This decade is characterised by rapid technological advances. Being in the digital era, technology has accounted for many changes in the educational sector. These changes range from the method instruction is delivered, to the attitudes on how learning occurs to the amount of collaboration and knowledge sharing between not only students, but also between teachers, managers and administrators. ICT represents one of the most useful tools to enhance curriculum if used correctly. According to Waxman H.Lin & Mitchko (2003), teaching and learning with technology has had a significant impact on students' outcomes when compared to traditional instruction.
In the future, P.E will need to undergo radical changes. If technology had an impact in learning in general education, could it also enhance teaching and learning in P.E? New developments in the field of technology will positively affect the P.E curriculum. For example, the use of technological advances will prepare physical educators for the future demands and expectations of the society. Furthermore, the Ministry of Education is laying much emphasis on integrating ICT in the teaching and learning process in secondary schools. As students perform exercises and skills in their PE classes, PE teachers can use technological tools and systems to quantify processes and results to help them learn more about themselves (Kirkwood, Manon, 2002).However, before using ICT in our schools as a teaching tool, these important questions must be addressed. What technological options are available for our PE educators? Do using technological tools in the PE classes motivate the students? What is the role of technology as an assessment tool and how it is linked to performance?
According to Green (2002), with the rapid developments in technology, ICT has made a significant impact on a number of P.E departments, and has the potential to enhance teaching and learning in P.E. Cummings (2002) further suggests that the pervasion of ICT in education is now impacting on P.E as much as on any other subjects. Many P.E departments in the U.K are currently using ICT for administration and management tasks. Computers allow us to continuously modify and update our schemes of work and lesson plans. The creation of a database of all students in the schools enable school administrators to maintain detailed records of assessments, key stage grades, sports awards and extra-curricular achievements.
GENERAL CONTRIBUTION/BENEFITS OF ICT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The use of ICT in PE makes the science of sport come to life by linking both physical and mental activity. It also helps to create full-fledged students who are able to concentrate better on both practical and theoretical work. Besides, it helps students to develop a better understanding of their own body parts and that of the human body in general. It also raises the profile of P.E within the establishment by making the subject not only interesting, but also attractive and effective. Furthermore, it brings enthusiasm and motivation for both PE teachers and students.
ICT is also very important with regards to school administrative work. In fact, data can easily be collected and shared for analytical purposes, e.g. electronic records of performance of athletes. ICT also promotes teaching and learning within the school organization by changing the nature of learning itself. Students are motivated and are able to grasp essential concepts that previously eluded them. By developing their abilities to think in different ways students can select and apply skills, tactics and ideas, to evaluate and increase performance.
Moreover, with the infusion of ICT in PE, life-long learning can be supported through the collection of resources via the internet. According to Mike Rimmer, Head of Physical & Social development at the Buttershaw upper school in Bradford: "It's the excitement of learning in a different way."
In addition, with ICT, pupils are able to get access, select and interpret a wide range of information more easily. They are also able to recognise patterns, relationships and behaviours using appropriate technological software. Furthermore, models, predictions and even hypothesis can be made by students with the advent of ICT. Access to images of quality performances can be obtained through video filming. Hence, students are able to review their work and modify it to improve the quality. Through ICT tools reliability, evaluation and accuracy of actions can also be done. ICT further provides a very reliable source of communication among people within the organisation. The use of email, fax, facebook or even skype will enable quick and direct communication among P.E staffs and even students in other schools on fixtures, meetings and many other relevant matters. Therefore, accuracy of information does not depend only on the busy school secretary.
Throughout ICT tools, pupils can benefit from immediate feedback to improve their observational and analysis skills. As they familiarise with the software, they are able also to point out the relevant points for positive technique. The main advantage, however, remain the general improvement in the performance level of the majority of the pupils' work, as they struggle their way to look impressive especially if their performance will be analysed on digital video system.
There are many good options available to physical educators in regards to technology. Many of these technologies are easily accessible and are easily incorporated into the curriculum.
SOME TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS
Theses apparatus also called step counters are mechanical sensors used to count steps and can easily be incorporated in PE classes. They address motivation, assessment, and advocacy. Furthermore, they are portable and can be worn under the belt and be kept the whole day. Today, it can be said that the pedometer has become a recognized acceptable tool for measuring physical activity. Students can wear a pedometer and receive immediate and continuous feedback regarding their activity level (Beighle, Pangrazi,Vincent, 2001). Using pedometers at school can also demonstrate to parents that students are achieving a certain level of physical activity. By using the pedometers students will be able to see progress towards set goal and consequently will be more motivated in the classes.
