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vehicle technologies presented in the UK market but we consider the 2005 market share of the new car which below 120g/km co2 emission was 3%.It says low demand from the this type of vehicles among the customers. Other thing understands of global warming and customer's manners of car purchasing.”
“2.2 UK CO2 Transport Emissions
Barnes (2007) indicates UK's cars are responsible for 11.7% CO2 emissions in UK. In Europe, cars are responsible for 16% of European CO2 emissions (Madslien,2007).In spite of cars always not proportion above percentages to the UK CO2 emission. These percentages show mostly cars to be a cause of CO2 emissions.
Now a day's most of the people have understanding of the relationship between transport and CO2 emission.65% of people have a idea transport emission is the one of major factor of contributing the climate change noted the Department of Transport (DfT).most are think Vehicles are only emitting the CO2 to the environment. Not only that power generation, manufacturing and disposal more contribute to CO2 emission. Manufacturing, energy Production and disposal do not come out to direct to the general public.
The Huge mainstream of CO2 emissions are connected with the ‘use stage' of a
Vehicle's life time. Life cycle analysis has been familiar with measure which stage in
the life time of a vehicle ( manufacture, use , disposal) gives higher amount of CO2 emissions. Elghalie et. al. (2004) cited in Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT)(2007a), found that 98% of CO2 emissions was credited to the ‘use stage' of car. In addition, Schweimer and Levin (2000) citedin SMMT (2007a), found that70-73% of a car's energy use occurred during the ‘use stage'. Those differences occurred in percentages of life cycle research as a result of the complexity of life cycle analysis. Also difference in cars and driving distances.Therfore generally SMMT (2007a) shows percentages as 85% from use, 10% from manufacture and 5% due to vehicle disposal. The UK car sales are one of the biggest markets in around the world (Croucher, 2007). The UK vehicle market, on the other hand, show to do a fewer important task regarding CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from
US, India and China significantly be more important than CO2 emissions from Europe and UK. (Madslien, 2007). Llewellyn (2007) notes that the US vehicle industry, the largest vehicle market, is responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions yet the EU market has the lowest average new car sales more CO2 emissions, with Asia/ Pacific econd and the US third. Car manufacturers are mainly worldwide companies.From Llewellyn's (2007) comment it wouldshow that different vehicles are sold in different markets, in Europe sellingon average lower CO2 vehicles.
Whether it is economically disproportionate that the UK automotive industry They always try to focus to environment friendly vehicles introduce to the society. Instead this thesis centres on CO2 from the details tailpipe emissions from the use stage of a cars being a main reason for CO2 increasing. So automotive manufactures try to change the mind of consumers demand for low carbon emission vehicles.”
“Transport Emissions and Global Warming
CO2 emission is the mainly linked with Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and it will be Doing the climate change in world. Since measuring began in 1959 CO2 emissions are reported to have increased by 19% and annual rates have doubled since the 1960's (Mastney, 2005).Climate change is causing to flooding, landslips and soil erosion. The Kyoto protocol was agreed in 1997 to reduce GHG emissions and slow down global warming (DEFRA, 2007b).Also politically introduce some agreements to reduce emission for example, EU agreement to reduce CO2 emissions to 20% of 1990 levels by 2020 (BBC News, 2007). The UK Climate Change Programme (DEFRA, 2006) and the expected UK Climate Change Bill (DEFRA, 2007c).
Stern (2006) notes transport contributes 14% of worldwide CO2 emissions. Main reasons for that growth of car industry increase of air transport. So transport is the Highly increasing source of CO2. However, Madslien (2007)
Claims that the European car sector accounts for less than 1.5% of global CO2, and European road traffic is responsible for only 25% of European CO2 emissions and of that, private passenger cars equate to 16%.In the UK, SMMT (2007a) claims that energy production gives rise to 35% of UK CO2 emissions whilst UK road transport accounts for 20.1% followed by Domestic sources equating to 14% and aviation 6.3%. SMMT (2007a) also Claims of the 20.1% from UK road transport, passenger cars are only Responsible for 11.7% with the other 8.4% resulting from vans, trucks, buses, Coaches and motorcycles. Furthermore, the SMMT (2007a) and Transport2000 (2007) suggest that aviation is the largest growing source of man-made CO2 Emissions and UK air travel is claimed to have doubled from between 1990 to 2003.”
Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEV)
The car market to date has been dominated by ICEVs. This dominant design is a mature technology but has incorporated numerous engineering innovations over many years. ICEVs offer both diesel and petrol engine variants at numerous levels of performance. Due to the reliance on fossil fuels ICEV are inherently associated with CO2 emissions, however, in recent years ICEVs have progressively achieved more stringent environmental standards and for most, higher fuel efficiencies. Oltra & Saint-Jean (2006) reports in the last decade new technologies such as direct injection, stop start technology, particulate filters and lighter materials have been developed making some ICEVs competitive on environmental terms with hybrid and biofuel vehicles.
“Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)
LPG vehicles are made to run on LPG as a replacement for petrol or diesel.
