WORK LIFE AS PERCEIVED BY COLLEGE TEACHERS

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Quality of Work Life has been defined as "The quality of relationship between the employees and the total working environment". The QWL in a broader sense seeks to achieve integration among technological, human, organizational and societal demands. QWL is concerned with the overall climate of work and the impact on work and people as well as on organization effectiveness. Quality is no more a specialized word but has become a necessary and must for the best survival. In this era, quality of human inputs is the greatest asset to any organization. Maintaining the quality of such human inputs rises from maintaining the quality of work life perfectly. Rise in the quality of work life would help employees' well being there by the well being of the whole organization. This research is an attempt to study the quality of work life of college teachers in trichy city.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Several Research Studies in the world have measured the Quality of Work of Employee's in Industries, Universities, Schools, Government and Non Government Organizations. This research study highlights the quality of work life of college teachers under various dimensions. New Challenges can be faced with employee's commitment and involvement in achieving organizational goals. This study helps the college teachers to know the level of perception towards QWL. Quality of Work Life is the essential concept of favourable situations in a working environment. The Quality of Work Life facilitates employee's training opportunities, job satisfaction and working conditions. A better Quality of Work Life improves the growth of the employee's along with the organization growth.

OBJECTIVES

To study the perception levels of respondents with regard to dimensions of QWL such as Adequate and fair compensation, Safe and healthy working conditions, Opportunities for development, Opportunities for growth and security, Social Integration, Constitutionalism, Work and total life space, Total relevance and work life and QWL feeling.

To study the perception levels of respondents with regard to dimensions of QWL in teaching environment such as Curricular aspects, Teaching learning and evaluation, Research consultancy and extension, Infrastructure and learning resources, Student support and progression, Organizational management and Healthy practices.

To find out the association/difference/relationship between various dimensions of QWL and QWL in teaching environment with regard to selected socio-economic characteristics of the respondents.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Based on the objectives hypothesis were generated to find out the relationship between the QWL variables selected for the study and also the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics and the QWL variables.

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study attempts to describe the various characteristics related to QWL and QWL in teaching environment, and to find out the association between the selected socio-economic variables and the various dimensions of QWL. Hence Descriptive cum Diagnostic research design has been adopted as defined by Kothari C.R. (2007) Descriptive research studies are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or a group, whereas diagnostic research studies determine the association between the variables.

UNIVERSE AND SAMPLING

Under the affiliation of Bharathidasan University Arts and Science colleges in Tiruchirappali City the study was conducted and the universe of the study includes 16 colleges located within the city limit and 1479 college teachers were working during May 2007 - February 2009. The researcher used Disproportionate Stratified random sampling method to select a sample of 239 respondents from the universe.

TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION

The researcher used a standard questionnaire as a primary tool for data collection. The first part of the questionnaire deals with the socio-economic characteristics and the second part deals with various dimensions of quality of work life and quality of work life in teaching environment. In the second part the researcher used two types of questionnaires to measure the level of perception of the respondents.

Namely,

Quality of Work Life Questionnaire

Quality of Work Life in Teaching Environment Questionnaire

THE INSTRUMENT

The researcher used a standard questionnaire as a primary tool for data collection. The questionnaire focuses on 16 dimensions and 116 questions.

The reliability of Quality of Work Life Questionnaire is found to be .879 and the reliability of

Quality of Work Life in Teaching Environment Questionnaire is found to be .960 by using split half reliability test.

The various dimensions of Quality of Work Life questionnaire are as follows:

S.No

Dimension

Question Nos.

No. of Items

1

Adequate and fair compensation

1-4

4

2

Safe and healthy working conditions

5-10

6

3

Opportunities for development

11-21

11

4

Opportunities for growth and security

22-28

7

5

Social Integration

29-39

11

6

Constitutionalism

40-43

4

7

Work and total life space

44-46

3

8

Social relevance and working life

47-52

6

9

QWL feeling

53-54

2

The various dimensions of Quality of Work Life in teaching environment questionnaire are as follows:

S.No

Dimension

Question Nos.

