Kolamadu two tanks are at west and east of Iranamadu airstrips respectively. From north east to Mullaittivu airstrip, Nanthikadal lagoon is located. Before commencement a construction, approval to be obtain from the Ministry of Environment and Natural resources on environment impact of the project. It will include the effects on the forest, tanks, animals, birds, air and sound. When consider Iranamadu, the effects on environment is comparatively more the forest which is close is the water nourishing area for both tanks in the area. Construction work of Mullaittivu also may have the same problem. But not that much. Near to the Mullaittivu airstrip there are lot of birds in forest and lagoon area, if flying started definitely they will lost to nation. Because of same reason 2nd International runway shifted to Mattala from Weeravila, to avoid interference to Bundala sanctuary.

Sri Lanka is experiencing two main monsoons in every year. Those are south west monsoons and north east monsoons, which occur from May to July and October to January respectively. Other than those, inter-monsoons are available on March and September. All the runways in Sri Lanka have constructed direction of north-east to south-west runway because of the wind pattern of Sri Lanka. Those two airstrips also situated as the north-east to south-west. When it is come to Mullaittivu north easterly take off path over the lagoon and sea.

Normal approach and take off path of an aircraft to have a clear passage and with out any obstacle. In approach path in side the 1.6 Km from threshold, approach surface should 15ft above the normal roads, 17ft over the high way, 23ft over the railway road, 25ft over the airports property and no natural or man made object to project above approach surface. According to the telephone conversation with civil engineers of both runways', there are no above such type of obstacle.

LTTE have caused severe damage to Iranamadu airstrip on their withdrawal, the have almost excavated the airstrip. Mullaittivu airstrip has made them for alternative, because of that tar on half way and other half just cleared the area. SLAF has to start the construction from the beginning, to that fill the required area by soil. Materials which are required for construction, such as road metals are available at a nearest location. To transport the materials there should be a good road networks. Iranamadu has good road network A-9 road up to Killinochchi then another road going to airstrip which made by LTTE. But Mullaittivu does not have good road to reach after Mankulam.

CHAPTER 5

DATA COLLECTION AND DATA ANALYSIS

Primary data collection is totally done by collecting data gathered from internet about runway construction requirements, referred previous feasibility reports and got information about suggested airfields unites, interviews and get the information from Iranamadu and Mullaittivu unit through the telephone conversation.

In conducting the research regarding next runway for Sri Lanka Air Force, data was collected through questionnaire which distributed among the 10 pilots, 5 civil engineers, and other branch officers such as Air traffic controller, air defence officer, regiment officer and 5 other army and navy officers. 9 questions were included to the questionnaire and suggested answers also given to select for easy assimilation. Questionnaire is attached as Appendix "A" to the research paper. They were asked to select any answer or answers and express any comments on each question. The answers given by the pilots, civil engineers, other branch officers and other service men are separately analyzed and elaborated below.

The first question is directed to identify the profession of the people in the random sample, to know the person is a pilot, civil engineer, other branch officer or an other service officer. Because the researcher is expected to get fruitful solutions from range of people. The segment of pilots are fighter pilots; fixed wing transport pilots, helicopter pilots and pilots who are presently engaged in staff duties in Director of Air Operation. Civil engineers are included by both airstrip works officers and civil engineers who are engaged in staff duties in Director of planning and Director of civil engineer. Other branch officer are air traffic controller officer, air intelligent officer, staff officers from Director of planning, regiment officer and air defence officer. Other service officers are from army and navy.

After three decades of war security forces able to eliminate terrorist from north and east. Sri Lanka government in the process of resettling of IDP's especially in Wanni region. Second question in the questionnaire is about their security, which service should dominate the area captured from the LTTE? Most of the officers indicated that all three services as well as police needed. The expected police to maintain civil law, Army prevent uprising of future revolt, SLAF for air superiority, and navy to provide overall sea protection.

Bandaranayke International Air port is the one and only international air port in Sri Lanka. SLAF all fighter squadrons deployed at the same international airport, their operations and training both operated from flat form. The 3rd question was directed to find necessity to take away the military flying, from civil international airport at Katunayaka. It is found that majority of 88% of officers are agreed to move the military flying from International airport statistics are shown in figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question three

If the fighter jets to be shifted away from international airport, most suitable areas are north, north central and eastern provinces. If it shifted to southern province the length of runways will be major problem. Runways at Weeravila and Koggala lengths are less than 5000ft and also government is constructing 2nd international runway at Maththala. According to the answers given to question number four, 82% of offices were selected the Wanni. 14% choose east and others north central as showed in figure 5.2.

Figure 5.2 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question four

Majority selected the answer for question number five as Wanni. No one selected the Manner area obviously because it is not centralized and at the same time airstrip constructed by SL army for SLAF 1Km long, in the area is not to the standard level set up by Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau. It is found that 22 % of officers were selected Mullaittivu considering the environment impact on Iranamadu by their comment. But most of them preferred to construct runway at Iranamadu as showed in the figure 5.3.

Figure 5.3 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question five

3, 4 and 5 questions were aimed on shifting of fighter Squadrons, 76% of officers gave their consent to change the place directly to Iranamadu.