Heart Rate Monitors
Based completely on the student ability level and current level of fitness, the heart rate monitor makes learning more student centered. It also provides immediate feedback that can make students work harder (Bian, Partridge, King, Andon, Boyer, 2007). As fitness level increases, student feel that their cardiovascular system is working and can set individualized goal to work more effectively. The Heart rate monitor will also provide real time data that will allow students to see how different exercises and activities affect the heart rate. Hence the heart rate monitor is a convenient apparatus that allows students to use up to date technology (Kirkwood, Manon 2002). Charts of maximum heart rate can be made for each student and track increase or decrease in their heart rate.
Digital Video camera and visual analysis software
The use of the motion analysis system will surely enhance many areas of the physical education curriculum both in research and teaching. Using digital video camera has indeed simplified the collection of data. These results can then be imported to carry out interactive multimedia presentation to provide students with a better understanding of the importance of breaking skills into components and the consequences of subtle variation in techniques ( Ladda, Keating, Adam, Toscana, 2004). The visual analysis software allows students to view captured movement and to analyse them. This particular technology can help teachers to control student's progress towards motor skills goals; provide feedback opportunities and assessing students learning (Fiorentino and Castelli, 2005).
Using digital video camera to record pupils' performance in table tennis for example, can be a useful tool to help students improve their techniques. With the addition of motion analysis software, pupils have a professional supportive tool. For instance during a training session, a 'robot - pong', which is a special technological tool that distribute ping pong balls at varying direction and speed, is used to face a student. The P.E teacher can then use the Digital video camera to analyse the actions more closely. This is done with a view to improve the teaching and learning of table tennis. Digital video clips were used weekly to stress on proper and improper techniques and then the pupils were given the opportunity to evaluate their own techniques and the technique of others via the 'déjà vu' resource. In the Mauritian context, some state colleges which are actually working on a pilot project set up by the ministry of education are presenting candidates for the Cambridge O level Examination. Teachers involved in this project will have to make use of video cameras during the practical examination to record students' performance and then send them to Cambridge University. Each college involved in the pilot project have already received a laptop, an overhead projector and its respective screen. Digital video cameras and internet connection facilities will soon be available in these schools.
Simulation and Games
Games such as Dance, Dance revolution, Fx cycles and Nintendo Wii Fit provide opportunities for students to be physically active and simultaneously enjoying themselves .These games can also be combined to other technologies to enhance the experience (Di Giorgio, 2004). Concerning the Nintendo Wii Fit, work outs are done on a small balanced board that gamers stand on. The players receive instructions from screen and mimic the stretching and muscle building exercises. The Wii Fit tracking feature shows progress using the system. Therefore, it can be a valuable PE tool. However, teachers should not consider gaming system equivalent to traditional exercises. It should be considered as a supplement and a not a replacement of traditional exercises.
Methodology refers to a systematic investigation of an issue to collect important data. When analyzing data, valuable evidence may be obtained by using several indicators.Â A survey method seemed to be most appropriate rather than an Action research to us due to factors like time constraints, cost of implementation, high rate of absenteeism during 3rd term and unrealistic expectations.
The quality of an efficient survey is not only based on appropriate instrumentation but also on a suitable sampling strategy that has been selected. The selection of sampling strategy was governed by the criterion of suitability. The choice for this strategy adopted were related to the goals of the survey- the time constraints, the data collection methods, and the methodology. All these factors have been considered to ensure validity. The non-probability sample of 378 students of Form 4 was chosen for our survey which satisfied the minimum sample of Form 4 students. The estimated total population of Form 4 students was 19,179 which represent the number of students sitting for SC this year. We chose particularly Form 4 students because the survey had to be carried out during term 3 and during this period Form 5 and 6 students usually shine by their high absence rates. Hence, 66 students of Form 4 were randomly selected from 5 Form 4 classes in each school.
PE teachers were also targeted for our survey to be meaningful. For a total population of 325 PE Teachers, we selected a minimum sample of 176 according to the given software for sampling calculation. P.E. teachers who were selected to fill questionnaires were from respective schools where members of our group work and PE educators who are following Diploma, B Ed, M Ed and PGCE courses at the MIE.
3.2 METHODS AND TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The survey has been based on quantitative observations. The methods and tools for data collection were:
Two distinct survey questionnaires were designed one for the students and the other one for P.E teachers in respect to the objectives and opinions on using ICT to enhance P.E. The questionnaires included profile of the student/teacher, knowledge in ICT, opinions if ICT is integrated in P.E. A structured questionnaire was designed to reduce time for filling questionnaire and simplify data analysis.
Our investigation to gain required information regarding number of P.E. teachers in Mauritius and approximate form 4 student's population included consultation of various records and statistics.
3.3 DATA COLLECTION STRATEGIES
The questionnaires were distributed in four secondary schools and two MITD schools that is in the six institutions where six members of our group work. Respected teachers in our group briefed respondents before answering questionnaires about our objectives in the research. Record of number of questionnaires being circulated was kept. As for teachers, questionnaires were distributed to PE teachers around the island.
