Air Pollution In Sri Lanka Engineering Essay

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1. Air pollution in Sri Lanka has become an uncontrollable hazard specially in Colombo city area even after introducing of vehicular emission test. At around 2 million vehicles are driven on the roads in the country and 60% of them are driven at the Colombo city area. The air pollution is concerned there are number of factors affect on the hazard. When compared with the other factors which are affecting to the air pollution such as burning of soiled wastes, industrial emission, dust in the area due to construction works the vehicular emission is the great.

2. The air pollution is concerned it is three times greater than the limitations given by WHO and it also most researches show that exposure to the dirty smoke increase the number of diseases, asthma , cardiovascular diseases etc specially in Colombo area.

4. It also provable fact that other types of air pollution are more controllable than vehicular emission as alternative solutions such as recycling of waste etc are available. But emissions from vehicles are slightly uncontrollable fact.

5. The reason for the higher air pollution level in Colombo area is inter- connect with number of factors. Colombo is the main commercial and administrative center of Sri Lanka; As a result of that most of people are daily travel to Colombo for their employment and also for various administrative commitments.

6. Therefore due to higher number of employees and passengers during morning and evening hours there are huge traffic congestion can be observed and during literature study it was understood that vehicular emission is greater during such hours.

7. Mostly the public transportation system, Three Wheelers, Motorcycles, and heavy vehicles (container carriers) etc are highly available in roads and during peak hours traffic congestion is also very high. As the current scenario Colombo city area is affected with all above facts and might be equally contribute to the air pollution.

8. Through the literature study it was understood that air pollution due to vehicular emission is mostly occur due to inefficient combustion of petroleum fuels.

9. Basically composition of vehicular is consist of followings

a. Carbon Monoxide - CO

b. Hydro Carbon - HC

c. Nitrogen Oxide - NOx

d. Surfer Dioxide - SO2

e. Particular Matters - PM

f. Lead - Pb

10. The quality of air, especially in urban cities (Colombo, Kandy, Nuwar Eliya etc) were reaching to an alarming level during last decade. During various scientific researches identified the above six major pollutions which affected on health and well being of the people, plants, animals as well as buildings, mountains, water resources etc. Smog and other air pollutant cause many environment problems such as acid rain, global worming (Green house effect) and diminishing the protective ozone layers in the super atmosphere.

11. Therefore pollutants have risk on human and other living things in the earth and some of well identified threats are as follows

a. Carbon Monoxide (CO): CO emits from mostly automobiles, small engines and industries. The higher level of CO emission is identified as vehicular emission. It can affect on oxygen transportation to vital tissues, and primarily problem occurs on cardiovascular and

nervous systems. Higher concentration of CO can cause symptoms such as dizziness, headache and fatigue.

b. Particular Matter (PM) : PM also emit from vehicles, burning industrial fuels, dust from paved and unpaved roads, construction projects and a agricultural activities. It can cause to increase respiratory disease and lung damages and possibility to premature deaths. People who are suffering from asthma are especially on higher risky condition.

c. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): NO2 emits from burning fuels of burners and boilers and vehicles. It may cause to increased respiratory illness such as chest cold and coughing with phlegm. For asthmatics, can cause increased breathing problems.

d. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) : Addition to industrial emission and vehicular emission SO2 emits from petroleum refineries and mills and chemical plants. SO2 can cause respiratory problems especially among asthmatics.

e. Lead (Pb) : Mainly Pb emit from burning of fuels which includes Pb, and coal combustion , car battery plants and burning of Pb containing garbage and can adversely affect mental development and performance , kidney function and blood chemistry. Especially children are at high risk condition due to susceptibility of young tissues and organs to Pb.

Under mentioned report shows the data analysis done for a Medical research on 1996 in Colombo area and which shows the increase of Lead content in people who highly expose to highly vehicle driven area are high.

Subject Group

Avg value of Pb in blood in mg/ dL

School Children(4 and 5 Years)

5

Motorcycle riders

12

Street vendors

13

T-Wheel drivers

15

Traffic police

53

Control for the adult group

9

12. As a result of higher air pollution a citizen went to the Supreme Court in 1998, to get an assurance of breath of fresh air and after 10 years from that, the government has introduced the vehicular emission testing program as an effort to control and reduce the emission of hazards gases to the

environment. Because number of researchers proved that the vehicular emission is the most contributing factor (approximately 60%) for air pollution in Sri Lanka.