Construction of an airfield in Wanni will not create an impact on progress of tourism in northern part of Sri Lanka. Nilaveli beach is the only popular destination for tourism at the moment. The necessities on Nilaveli can be full filed from helicopters. It is showed in figure 5.3, the result of question six. In this question also researcher allowed, selecting answers more than one, therefore most of the officers are selected two answers for this question. Majority agreed that by constructing an airfield in Wanni, attaining of air superiority in the region as well a providing support to army and navy can be done together. In future it is essential that SLAF has to establish air superiority and provide support to the army specially deployed at Wanni region.

SLAF has very good air defence system, they able to destroy the both LTTE aircraft during the humanitarian mission. Now in united Sri Lanka a salutary air defence system is needed for whole country including Wanni region. For question number seven majority of 76% officers accepted that the Iranamadu is the most suitable location to built up as the next airbase in Wanni showed in the figure 5.4. Few pilots who seen the forest around Iranamadu, reluctant to select Iranamadu due to the environment impact it can cause, idea got by their comment.

Figure 5.4 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question seven

It is apparent from the answers to question eight, environmentally 52% of the officers select the Kilinochchi district for new airfield location as showed in the figure 5.5. By considering the geographical facts such as soil condition of the place, weather patterns and approach path and take off path clearance, Kilinochchi is the most suitable district to establish alternative airfield.

.

Figure 5.5 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question eight

There is ample evidence to prove the fact that even LTTE considered the Iranamadu as their main airstrip and demarcated the area sufficient area for its existence. But Mullaittivu air strip located in between two villages and not demarcated area is comparative. According to the answers for 9th question, 70% of officers have selected Iranamadu because of the above reasons is represented in figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6 Graphical interpretations of the answers for question nine

The analysis of questionnaire provides the following results. The answers to questions 3, 4and 5 agreed on shifting fighter squadrons from international airport and further proposed to move it to Iranamadu. Questions number 6, 7 and 9 also directed to new runway to Iranamadu. Question number 8 shows the 52% officers agreed to Iranamadu because of forest in around the airstrip.

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

For an Air force it is important to maintain air superiority to defend the national territory from enemy attacks. Throughout this research, it is tried to find out the most suitable location in the Wanni region to construct a new military airfield, for SLAF. Execution to be done only after a comprehensive study on the matter. Specially issues such as selecting a location for a runway to be the done with caution.

Out of 7 airstrips constructed by LTTE, 5 airstrips were in very primitive stage. LTTE had considered Iranamadu airstrip as their main runway and Mullaittivu as the second. But both of these runways don't have even basic necessities of a runway. SLAF have two objectives to fulfil promptly. The first one is to find a suitable location in Wanni region to establish a runway and the second one is to find a suitable location with required necessities to shift fighter squadrons from international airport. To select the most suitable airstrip between Iranamadu and Mullaittive which are at Wanni region, following essential factors were considered. Ground security of the location, air defence system, fighters next stable air base, sustain to the ground forces, close proximity to main city, alternative access means, safety area for flying (ground and sea), distance to every corner Wanni region, location environment impact report, soil condition of the site, runway directions considering the wind flow patterns, weather patterns, approaches path and take off path clearance, convenience of materials require for construction and roads for transport of materials.

Interviews with officers who deals with construction , future planning and pilots of SLAF suggested to develop the Iranamadu over Mullaittivu , some pilots who have bird eye view of the area suggested to be away of main forest of Mullaittivu because of environment impact. In all questionnaires which are received, the percentage given the consent for Iranamadu is more than 60 % or above in every time, some time it reached 90%. Whilst analyzing the data it revels that there is a necessity of bringing up both the airstrips. But exigencies arise to develop at least one airstrip immediately. Construction of Iranamadu may have an impact on the environment but the national requirement of security is to be given the priority, minimizing the impact on environment. Therefore, it can be conclude that research hypothesis is proved. So the most suitable runway to develop in Wanni region is Iranamadu airstrip.

CHAPTER 7

RECOMMENDATIONS

According to the data collection and data analysis, Wanni region has a requirement of an airfield to establish absolute air superiority. Iranamadu as well as Mullaittivu airstrips must be developed in the future, but for the time been one airstrip has to develop immediately for fighters operations. Depending on the data analysis, researcher recommended the Iranamadu airstrip over Mullaittvu to reconstruct as the runway in Wanni region. But before come to a conclusion SLAF has to appoint a board to do a comprehensive study and their recommendations also to compare with. Board should consist with operational pilots in every streams, professional civil engineers and consent of environment impact report from Environment Ministry also to be obtained.

In depth study to be done on environmental impact to both the locations on construction of a runway and effects of future operations of aircraft. Because of constructions to be done with minimum effects to the nature.

Study on own air defence and ground security in Wanni region as well as country security when construct of runway.

A study to be done on weather patterns by coordinating with metrology department.

Feasibility study has to be carry out for the soil condition of the cite, runway directions to be finalised on considering the wind flow patterns, weather, approach path and take off path clearance, nearest availability materials require for construction and road net work for transportation of materials.

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