A Report On Liquified Natural Gas Engineering Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Natural Gas is one of the significant parts of Petroleum and it is not generally associated with crude oil. The natural gas existed 600 million years since the Cambrian.

It was know by the name of Plinius, in far Asia, especially in China in the form of flaring jets escaping from the ground mentioned usually by the priests and travelers in that area in the Roman period.

In Fredonia, USA in 1821, the first useful breakthrough of natural gas was reported, but at that time Methane (CH4) was extracted from Coal Mines and it was mainly used for lighting purposes in the eighteenth century.

And in 1854 at Erie, USA a record was showing that the first deep natural gas well at the depth of 366 m was ruined.

Then the Fredonia Gas Light & Water Works was created in 1858, this was the first natural gas corporation.

In 1870 in Bloomfield, USA a burning natural gas well was extinguished then connected to a pipeline made out of white pine logs that were drilled through to the end with a 202 mm hole and this was 31400 m of length. But the project was abandoned soon because of it was unpractical due to the numerous leaks.

After that natural gas was conveyed to Rochester Gas Company from a gas well, but this also was closed down after a year in 1873, however in the same year a constant supply of gas was transported through a 50 mm diameter iron pipeline and with a length of 6300 m was supplying the town of Titusiville, USA successfully.

From the following years 1870 - 1900 the main intereast was to the oil wells, mostly in Appalachain area of the US and natural gas was found with crude oil but for many decades they ignored that and just flared the natural gas, even well that only produced gas they wastefully burnt to the end.

But at the same time cities near the flared gas well were seeing the advantage of natural gas for lighting and cooking this was even before the introduction of the electric lights, some American towns were using gas powered lighting.

Mean while in Europe, England at Heathfield Railway Station, in Sussex natural gas was being used. But in America nothing changed till the decade of 1920-30's when iron pipes lines at operating pressures of 400 PSI and 600 PSI with screw joints were available that the transport of natural gas started from remote gas field to the industrial areas.

With some advantages from the World War II in methods for manufacturing steel pipes and welding techniques this made it possible to have bigger diameter pipes and a higher operating pressure of 1000 PSI.

The natural gas that either was flared or blown to air in large amounts before the rigorous US laws on gas flaring in 1930, approximately 1 trillion cubic feet of gas was wasted during 1930 - 1934 from Oklahoma City and Turner Vally fields. Then the dispute of Esso and the Libyan Government started after the flaring of nearly 28.5 billion cubic feet in 1970.

((The Natural Gas Industry BOOK ))

What is LNG?

LNG is the liquid form of natural gas and it is short for (Liquefied Natural Gas) is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic. LNG consists of 90% of methane primarily and its flammable when it is mixed with air concentrations of 5-15% and it is also a very clean form of energy. The natural gas is cooled down and kept liquefied at minus 160 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure, at this point its volume is reduced by 600 to 1 this makes it possible to transport the LNG via carrier ships.

What is use of LNG ?

After the LNG Re-Gasification process, is mainly used by people for cooking and heating in their homes. Natural gas is used as major fuel for generating electricity. Natural gas and its main components are usually the most essential raw materials in manufacturing a widespread of products, from fibers for clothing, to plastics for healthcare, computers and even furniture.

The natural gas is considered to be 25% of all America's consumed energy each year.

Diversifying the energy resources in the US started in the 1970's and 1980's, by the tremendous demand for natural gas this all commenced after the global oil crisis. The environmental advantages of natural gas over the other types fossil fuels and its enhanced thermal efficiency when used in power generation played a phenomenal part in the great demand for it. The most recent numbers based on the US Energy Information Administration (U.S.EIA) for the year 2006 indicate that USA used 22 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) of gas and the U.S.EIA also predicts that natural gas production will increase from 18.8 TCF of gas in 2004 to 20.5 TCF in 2030.

Other predictions are that the total US demand for natural gas is anticipated to rise from 22.4 TCF in 2004 to almost 26 TCF by 2030 this also including the estimated gains in energy efficiency and it shows that there will be a gap of 6 TCF by the year 2030, accordingly it also shows that there will be an increase of LNG import.

((INTRODUCTION TO LNG)) http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/

An overview on liquefied natural gas (LNG), its properties, organization of the LNG industry and safety considerations

Aim:

The main aim of this project is the creation of a fire simulation and heat transfer on a LNG Vessel with the use of CFD in SolidWorks 2009

Objectives:

  • Stress Analysis FEA on the vessel and its components.

  • Learning CFD & improving the individual skills in design and modeling software SolidWorks 2009.

  • Implementing all the techniques learned on this project.

  • Enhancing personal skills in research and simulation of an actual real life scenario.


Liquefied Natural Gas Vessel - Fire & Heat Transfer simulation


Brief Description:

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is odourless, colourless, non-corrosive and non-toxic. LNG consists of 90% of methane primarily and its flammable when it is mixed with air concentrations of 5-15% and it is also a very clean form of energy. The natural gas is cooled down and kept liquefied at minus 160 degrees Celsius at atmospheric pressure, at this point its volume is reduced by 600 to 1 this makes it possible to transport the LNG via carrier ships.