13. On 20th November 2007 the program was officially commenced and a policy has published in gazette. According to the Act it is mandatory to forward the vehicle emission test certificate to obtain annual revenue license for the vehicles.

14. The government (Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources) has initiated the task to under mention two companies and they are to issue vehicular emission test certificate after testing the vehicle. Initially there were 32 permanent centers and 80 mobile testing units established under following companies.

a. CleanCo Lanka (Pvt) Ltd

b. Laugfs Eco Sri (Pvt ) Ltd

15. Addition to the implementing of vehicular emission test it also planned programs to ensure the quality of fuel, workshops for vehicle owners educate them on relevant maintenance, spare parts dealers to ensure quality spare parts and technicians to use of the test equipment and to identify defects.

CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

AIM

1. The aim of this research paper is to study, analyze and compare the composition of the ambient air in the Colombo area before and after the implementing of the vehicular emission test, in order to measure the level of control of the air pollution in Colombo and to identify the barriers affecting on the same.

2. It also expects to suggest necessary counter measures to overcome the identified barriers on the implementation.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

3. The vehicular emission occur as a result of inefficient combustion of fuel in vehicles and mainly due to following reasons

a. Technology, condition of the engine, quality of spare parts used

Traffic congestions in the roads during peak hours

Quality of the fuel

4. Hence all above factors to be controlled to reduce the vehicular emission and the vehicular emission test help to control the condition of the engines and related problems and if the same could be achieves the vehicular emission can be controlled up to satisfactory level. Therefore it is require to inquire that the vehicular emission test was able to control that up to satisfactory level (by 5 % annually as implemented by the government ) since the same is commenced.

JUSTIFICATION

5. At the introduction stage the test is carryout for very low cost as a motivation factor and to confirm each and every vehicle subjected to the test the government made a policy on it. As per the policy it is a mandatory requirement to renew the vehicle revenue license annually.

6. However was observed that vehicle owners and repair workshops technicians apply various alternative methods to pass the test when the vehicle is not in good condition. It also observed that there are number of vehicles driven in the Colombo roads with exhausting black smoke and which is an

evidence for uncontrollability of air pollution. Hence it is mandatory to identify the weaknesses of on going process and need to apply corrective measures immediately.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

7. At the introduction it is essential to carryout random checks of on going process to identify the weaknesses of the implementation in order to take corrective actions. Hence this study will be helped to find out whether there are any weaknesses in the present vehicular emission test procedure and to suggest some counter measures on the same.

OBJECTIVES

8. General and specific objectives of this paper are listed below.

a. General Objectives

1) To study and analyze the effectiveness of the vehicular emission test enforced in Sri Lanka at present and to propose suitable corrective measures to encounter the existing barriers. .

b. Specific Objectives

1) To study and analyze the following areas on the vehicular emission testing.

a) Type of air pollutants in ambient air in the Colombo City

b) Increasing/decreasing patterns of air pollutants with the implementation of the vehicular emission test

2) To show the vehicular emission test in force in Sri Lanka today is ineffective

3) To determine reasons for such ineffectiveness

4) To recommend measures to address these reasons

HYPOTHESIS

9. The present system for vehicular emission testing in Sri Lanka is ineffective.

SAMPLING AND SAMPLING METHOD

10. This research was done on two stages and primary part was to measure the level of pollution controlled after the implementation of vehicular test and the second stage was to identify the barriers

which affect on the matter if the pollution was not controlled considerably. For the primary stage statistics of ambient air in the Colombo city area is used

11. The population for sampling for the second stage is the vehicle owners and Technicians who carryout the emission tests at the test stations. The study focused on questioners filled by above personnel and interviewing the management of the responsible organizations as well as other personnel who are indirectly involve with the test.

Although the number of vehicles owners high and the number of technicians are low and therefore reasonable number of personnel from both parties was selected for the sampling. The sampling was carried in two groups are as follows

Sample No 1

Sample size

Type of vehicle

Factors

50

Cars (petrol)

Test Results (pass/fail)

50

Cars (Diesel)

Maintenance practices

50

T-Wheelers

Knowledge

50

Motor cycles

Method

50

Buses

50

Duel purpose vehicles

50

Heavy vehicles

Sample No : 2

Test Station

Sample size(Technicians)

Factors

Kohuwala

8

Knowledge

Wellawattha

8

Method

Moratuwa

8

Attitude

Kiribatgoda

8

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

13. For the primary part of the research the data were collected for Central Environment

Authority and Department of Motor Traffic in order to analysis the quality of the ambient air in Colombo area and to analysis the vehicle statistics which were subjected to vehicular emission test.