No. of Items

1

Curricular aspects

55-60

6

2

Teaching-learning and evaluation

61-70

10

3

Research consultancy and extension

71-80

10

4

Infrastructure and learning resources

81-90

10

5

Student support and progression

91-96

6

6

Organization and management

97-103

7

7

Healthy practices

104-116

13

STATISTICAL DESIGN

The collected data after being coded, were analysed using Statistical Package for Social sciences Research (SPSS) and various statistical tests were applied based on hypotheses and matching variables. (Student's 't'-test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-square Test, Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation)

FINDINGS

Findings related to socio-economic characteristics of the respondents:

Irrespective of the type of respondents majority(39.7%) of them belong to 26-30 years of age. Analysis of the gender of the respondents reveals that majorities (69.9%) of them are female and 30.1% of them are male.

The distributions of respondents by designation shows majority (76.6%) of them are lecturers. The majorities (61.5%) of the respondents are in Arts Department and 38.8% of them are in Science Department.

The majority (65.3%) of the respondents are having 1-5 years length of service the remaining 28.5% and 6.3% are having 6-10 and 11-15 years of length of service.

Nearly half (49.0%) of the respondents are from Urban place. Further 30.1% belongs to rural place and 20.9% belongs to semi urban place.

More than half (51.0%) of the respondents earning between Rs.3001 - 6000 monthly income, 23.4% of the respondents earning between Rs. 6001 - 9000 monthly income, 17.6% of the respondents earning between Rs. 1000 -3000, and remaining 7.5% of them earning between Rs. 9001 -12,000.

A high (78.7%) percentage of the respondents have no professional membership and 21.3% of the respondents are having the professional membership.

Nearly one third (30.1%) of the respondents are working in Autonomous college, 26.4% of the respondents are working in self finance college, 25.1% of the respondents are working in government aided college and 18.4% of the respondents are working in government college.

Findings related to the respondents by their overall perceived levels of Quality of Work Life and Overall Quality of Work Life in Teaching Environment:

With regard to the overall quality of work life 59.0% of the respondents have low level of quality of work life and 41.0% of the respondents have high level of quality of work life.

With regard to the overall quality of work life in teaching environment 54.8% of the respondents have high level of quality of work life in teaching environment and 45.2% of the respondents have low level of quality of work life in teaching environment.

Findings related to hypothesis: (Quality of Work Life)

There is no significant difference between sex of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. ('t'-test)

There is a significant difference between the department of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. ('t'-test)

There is a significant difference between the professional membership of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. ('t'-test)

There is no significant difference between the type of family of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. ('t'-test)

There is no significant difference between the age of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant difference between the designation of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant difference between the various income levels of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant difference between the type of college of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant association between the native place of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (Chi-square test)

There is a significant association between the length of service of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life. (Chi-square test)

Findings related to hypothesis: (Quality of work life in teaching environment)

There is a significant difference between sex of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment.('t'-test)

There is no significant difference between the department of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment.('t'-test)

There is a significant difference between the professional membership and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment.('t'-test)

There is no significant difference between the type of family of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment.('t'-test)

There is a significant difference between the age of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant difference between the designation of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (One way - ANOVA)

There is no significant difference between the various income levels of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (One way - ANOVA)

There is a significant difference between the type of college of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (One way - ANOVA)

There is a significant association between the native place of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (Chi-square - test)

There is a significant association between the length of service of the respondents and their perceived levels of overall quality of work life in teaching environment. (Chi-square - test)

CONCLUSION

QWL is the shared responsibility not only of the management and employees, but also by the society. To improve Quality of work life is first to identify and then try to satisfy employee's important needs through their experience in their working environment. Depending upon the situational requirements, management may select the relevant needs of the employee's to improve them with a short term plan. It was determined that 59% of the college teachers are having low perception towards overall QWL, 78.7 % of the college teachers are not having any professional membership, 65.3% of the college teachers are having below five years of experience and 51% of the college teachers income level is between 3001 - 6000. It shows QWL of college teachers is in low level. According to a report, improved flexible working environment was found to be successful in Europe, Japan, United States and Canada. According to traditional teachings, the workplace is a temple and work is worship. A planned change in the working environment is the need of the hour to improve QWL in India. Improved Flexible working environment can be an answer to the multifarious roles of the Indian employees. This research is to enhance the QWL of the college teachers by integrating the task role and social role, such that the synergies are effectively obtained.

*Dr. M. Umaselvi, MBA, M.com, Ph.D, (Research Supervisor)

Vice-Principal & Head, Cauvery college for women, Trichy -620 018.

**P.Subburethina Bharathi, B.E, MBA, M.Phil, (Research Scholar)

Assistant Professor, Hallmark Business School, Trichy -620 102.

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