The increase demand and production of LNG has multiplied drastically in the mean time, which has also increased the number of shipments of LNG, this augments the chances of accidents or spills and even fires.

In this project I would like design the LNG vessel and demonstrate the stress analysis FEA on the vessel during carrying the LNG load and to demonstrate a simulation of fire in the LNG Vessel and the heat transfer thru the vessel.

Obvious significant health/safety risks:

  • Fire.

  • Explosion.

  • Vessel (equipment) Damage.

  • Human Injury or Fatality.

Learning Outcomes:

  • Stress Analysis FEA on the vessel and its components.

  • Learning CFD & improving the individual skills in design and modelling software (Solid Works).

  • Implementing all the techniques learned on this project.

  • Enhancing personal skills in research and simulation of an actual real life scenario.

Resources needed:

  • Internet - EBooks - EJournals - Books.

  • SolidWorks & all the applications needed to design the simulation.

  • Blue Prints for the LNG Vessel.

  • List of materials used to build the LNG Vessel.

  • The Physical & Chemical Properties of LNG.

Any other information:

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG

1914       First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.

1917       First commercial natural gas liquefaction plant built in West Virginia.

1944       At an LNG peak-shaving plant in Cleveland, an LNG storage tank with a low nickel- steel content (only 3.5%) fails. LNG spills into a sewer. Explosion                within the sewer kills 128 people.

1959       The world's first LNG tanker, the Methane Pioneer, safely carries LNG from Lake Charles, LA., to Canvey Island, United Kingdom, initiating                commercial LNG shipping.

1960        Conch International Methane conducts pioneering series of experiments involving small-scale LNG spills on land at Lake Charles, LA for U.S. Bureau                 of Mines.

1964       The British Gas Council begins importing LNG from Algeria, making the United Kingdom the world's first LNG importer and Algeria as its first                exporter.

1967        National Fire Protection Association adopts its first LNG safety standards, NFPA 59A Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of LNG.

1969       United States exports LNG to Asia for the first time: from Alaska to Japan.

1971       Distrigas Corporation opens an LNG receiving and regasification terminal in Everett, MA.

1972       First federal LNG safety regulations adopted, incorporating NFPA 59A standards.

1977       California enacts LNG Terminal Siting Act, allowing the California Public Utilities Commission to approve one terminal. Indonesia begins shipping LNG                to Japan.

1978       Cove Point, MD and Elba Island, GA receiving terminals open. CPUC and FERC approve an LNG import terminal at Pt. Conception (Santa Barbara).

1979       An explosion at the Cove Point terminal kills one plant employee and causes $3 million in damages.

1980       Falling natural gas prices in U.S. and a dispute with Algerian exporters over their LNG prices leads to a shut down of the Cove Point and Elba Island                terminals. U.S. government and Shell Research both initiate large-scale, fully instrumented experiments on the dispersion and combustion of LNG                spills. U.S. adopts comprehensive LNG safety regulations that include exclusion zone requirements.

1981        Lake Charles, LA terminal opens.

1982       Lake Charles, LA terminal closes.

1984       Japan purchases 72% of world''s LNG, using 75% for electricity generation.

1985       CPUC authorizes Pt. Conception LNG terminal project to be abandoned.

1986        No imports of LNG arrive in United States for the first time since 1974. South Korea receives its first LNG shipment (from Indonesia).

1988        Distrigas resumes purchasing Algerian LNG. Lake Charles terminal reopens and also resumes LNG imports from Algeria.

1990       Taiwan''s first LNG terminal receives a shipment from Indonesia.

1991       First LNG deliveries from Australia''s North West Shelf arrive in Japan and South Korea.

1995       Cove Point terminal begins operating as a natural gas storage facility.

1999       LNG liquefaction plant opens in Trinidad and Tobago. First LNG shipment from Trinidad arrives at Everett, MA. Japan purchases 66% of world''s                LNG.

2001      Elba Island LNG terminal reopens. FERC approves reactivating Cove Point. New EcoElectrica terminal in Puerto Rico begins importing LNG (from               Trinidad).

2002      Bechtel and Shell announce plans to build an LNG receiving terminal on Mare Island, the first terminal to be proposed in CA since the 1970s. Japan               purchases 48% of world''s LNG.

2003      Cove Point terminal reopens. All U.S. LNG receiving terminals are operational for the first time since 1981. FERC approves a new LNG import terminal                in Hackberry, LA.

2004      The first offshore LNG terminal is approved, Port Pelican. Explosions and fire destroy a portion of the LNG liquefaction plant in Skikda, Algeria,               killing 27 people. U.S. imports a record volume of LNG, more than 588 billion cubic feet.

Sources: <http://www.eei.org/magazine/editorial_content/nonav_stories/2002-03-01-tide.htm>, ""LNG- Evolution&Development Wall Chart,"" Petroleum Economist 2004 . .

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.