14. Addition to those interviews carried out with the management of both organizations for further details.

15. The following statistics from CEO and Department of Motor Traffic in order to compare the state of the air quality in Colombo city prior to implementation of Colombo the vehicular emission test and present condition.

a. Ambient Air Quality Report of Central Environment Authority

b. Total vehicle population from 2001 to 2009

c. Number of unregistered vehicles increased from 2001 to 2009

16. For the secondary part of the research two questioners were distributed among vehicle owners and Technicians who are in Test stations, and also carried out a blind test as the answers of the both parties showed ambiguity.

17. Interviews were carried out with management of the authorized two companies for further details.

DATA ANALYZES TECHNIQUES

18. In this research paper both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the Samples.

CHAPTER ORGANIZATION

19. Chapters in this paper are organized as follows.

a. Chapter 1. This is the introductory part of the research paper

b. Chapter 2. Methodology

c. Chapter 3. What is vehicular emission test and its' procedure

d. Chapter 4. Descriptive analysis of data obtained through questionnaire, statistics and interviews

e. Chapter 5. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Recommendations

LIMITATIONS

20. This research study was completed with in two month of period and with limited time. Hence it was difficult to cover all the pollution proven areas in Colombo area. Therefore the calculation might be showed slight difference if compare with another research. It also faced the difficulty of gaining genuine answers from the public. Mainly it was observed that the two Organizations who are involved with the program have big competition among each other and its' higher management are reluctant to give information also.

21. Addition to that testing of air samples for identify the quality of the ambient air, was not carried out as limited time and assuming accuracy of the CEO weekly ambient air quality report this research has completed.

CHAPTER 3

WHAT IS VEHICULAR EMISSION TEST AND METHOD OF TESTING ITS EFFECTIVENESS

1. Vehicular emission test is the method which can adopt to measure the gases (CO, HC, NO2, SO2 Pb, and PM), fumes, vapors and odor escaping from the engines of the vehicles during its combustion process.

2. During the test, vehicle is accelerating to its maximum RPM and by using test equipment analysis the composition of the exhaust air emit from the vehicle.

3. The test is carryout by using special test equipment and standard test procedure is adopted. The test procedure is as follows

a. Bring the vehicle to normal operation temperature.

b. If the vehicle is a diesel vehicle flush the vehicle exhaust system by pressing the accelerator rapidly, just before the testing, in order to remove the smoke in the system.

c. Once in line for testing, turn off all the accessories (air conditioner, lights, wipers, heater, radio etc.) and keep engine running to maintain normal operating condition.

d. The probe of the test equipment inserts to the Exhaust air tube (Silencer) of the vehicle and RPM gage connect to the engine to measure the Engine RPM during the test.

e. Then accelerate the engine to Both Idling and 2500RPM/ no load condition and the exhaust air is analysis by tha air analyzer.

4. During the test the exhaust air of the particular vehicle is analysis and its composition is to be according to the following standards.

Emission Standards for Petrol and LPG- (Both Idling and 2500RPM/ no load)

Air Pollutants

Type of vehicle

Carbon Monoxide (CO) (% v/v)

Hydro-Carbons (HC) ppm v/v

Petrol vehicle other  than motor cycles &motor tricycles

3.0

1000

 Petrol motor cycles

4.0

6000

Petrol motor  tricycles

4.0

6000

 

Abbreviations:

% v/v - Percent by volume

 ppm v/v - Parts per million by volume

RPM - Revolutions per minutes 

Emission Standards for Diesel vehicles

Type of vehicle

Smoke Opacity on Snap Acceleration

k factor (lm-1)

Diesel Vehicles

4.0

 k factor - Absorption Coefficient

Snap Acceleration - has the same meaning as defined In SAE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE J1667

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR VEHICULAR EMISSION

Vehicular emission are influenced by number of factors (Technical and non technical) such as

condition of the vehicle, quality of fuel use and operating condition during traffic congestion etc. Therefore changes of any of these factors will affect on the emission level of an engine. Therefore three

of below parameters are equally contribute to the vehicular emission.

