The wonder of life

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The wonder of life

Symptoms of pregnancy

1. Implantation Bleeding:

Implantation bleeding can be one of the earliest pregnancy symptoms. About 6-12 days after conception, the embryo implants itself into the uterine wall. Some women will experience spotting as well as some cramping.

2. Delay/Difference in Menstruation:

A delayed or missed menstruation is the most common pregnancy symptom leading a woman to test for pregnancy. When you become pregnant, your next period should be missed. Many women can bleed while they are pregnant, but typically the bleeding will be shorter or lighter than a normal period.

3. Swollen/Tender Breasts:

Swollen or tender breasts are a pregnancy symptom which may begin as early as 1-2 weeks after conception. Women may notice changes in their breasts; they may be tender to the touch, sore, or swollen.

4. Fatigue/Tiredness:

Feeling fatigued or more tired is a pregnancy symptom which can also start as early as the first week after conception.

5. Nausea/Morning Sickness:

This well-known pregnancy symptom will often show up between 2-8 weeks after conception. Some women are fortunate to not deal with morning sickness at all, while others will feel nauseous throughout most of their pregnancy

6. Backaches:

Lower backaches may be a symptom that occurs early in pregnancy; however, it is common to experience a dull backache throughout an entire pregnancy.

7. Headaches:

The sudden rise of hormones in your body can cause you to have headaches early in pregnancy.

8. Frequent Urination:

Around 6-8 weeks after conception, you may find yourself making a few extra trips to the bathroom.

9. Darkening of Areolas:

If you are pregnant, the skin around your nipples may get darker.

10. Food Cravings:

While you may not have a strong desire to eat pickles and ice cream, many women will feel cravings for certain foods when they are pregnant. This can last throughout your entire pregnancy

Fetal development

1. First trimester

Month one-0-6 weeks

Three different layers of cell develop and each type will create different parts of your baby's body.

Month Two-6-10weeks

Several facial features can now be recognized on ultrasound and the body is straightening and the limbs developing.

Month Three-10-12weeks

Baby is now the size of a kidney bean. Can recognizes various parts of baby's body.

2. Second Trimester

Month Four-13-17 weeks

Fingernails can be visualized and toenails will start to develop in a few weeks.

Month Five-17-21 weeks

His skeleton is starting to harden from rubbery cartilage to bone. Skeleton can be seen on an x-ray because further calcium has been deposited in the bones to harden them.

Month Six-21-26 weeks

The eyebrows and eyelashes and head hair are clearly visible. Skin looks pink and wrinkly but no longer appears completely translucent.

3. Third Trimester

Month Seven-26-30 weeks

Baby continues to grow in length. Fat is deposited under the skin and the skin starts to lose its wrinkly appearance.

Month Eight-30-35 weeks

Baby's eyes are opening and closing now. The brain and nervous system are fully developed. Fingernails extend to the end of the fingertips.

Month Nine -35-40 weeks

Baby weights up to 3 and 4kg and will measure as much as 48 to 50 cm from the crown of the head to the tip of the toes. Baby is usually curled up head pointing downwards.

Signs indicating the onset of labour

1. Dropping. Some time during the final few weeks you may notice that your baby has moved down lower in your abdomen. Baby's head settling into the pelvis is also called "lightening" (because the lower-riding load seems smaller and lighter) or "engagement" (since baby's head engages the pelvic opening). Whether baby "drops," "lightens," or "engages," you will feel and look different. Your breasts probably no longer touch the top of your abdomen. You might be able to sense baby's head resting just beneath the middle of your pelvic bone.

2. Frequent urination. Now that baby's head lies closer to your bladder you may be going to the bathroom more often.

3. Low backache. As baby gets heavier and drops lower, you will get some aches or pains in your lower back and pelvis.

4. Braxton-Hicks contractions. They become stronger and more frequent in the pre labour stage. The contractions occur irregularly and fade away where labour pains start slowly but build up gradually.

5. Your cervix starts to ripen. In the days and weeks before delivery, Braxton Hicks contractions may do the preliminary work of softening, thinning, and perhaps opening your cervix a bit. When you're at or near your due date, your

practitioner may do a vaginal exam during your prenatal visit to see whether your cervix has started to change.

6. Bloody show. The combination of baby's head descending into the pelvic cavity and the prelabor contractions thinning the cervix can "uncork" the mucus plug that previously sealed the cervix. The consistency of this mucus varies from stringy to thick. Some women notice the one-time passing of an obvious mucus plug; others simply notice increased blood-tinged vaginal discharge. If your discharge shows more blood than mucus, like a menstrual period or a lot of bright-red blood report this to your practitioner immediately. Once you notice a bloody show, you are likely to begin labor within three days, but some mothers hang on for another week or two.

7. Bag of waters breaking: When the fluid-filled amniotic sac surrounding your baby ruptures fluid leaks from your vagina And whether it comes out in a large gush or a small trickle, you should call your doctor or midwife. For most mothers this doesn't happen until they are well into labor. If your water breaks before labour has started, plan on your labour starting intensely within the next few minutes or hours or at least within the next day.

Stages of labour

First stage divided in three stages:

Latent stage Contractions are mild are irregular can range from5-20 minutes apart. During early labour the cervix thins out and dilates in 3-4 centimeters.At the end of the first stage the cervix are wide enough to let the baby through. The early phase of labor lasts an average of eight hours for first-timers, but it can vary from a few hours to a few days.