But, a little quantity of petrol is wanted to start the engine. LPG cars are decrease greenhouse gas emissions. Low carbon content have LPG Compared to petrol. Other hand LPG vehicles have high fuel consumption ( litres per km). Which is around 30% more than for petrol. LPG generates nearly 10-15% a lesser amount of CO2, 75% lesser amount of carbon monoxide and 85% less hydrocarbons. Bi-fuel LPG cars as compared to petrol operation, LPG placing the middle level of emissions between petrol and diesel. Superior emission decrease are given by LPG engines. in spite of , bi-fuel vehicles are the majority ofLPG car type at presenton hand in the UK.
LPG cars less running cost than normal vehicles. So most customers uses the LPG cars to get fuel cost saving rather than fuel's environmental. low fuel duty rate in UK currently (6.6p/liter). LPG retails at around 45p/litre in the fuel stations, whicharound half price of petrol. Taking into account LPG's energy content and the extra fuel required, the price of LPG effectively approximates to a petrol price of around 60p/litre.
LPG vehicles are typically renewed by experts LPG engineers. There are few LPG vehicle manufactures. General Motors are one of the LPG vehicle producer.”
Condensed Natural Gas (CNG)
CNG vehicles were initiated to the UK for passenger cars at approximately the similar moment as LPG. LPG are frequently consideredsimultaneously by means of LPG vehicle. also as alternative fuelled vehicle they also financial advantage from LPG vehicles. That CNG was a preferable alternative fuel to that of LPG or others because of its abundance, higher efficiency level and lower CO2 emissions. CNG fuel however, inherently suffered from storage and fuel transportation issues since CNG required a significant amount of storage space even when condensed therefore causes refuelling infrastructure problems and for the car, reducing the vehicles carrying capacity. As such CNG has achieved only minor sales and has made very little impact on the UK car market (Croucher, 2007)
Electric Vehicles (EVs)
Electric vehicles run off a rechargeable battery rather than a combustion engine. They do not emit any tailpipe emissions, are quiet when in use and generally have less moving parts which reduces maintenance needs (Oltra &Saint-Jean. 2006). EVs are currently exempt from London congestion charges, exempt from Vehicle Excise Duty (VED), receive heavy discount for central London parking, benefit from enhanced capital allowance rate of 100% for the first year and have a lower personal Benefit in Kind (BIK) tax liability (EST,2007b).
As a new vehicle technology electric vehicles have not significantly penetrated the car market. As well as the benefits the vehicles are associated with several disadvantages. The rechargeable batteries have limited storage capacity restricting the vehicle range before it needs recharging. EVs have a range of between 30-60 miles before the battery needs to be recharged, however, some high performance models are reported to have up to a 150 mile range (EST,2007b). In addition, historically EV batteries have been expensive, have a short lifecycle and do not provide significant power limiting acceleration and speed (Oltra & Saint-Jean, 2006). However, most notably the EVs are only zero emissions if the energy used to recharge them is produced using renewable sources such as solar or wind power. In most instances fossil fuel based
Appendix 3 Vehicle Types
Cranfield University 90 Suzannah Cooley, 2007 electricity is currently used which results in EVs causing indirect CO2 emissions.The EST (2007b) however, notes EVs are more energy efficient than ICEV therefore any indirect emissions would be considerably lower than the direct emissions associated with petrol or diesel vehicles (EST, 2007b).
Hybrid Vehicles (HVs)
Hybrid technology is dominated by two principle manufactures, Toyota and Honda, who both currently have HVs in the UK market. HVs are powered by combining an internal combustion engine with an electric motor. Whilst driving, the vehicle will seek to use the conventional engine at maximum efficiency and at lower speeds vehicle switches to utilising the electric motor (Denton, 2007).
The principal benefits of HVs are they, offer very good fuel efficiency, reduced CO2, can use either the available fuel infrastructure or alternative fuels and offer performance and range of use comparable to ICEVs. Initially HVs were viewed as a technological stepping stone to FCV and hydrogen vehicles however, their recent commercial success and environmental performance is bringing this into question (Oltra & Saint-Jean, 2006).
Biofuel Vehicles (BVs)
Biofuel can be mixed with diesel or petrol at small quantities and used within ICEVs In the UK, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO) requires that by 2010 conventional fuels should contain a mix of up to 5% biofuel (SMMT, 2006b). The main biofuels being used or under development are, Ethanol, Methanol, Dimethyl ether (DME), Rapeseed methyl ester (RME), Fisher-Tropsch Diesel (FTD), biogas and hydrogen (Mattsson, 2006) BVs are capable of operating on much higher blends of biofuel, up to 85% and are commercially known as Flexi Fuel vehicles (SMMT, 2006A). The fuel mostly used is E85, Bioethanol. These vehicles have been modified with wider fuel lines, hardened metals and engine management system adjustments but are largely based on ICEVs. The market for these vehicles is dominated by Brazil,
Appendix 3 Vehicle Types
Cranfield University 91 Suzannah Cooley, 2007 US, Sweden and Germany, however, Ford and Saab have also recently launched vehicles in UK (Appendix 5). General Motors and Ford both claim to have around 1.5 million Flexi Fuel vehicles on the road. In Sweden in 2004 80% of Ford Focus sales were Flexi Fuel vehicles (Pool, 2006). Market incentives for biofuels include:
- 20% per litre duty incentive since 2002 in UK,
- In Sweden BV are exempt from Stockholm's congestion charge, get reduced parking costs and reduced vehicle duty,
- In America the price of E85 is on average 45 cent less than petrol. In the UK the market suffers from limited biofuel availability. In recent years some supermarkets have increased distribution but this is mostly concentrated in and around Somerset (Pool, 2006).