a. Condition of use

The inadequate traffic management directs to drive the vehicle at low average speed. It is

a dramatic increase of emitting CO and HC from petrol -fuelled vehicles and NO2 from diesel fueled vehicles.

b. Fuel Quality

The characteristics of fuel are highly effect on the vehicular emission. Unleaded gasoline has allowed the use of catalytic converters that in turn have reduced Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, Hydrocarbon and other toxic emissions from gasoline engines. Reducing concentrations of Sulfur in diesel is central to reducing diesel vehicle emissions, which is critical in the urban context as the population of diesel vehicles is growing faster than that of gasoline vehicles in Asian cities.

Condition of the engine and maintenance practices

It is directly affect on vehicular emission. Mainly technology and the maintenance of under mentioned areas are helped to avoid the vehicular emission

Air to fuel ratio

Air injection

Exhaust -gas recirculation

Oxidization catalyst

Condition of the carburetor

Condition of the Injector pump

6. As this research is focused to measure the effectiveness of the vehicular emission test only the under mentioned factors were considered and taken the same as independent variables.

a. Maintenance practices

Vehicle owners are to always be considered to do preventive maintenance than repairs. As improper fuel injection, over used air and fuel filters, improper replenishment of lubricating on time will be guide to vehicular emission as well as inefficient fuel combustion of the vehicle. Therefore preventive maintenance practices are always help to save money as well as the environment.

b. Attitude

Attitude of the vehicle owners, technicians, higher management as well as the government to be positive and all are to be work together to achieve the goal collectively.

c. Knowledge

The vehicle owners are to have adequate knowledge of own vehicle as well as the impact on the environment. Without that knowledge the process cannot be progress successfully. Technicians are to knowledgeable enough to carryout proper test and also they are to capable of identifying the wrong practices apply by the owners to pass the test.

d. Method

Method applies for testing to be both efficient and effective. The test equipments are to be sensitive enough to detect to inadequate standards.

Therefore after identifying the level of control of the air pollution of the Colombo city area the above independent variable factors will be analysis in order to find out the effectiveness of the vehicular test which is consider as dependent variable factor.

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS

DATA OBTAINED FROM CENTRAL ENVIRONMENT AUTHORITY

Data obtained from central environment authority was helped to measure

the level of (CO, SO2, HC, and PM) air pollution in Colombo area. Although CO, SO2, HC and PM are given with standard value Lead (Pb) is not given with standard value and even not consider in weekly ambient air report. Therefore the level of the Pb in ambient air was compared with the highest standard value among other regions in the world( Canada)

a. Nitrogen Dioxide

NO 2 state in the air has decreased, but still 33 times greater than standard value.

Calculations: ( See Annex A)

COMPARISON OF NO2 IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 1

NO2 LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 2

b. Hydro Carbon

HC state in the air has decreased up to the required standards.

Calculations: ( See Annex A)

COMPARISON OF HC IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 3

HC LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO

Figure 4

c. Sulfur Dioxide

SO2 state in the air has decreased but not up to the required standard. The Figure shows that SO2 composition in ambient air is 33 times greater than standard value.

Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF SO2 IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 5

SO2 LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 6

d. Carbon Monoxide

CO state in the air has increased and 1.15 times greater than standard value as shown in figure 7 .Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF CO IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 7

CO LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 8

e. Lead (Pb)

Lead (Pb) state in the air has increased and Central Environment authority was not indicated a standard value. Hence the highest standard value for Lead percentage in ambient (standard at Canada) was consider to compare and found that it is greater than 34 times to the same.

Calculations See Annex A

STATE OF LEAD IN AMBIENT AIR

Figure 9

LEAD LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 10

f. Particular Matters

As per the standard given by Central Environmental Authority PM state in the ambient air is on alarming state.

Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF PM IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 11

PM LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 12

2. Therefore the above analysis proved that the quality of ambient air is not improved after the implementation of the vehicular emission test. It was observed that percentage of NO2 (greater than 33 times), SO2 (greater than 33 times) CO (greater than 1.15 times) and PM (greater than 1.2 times) and Lead (Pb) in ambient air not even standardized. Hence it shows except HC percentage all other pollutants are still in alarming condition. Therefore the primary part of this research proves the hypostasis of 'the implementation of the vehicular emission test is ineffective'.

ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED FROM DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR TRAFFIC

3. Total vehicle population of the Colombo area was analyzed as per the chart below and it was understood that number of Three Wheelers ware increased four times since last ten years of period. Hence the maintenance practices, attitude and knowledge of the Three Wheel owners will be highly affect on the control of air pollution in Colombo area.

Addition to that according to the Figure 13, the number of motorcycles were doubled during last ten years and maintenance and other factors of motorcycles will be affect on the control of air pollution of the area.

TOTAL VEHICLE POPULATION IN COLOMBO AREA (2001-2009)

Figure 13

5. When analyzing the test results of the vehicular emission test Annex B the under mentioned chart shows that high percentage of Motor cars and Duel purpose vehicles were fail the test. However the when comparing the vehicle population of year 2010 and number of vehicles newly registered during year 2009 there is a different and it shows that the vehicles which failed the test also still running after retesting. But it cannot be guarantee whether such vehicles are fully repaired to control the emission, and if not those vehicles are still contributing to the air pollution.

STATISTICS OF VEHICULAR EMISSION TEST

(FROM JANUARY 2009 TO JANUARY 2010)

Figure 14

ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED FROM QUESTIONNAIRES

6. When measuring the effectiveness it is required to consider both qualitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative data analysis show how far the problem has solved and qualitative data analysis help to make improvement for the ongoing process. Therefore the questioners were helped to find out the quality of the process.

7. The data were collected through distributing questioners among vehicle owners, technicians in test stations. The questions were focused on the maintenance practices; knowledge, attitude and method as the successfulness of the process is defend on the same.

8. Questioner 1 was distributed among vehicle owners and sample size was 50 for each type of vehicle. The following were observed by analyzing the answers

TEST RESULTS OF THE VEHICULAR EMISSION TEST

Figure 15

See Annex E (Table 1):

9. According to the vehicle emission test results it is visible that mainly high percentage of three wheelers and Motor cycles were failed the test at first time and it is visible that 40% of Three wheelers and 44% of Motor cycles were failed the test at first time . All other types of vehicles less than 40% were failed the test. However according to the statistics obtained for Department of Motor Traffic and date collected through Questioner are slightly differ from each other as it shows Motor cars are the class of vehicles which has higher failed rate . Hence if considered the worst situation , cars, Three wheelers, Motor cycles , Duel purpose vehicles and buses are which are still contribute for the air pollution .

MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

Figure 16

See Annex E (Table 2)

When analysis the maintenance practices of the vehicles it is realized that the vehicles which

have higher rate of fail the vehicular emission test also have higher rate of improper maintain practices. The above chart shows that 52% of T/wheelers and 36% of M/Cycles were not maintain properly. When consider the other vehicles also visible that higher percentage of car owners maintains their vehicles properly. However as the statistics of Department of Motor Traffic shows the height percentage of motor cars are retest. Therefore it can determined that the condition of the cars also affect on the emission as if the vehicle not in good condition, maintenance practices will not be control the emission.

KNOWLEDGE

Figure 17

See Annex E (Table 3)

11. It is visible that very high percentages of car owners are knowledgeable about the process and other types of vehicle owners do not have knowledge of the importance of the process to protect the environment. As a percentage, 48% of averages numbers of vehicle owners do not have sufficient knowledge of the vehicular emission test and its importance to the environment. It also proves that although the car owners maintain their vehicles properly, and knowledgeable on the problem they are unable to control the emission. Again it is evidence to the availability of poor conditioned vehicles in Sri Lanka.

12. The Chart below shows that except Car owners' average 25% of other types of vehicle

Owners were used other methods to pass the test and therefore at least 25% of vehicles have the emission after pass the test. But according to DMT statistics the higher number of car categorized to retest. Hence the answers given by the car owners cannot be guaranteed. Therefore it can suspect that they might use other methods to pass the test after recommended for re testing.

APPLICATION OF CORRECT METHOD

Figure 18

See Annex E :Table 4 ( Method)

DATA COLLECTED FROM Q-2

13. Questioner 2 was distributed among test stations employees and sample size was 32. The following were observed by analyzing the answers

KNOWLEDGE

Figure 19

Knowledge of the technicians is not satisfactory as 62% of them were not aware of the

harmful effect of the vehicular emission and also they have given only training on use of equipment. When they are questioned on alternative method which can use by vehicle owners, their answers showed that they are not aware of such areas.