Active stage- The contractions are now more intense and come every 3-4 minutes, lasting for 40-60 seconds. By the time the cervix dilates to about 7-10 cms. You should be at the hospital, as you will be experiencing increasing discomfort, fatigue, leg and back pain, and certainly more blood. If your water has not yet broken, it is most likely to happen in this phase. Baby's head descends lower into your pelvis, which often breaks the membranes and releases the amniotic fluid with a gush.

Transition stage -Cervix has fully dilated. Transition is the most intense phase of your entire labor. At this point you will find it difficult to relax between the contractions. Many women do not experience more than 10 or 20 contractions during transition. Transition contractions are more frequent than those of active labor 1-3 minutes apart and will last at least a minute or a minute and a half. You'll also have to urge to push.

Second stage

During the second stage the baby is forced through the birth canal by the uterine contractions which are stronger and frequent. Contractions are now continuously. This stage can last 15-20min. but can be much quicker at times. The baby's head will start to crown. Once baby crowns, your birth attendant may advise you not to push, but rather to ease baby's head out slowly to avoid tearing your internal tissues or your perineum. As soon as the baby's head is free of the perineum, the neck will extend and the baby will automatically rotate to face left or right, so that the shoulders are now in the best position to deliver smoothly. The first shoulder will slip under the pubic bone followed swiftly by the posterior shoulder. The rest of the body slips out and the baby is usually delivered unto the mother's tummy.

Third stage

The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta. After the baby is born the continuing uterine contractions and the shrinking or the retraction of the uterus reduces the size of the placental bed considerably. The placenta buckles inwards tearing the blood vessels and attachments to the uterine wall. The process starts as soon as the baby is born and last about five minutes.fetal_newborn_at_birth_s13.jpg

Care of a new born

First important thing to do is check the baby's reflex to ensure that the baby is fit. Correct ways to Hold baby.

Tonic neck reflex: The head is turned to one side. The arm on that side is stretched out, and the opposite arm is bent at the elbow.

Grasp reflex: Baby grips tightly if something is placed are the hand.

Step reflex: When support under the armpits your baby makes stepping movements.

Crawl reflex: Baby is placed on tummy to see if baby flexes legs or shows reaction.

Bathing your baby

Your baby needs sponge baths at first. Give your baby a sponge bath until her /his umbilical cord or his circumcision is healed.

Close al windows and make sure that the room is reasonably warm. Get your baby's clean clothes ready in order you'll be putting on. Put the bath or basin on a steady surface in a draught -free place. Test with your elbow it should be warm not hot. Undress your baby take of the diaper and wipe away any soiling with cotton wool. Always wipe from front to back. Hold baby securely with your arm supporting her head and your fingers gripping her upper arm. Use a clean, damp washcloth, without soap, to wash her face. Wash her body, starting with the chest. After washing with a soapy washcloth, rinse the washcloth and rinse her off. Pat your baby dry with a bath towel. Always keep her covered and warm when she is wet.

Diaper changing:

Breastfeeding:Is the healthiest option for your baby. The first few days that you nurse your baby you will be giving him antibodies in your milk that he needs to fight infection. Breastfeeding also helps you to bond with your baby.

Bottle feeding: Up to the mother to decide. Formula is made with cow's milk .They are fortified with essential vitamins and minerals.

Sit your baby on your lap. Support your baby's chest and head with one hand by cradling your baby's chin in the palm of your hand and resting the heel of your hand on your baby's chest (be careful to grip your baby's chin - not throat). Use the other hand to gently pat your baby's back.

Sleeping positions: Babies can be placed on their backs to sleep and reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In addition, remove all fluffy bedding, quilts, sheepskins, stuffed animals, and pillows from the crib to ensure that your baby doesn't get tangled in them or suffocate. Alternate the position of your baby's head from night to night (first right, then left, and so on) to prevent the development of a flat spot on one side of the head. Baby can be laid on the side as well roll a blanket and wedge it behind the baby's back.

Complications

High Blood Pressure- (Hypertension) during pregnancy

chronic hypertension is when a woman's blood pressure is elevated before pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension, however, is when a woman's blood pressure is elevated only during pregnancy. About 8% of pregnancies result in pregnancy-induced hypertension, and usually develops anytime after 20 weeks.

Uterine problems- Uterine problems such as fibroids can occur. Fibroids are benign growths on the uterus and are more common in older woman than younger women. Bowel problems such as anal fissure, hemorrhoids and a few others can also occur. Digestive problems, infections, and joint issues are also types of pregnancy complications that can occur.
Diabetes-There are two types of diabetes in pregnancy: pre-extising diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes.Mellitus increases the risk of fetal abnormalities.Gestational can lead to still born births.

Asthma-This is trigged by allergies to foods, chemicals, dust and smoke.Could course a viral chest infection.Pregnant woman shold avoid exposure to these triggers.

Renal disease-renal disease presents for the first time during pregnancy trigged by the extra filtering load placed on the kidneys.

Bibliography:

Your pregnancy week by week Professor Lesley Regan

Baby and child care handbook Marina Petropulos

Swangerskap sonder sorge Tina Otte

Internet:

www.babycenter.com

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