The environmental benefits of BV are complex. Biofuels are a renewable fuel source and offer carbon savings as the CO2 emission released during combustion is offset by the CO2 absorbed during the growth of crops and trees. Sometimes biofuels are referred to as carbon neutral or carbon beneficial.
However, in looking at the CO2 balance of biofuels additional energy inputs, such as fertilization, transport, production need to be considered as they will negatively affect the fuels carbon benefit (DTI, 2005, Mattsson, 2006, SMMT, 2006A and Smokers et. al., 2006). A LCVP study reported up to 77% CO2 reductions for bioethanol produced from wheat and an average 55% CO2 reduction for biodiesel, both dependent on the production pathway used (Pool, 2006). Similarly, Friends of the Earth (2005) as cited by Transport2000 (2007), conclude that lifecycle CO2 from bioethanol fuels are at least 50% lower than conventional petrol and further more bioethanol benefits from being easily blended so not requiring any change to the way consumers purchase fuel.
Appendix 3 Vehicle Types
Cranfield University 92 Suzannah Cooley, 2007 Biofuels do not perform so well when considering air quality pollutants, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic carbons etc. Bioethanol is considered better than conventional fuels for CO2 emissions but comparable in terms of air quality emission. Biodiesel's CO2 emissions are better that Bioethanol but its air quality rating is considered significantly worse than petrol and diesel (Lane, 2007).
Widespread use of both bioethanol and biodiesel has also been linked to potential increases in localised air quality issues of low level ozone and summer smog (Lightowlers, 2007).
Moreover, further development of biofuels as an alternative fuel is questioned due to potential global economic and environmental concerns. Significant quantities of land and crops are required to produce biofuels. To meet the 5% RFTO obligations without using UK exports one third of the UK's current arable land would be required. Whilst biofuel production does create agricultural jobs, national revenues and displaces imported fuels therefore giving energy security (Mastney, 2005), the question is whether there is enough land and crops to meet demand. In addition, such demand could significantly raise the price of many countries stable food source and contribute to further forest loss (Pool, 2006).
The EU recognises biofuels should play a part in the future low CO2 car market (EC, 2007A) and as such the EU are looking to develop a sustainable quality standard or environmental assurance schemes for the production of biofuels (Alexander, 2007). An alternative also being considered is to develop second generation synthetic biofuels from bio-waste however, this unlikely to contribute significantly until 2012 (Smokers et. al., 2006).
Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) are vehicles powered by an electrochemical cell which produces electricity to power the engine. In the majority of examples the fuel is hydrogen which, when converted into electricity, roduces only oxygen, nitrogen
Appendix 3 Vehicle Types
Cranfield University 93 Suzannah Cooley, 2007 and water and no polluting emissions. In addition the energy conversion rate is 60%, which is two to three times that of a petrol engine (Coup, 1999). FCV have not et come on to the UK market. Every large car manufacturer is reported to have developed concept FCV and promoting such vehicles are key to the company's long term strategy (Schwoon, 2006). Fuelling infrastructure, costs, reliability and durability are critical barriers to FCV use (Oltra & Saint-Jean, 2006 and Turton & Barreto, 2004). Coup (1999) and Schwoon (2006) both observe research and trials appear to be solving the majority of technical issues however, the lack of a fuelling network remains the key barrier to adoption. Developing a hydrogen fuelling infrastructure would involve huge costs, industry investment and would need to be developed alongside the conventional fuelling network (Oltra & Saint-Jean, 2006). Furthermore, current processes to produce hydrogen are mostly fossil fuel based, steam reforming from natural gas (methane), partial oxidation of heavy oil and methanol reformation (Schwoon, 2006). Hydrogen can be produced using solar or wind power but this is not widely developed. Therefore despite hydrogen FCV not producing tail pipe CO2 emissions they are associated with indirect CO2 emissions (BMW, 2006).
Hydrogen fuel can be used for either FCV or ICEV, however, it is not a primary energy source which can be mined or drilled from the earth instead it has to be manufactured from other sources, e.g., water or natural gas (EST, 2002). Hydrogen vehicles whether they are FCV or ICEV produce no tailpipe pollutants. ICEV versions are in production with some having set performance records (BMW, 2006). However, hydrogen conversion, cost, environmental concerns plus concerns of storage and a refuelling infrastructure currently present significant barriers to adoption as a transport fuel (Oltra & Saint-Jean, 2006).