METHOD

Figure 20

Primarily it was found that the method of the test is incomplete as the test is limited to

check the level of Hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and smoke opacity only. The above chart shows that the current method also not satisfactory as technicians is not apply the correct and complete procedure for the test.

ATTITUDE

Figure 21

c. It was identified that 34% of technicians are not in positive attitude to accomplish their responsibility and most of them were accepted alternative methods for money. It also found that

as they are not provided with sufficient knowledge on proper procedures, goal to achieve and malpractices which can be applied by the vehicle owners. They are not aware of the value of this project and which caused to their attitude.

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA OBTAINED BY INTERVIEWS

14. CleanCo Lanka (Pvt) Ltd

The higher management of the CleanCo Lanka (Pvt) Ltd was reluctant to provide

statistics of the vehicles as they try to keep their statistics hide from Eco Sri Company.

They are satisfactory with the present state and plan to inspect the other types of pollutants (SO2, NO2 , Pb etc) in future, but they don't have exact date, Month or a year to implement the same. During the interview it was understood that there are huge competition between two companies to catch the market. But they are not carry out quality circles and auditing programs to readjust the weaknesses and showed that they have only profit making goals.

15. Laugfs Eco Sri (Pvt ) Ltd

Eco Sri (Pvt) Ltd also showed only the intention of sustain in the market only and

still not implemented any monitoring process. As mentioned in implementation they are not conducting awareness programs for the vehicle users. They also do not plan to improve the method to test the other pollutants and hope to continue the current process.

16. Central Environment Authority

Due to limited time an interview was carried out over the telephone and it was

understood that they are not satisfactory with the on going process. As its higher management said both above two companies are still not provided statistics of the test since commence of the project. They also said that government has planned to network the Central Environmental Authority (CEO) with above two companies to monitor the process and still the same has not commenced until to date. Therefore those companies are not provided the statistics to the CEO and progress of the process has not monitor by them. They also stated that higher traffic congestion during peak hours, and quality of fuel

import to Sri Lanka also increase the air pollution and the government has still not respond on the matter.

17. The Department of motor traffic

As per the management of the Department of the motor Traffic there are considerable number vehicles available in Sri Lanka which are not required to renew the revenue license annually. Mostly the vehicles which belong to Military forces and other government department are in this category and most of such vehicles are not in good condition.

18. Motor traffic Police- Colombo

The Motor traffic department of the Colombo has stated that during the implementation of the process the government was stated the responsibility of the Motor Traffic police to control the pollution by

random checking of vehicles for vehicular emission. But still they are not provided with test equipment to implement the same.

19. At the initial state it was proved that the quality of ambient air is not improved after the implementation of the vehicular emission test. It was observed that percentage of NO2 (greater than 33 times), SO2 (greater than 33 times) CO (greater than 1.15 times) and PM (greater than 1.2 times) and Lead (Pb) in ambient air are higher than standard values. Hence it shows except HC percentage all other pollutants are still in alarming condition, the implementation of the vehicular emission test is ineffective.

20. Ineffectiveness of the implementation is concerned due to lack of knowledge of the vehicle owners, they are not maintain the vehicles properly. It also found that except the vehicles use for personnel requirement other vehicles are poorly maintained. Specially vehicles use for public transport and cargo transport are not maintain properly and used alternative methods to pass the test. When interview them it also identified that most of Three Wheeler owners and motor cycle owners cannot afford the expenses required to renew the revenue license and with new procedure they have to pay more. Therefore they are use alternatives to save money by avoiding repairs.

21. Addition to that lack of communication CEO , and authorized companies is a major barrier to take corrective measures for the implementation and it shows that privatization of such a social responsibility is not to be done as the private sector companies are mainly focused on profit making goals and to gain the market superiority. It also found that, unavailability of continuous monitoring process also affect on the ineffectiveness. On that matter the Traffic police can play major role but the government hasn't use them.

Ceylon Petroleum Cooperation

22. As mentioned by Chief Chemist of the CPC, although the quality of fuel highly affect on the vehicular emission the government has not taken the same as major cause to be controlled quality assurance inspections are limited only for recording purposes. As per their point of view primarily the quality of the fuel to be monitored and with that, this procedure will be effective.

23. Finally it is proved that the vehicular emission testing method is limited only to measure the CO , HC and smoke opacity of the combustion air .But there are number of more harmful pollutant are emit by vehicles and the same are not consider for the test. It also showed that only the Hydro Carbon level was controlled and Carbon Monoxide level (30.12 ppm) in the ambient air is still higher than standard level (26 ppm).

24. Therefore this research paper prove that the implementation of vehicular emission test is ineffective due under mentioned reasons

a. Weaknesses of implementation

b. Lack of knowledge and responsibility of vehicle owners and technicians

c. Lack of communication between CEO, authorized companies and department of Motor Traffic and Traffic police

d. Competition between authorized companies.

SUMMARY OF DATA ANALYSIS

25. During the study the two types of analysis were done. Primary study was focused to compare the quality of ambient air in Colombo area before and after the implementation of the vehicular emission test. That analysis proved that only the percentage of Hydro Carbon has decreased satisfactorily and every other pollutant is still at higher level. Therefore the primary study was proved the hypothesis.

The under mentioned diagrams show the, level of air pollutant on ambient air and standards levels of the same during year 2009.

Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 24

26. The secondary part on the analysis was done to identify the factors affecting on the ineffectiveness of the implementation and the following were determined

a. The test is limited to measure the Hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide, level of the exhaust air and other are not considered.

b. Poor vehicle maintenance practices

c. Lack of knowledge of vehicle owners and technicians

d. Privatization of social responsibility

e. Lack of communication between relevant authorities

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

1. Air pollution is a major hazard in the world and as a developing country infrastructure of Sri Lanka is not highly environment protection sensitive. But the government has identified the issue which should be addressed without delay and as a result of that above test was implemented. To confirm the every vehicle subject to the test Government regulation were made and the test result certificate is a mandatory requirement to renew the vehicle revenue license annually. However there are no any monitoring procedures to confirm after the test and therefore by testing a vehicle annually it cannot be guaranteed that the same is not contribute for the air pollution.

2. Addition to that it was identified that the fuel import to the country also not subject to proper inspections to check the standards and it just limited to record purposes. Therefore the vehicular emission test enforced in Sri Lanka will not be effective until the quality of fuel is improved.

2. All of above facts proved that the environmental pollution cannot be controlled by one party. As a nation whole society is responsible for the hazard. Therefore main responsibility goes to the government to enforce tightened procedures to control the air pollution in Sri Lanka. Addition to that it is required to carryout this test as a public service as private companies are mix-up the priorities.

CHAPTER 6

RECOMMENDATION

1. According to the data analysis on primary part of the research the quality of ambient air to be monitored and following recommendation can be made

a. The testing procedure to be revised

b. Standard to be made on acceptable level of Lead composition in ambient air

c. Quality of the fuel import to Sri Lanka to be closely monitored and use of Leaded fuel to be stopped.

2. The secondary part of the research the social issues which are affect on the problem were identified and the following remedial action can be recommended

a. Awareness program to be conducted for every social class of people on the importance on the environment pollution.

b. The process not to be privatized it should be carryout under the close supervision of the Central Environmental Authority.

c. The City Motor Traffic Police to be provided with test equipment to carry out random inspection at the roads and punishment procedure to be adopted for the vehicle owners.

d. The technicians to be more educated on the procedure and their responsibility to accomplish the task as a social responsibility.

e. Quality audit to be carry out by independent parties to identify the weaknesses

ANNEX A

1. Nitrogen Dioxide

Avg NO2 Composition in ambient air before Year 2008

3.17 + 3.99+ 4.34 + 4.47 + 4.78 + 5.35 + 5.57 + 5.73 + 5.83 = 4.79 ppm

9

Avg NO2 Composition in ambient air after 2008 = 4.37 ppm

2. Hydro Carbon:

Avg HC Composition in ambient air before 2008

20.14 + 24.14 + 26.61 + 27.83 + 28.73 + 30.96 + 31.97 + 33.45 + 34.92 = 28.73 ppm

9

Avg HC Composition in ambient air after 2008

20.32 + 12.55 = 16.43

2

A-1

3. Sulfur Dioxide

Avg SO2 Composition in ambient air before 2008

1.72 + 2.17 + 2.36 + 2.62 + 2.71 + 2.93 + 3.13 + 3.47 = 2.64 ppm

8

Avg SO2 Composition in ambient air after 2008

3.51 + 1.52 = 2.51 ppm

2

4. Carbon Monoxide

Avg CO Composition in ambient air before 2008

20.14 + 24.15 + 25.34 + 27.23 + 28.92 + 30.97 + 32.56 + 33.12 = 27.8

8

Avg CO Composition in ambient air after 2008

35.12 + 28.12 + 27.12 = 30.12

3

5. Lead (Pb)

Avg Pb Composition in ambient air before 2008

123.66 +148.82 + 150.52 + 156.78 + 171.42 + 191.46 +198.31 + 200.79 = 167.72

8

Avg Pb Composition in ambient air before 2008

A-2

200.92 + 200.57 + 116 = 172.5

2

6. Particular Matters

Avg PM Composition in ambient air before 2008

81.67 + 102.91 + 113.92 + 118.42 + 125.71 +138.35 + 139.35 +139.82 = 120.01

8

Avg PM Composition in ambient air after 2008

137.27 + 87.72 + 116 = 113.66

3

A-3

ANNEX B

TOTAL VEHICLE POPULATION IN COLOMBO AREA (FROM 2001-2009)

Class of Vehicle

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Motor cars

144866

152068

164779

176248

186618

203164

216727

228869

241011

Motor Tricycle

67343

79869

101591

127865

152516

191195

217036

243919

270801

Motor Cycles

521223

554080

606206

680891

759308

853284

962789

1056360

1149931

Buses

39764

40621

41791

43091

44332

46340

47922

48630

49338

Dual purpose vehicles

84898

90052

98013

104455

108565

112912

116028

117742

119455

Lorries

107671

112570

119265

125687

134244

146506

157550

165973

174396

Total

965765

1029260

1131645

1258237

1385583

1553401

1718052

1861493

2004932

ANNEX C

VEHICLE EMISSION TEST RESULTS -2009

Vehicle Class

Fuel Type

Total

Percentage

%

Petrol

Diesel

Laugfs

Cleanco

Laugfs

Cleanco

Motor Cycle

Pass

216452

263564

0

0

480016

88.6

Fail

3099

58910

0

0

62009

11.4

Motor tricycle

Pass

78311

99728

818

193

179050

91.7

Fail

5807

9295

990

337

16092

8.24

Motor Car

Pass

77040

8752

18652

18596

104444

45.2

Fail

106039

15523

2340

2890

126792

54.8

Duel Purpose Vehicles

Pass

10520

1097

55833

59635

127085

78.4

Fail

15291

1848

7739

10036

34914

21.55

Motor Lorry

Pass

6851

686

36032

39131

82700

82

Fail

6062

866

4527

6789

18244

18

Motor Coaches

Pass

582

45

10757

14375

25759

85

Fail

488

99

1299

2761

4647

15

Bus

Pass

5

0

12114

1501

13620

84.3

Fail

44

13

981

1484

2522

15.6

ANNEX D

TEST RESULTS (DATA FORM Q-1)

Table No 1 (Test Results)

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Busses

Duel purpose vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Test passed on 1sttime

38

30

28

31

34

38

Test failed 1sttime

12

20

22

19

16

12

Total

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table No 2 (Maintenance Practices)

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Busses

Duel purpose vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Maintain properly (MP)

42

24

32

33

29

27

Not maintain properly (NMP)

8

26

18

17

21

23

Total

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table 3 (Knowledge)

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Busses

Duel purpose vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Knowledgeable

47

16

23

17

27

19

Not Knowledgeable

3

34

27

33

23

31

Total

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table 4 (Method )

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Busses

Duel purpose vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Applied correct method

47

20

28

20

32

27

Applied other method

3

30

22

30

18

23

Total

50

50

50

50

50

50

D-2

ANNEX E

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICIANS

No of technicians from

Knowledge

Method

Attitude

Satisfactory

Not satisfactory

Satisfactory

Not satisfactory

Positive

Negative

Test Station Kohuwala

4

4

1

7

4

4

Test Station

Wellawattha

3

5

0

8

5

3

Test Station

Moratuwa

3

5

0

8

6

2

Test Station

Kiribathgoda

2

6

2

6

6

2

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