3.4 SELECTED SCHOOL PROFILE
1. Three State colleges SSS, one from urban and two other from rural areas. One of them is a Girls college and two others are Boys College. 2. A private mixed college situated in an urban area. 3. Two MITD mixed Schools were chosen, one from rural and the other from urban area.
PE and IT facilities available in almost all selected schools: P.E. room/gymnasium, audio visual room(PowerPoint presentation and theory classes), Laptop, playground. audio visual room, Lecture theatre (PowerPoint presentation and theory classes), Laptop, playground, Internet facilities in the computer lab.
Pupils from different type of schools were selected for the survey to check students' attitude in P.E., to collect different perspectives of using IT in PE and to seek their views on ICT integration in P.E. from different types of schools and regions in order to meet our objectives.
The purpose of the questionnaire:
To make a survey on PE Teachers, and students' questionnaire to seek their views on the possibility of enhancing P.E. classes with ICT.
To meet our objectives and to be linked to the literature review.
The students questionnaires include three sections-
section1: Knowledge in ICT, section2: Physical education and section 3 included questions relating P.E. to Technology.
Age-appropriate type of questions was included for mixed ability students like multiple choice questions. Different sections were designed to measure knowledge, attitude towards ICT integration in PE, interest in PE, level of importance now given to PE, level of IT literacy, willingness of students to adopt ICT in PE for self improvement and better learning, to seek pupils' views in using ICT as a P.E. assessment tool.
3.42 PILOTING THE QUESTIONNAIRE
A sample of 20 students was selected in Form 4 in two secondary schools in view of piloting the questionnaire. We took feedback from students after completion of questionnaire in order to reframe ambiguous questions.
3.43 QUESTIONNAIRES ADMINISTRATION
Permission was sought from Rectors of respective schools. Students' confidentiality has been assured. The questionnaires were delivered during 2 consecutive PE periods and collected at the end of class.
3.5 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
To ensure validity and reliability quantitative data has been used. Investigations were carried out from reliable sources to compile relevant data. The required minimum sample of students and PE teachers were selected for validity and all questionnaires were directly collected by Teachers concerned from our group thus ensuring greater validity and reliability.
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Information obtained through questionnaire was captured digitally using an application developed in SPSS software. The data was verified, cleaned and validated before proceeding to analysis. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS where necessary. Analysis comprised of categorical tables, spider graph, clustered pyramid, count of responses and cross tabulations. Comparative analysis was also made in respect to correlated variables and basic classification criteria. An EFA was also carried out to have a reliable comparison of the variables in the students' questionnaire. Estimates were made wherever, required, according to recommended statistical procedures. Results obtained were interpreted in relation to research findings in documentations.
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This particular research on ICT enhancing Physical Education has raised several pertinent questions. For our analysis we have focused on three key questions that seem to be relevant in our Mauritian context. To address the main research questions in our project, both students and teachers from the state, private and vocational institutions were targeted. As it can be seen through the following respondents profile (Table 4.0.1):
Table 4.0.1 Students Respondent Profile
Teachers Respondent Profile
Types of Students
From the student respondent profile:
Mostly male students participated
Majority of students came from state colleges
Students were both from rural and urban areas
The responded level of literacy were: average and good
From the teacher respondent profile:
Most teachers who participated came from state colleges
The majority of teachers who responded worked with mainstream students
4.1 Perceptions of different school types in relation to motivation through video Filming
With the rapid development in technology, and especially its use in enhancing P.E, one of the main objectives that have been pointed out is to find out whether using technological tools in P.E is a motivating factor for students. Digital video can effectively enhance P.E activities and is ever more relevant today in terms of "availability, affordability, access and relative simplicityâ€¦"(Tearle & Katene, in press; Stratton& Finch, 2001). Using the video camera in P.E according to research can be a valuable tool to motivate students to improve their technique as it "provide opportunities to give feedback, and create ideal situation for assessment of student learning" (Fiorentino and Castelli, 2005). As advanced by Ladda, keating, Adams, Toscano (2004) students will be able to improve their abilities as the "results obtained can then be imported to interactive multimedia presentations to provide students with a better understanding of the importance of breaking skills into components and the consequences of subtle variations in techniques." In relation to this, a Frequency Tabulation (Table 4.1.1) was carried out at a preliminary stage, to have an overview of the tendencies of students in Mauritius especially when it comes to video filming as a motivating factor. As a result of it, the information obtained is represented visually on a spider graph (Table 4.1.2):
Perceptions of different school types in relation to motivation through video Filming
Figure 4.1.2: Spider Graph representing perceptions of different school types in relation to motivation through video Filming
Series1: All School Type (State, Private, Vocational)
Through the graphical representation, it can be seen that the overall results tend to move to the outer side of the spider hence showing that the results (Agreed 38.6% & Strongly agreed 35.9%) are favorable when it comes to video filming as a motivating factor for students. However, we want to investigate what are those specific school types who either disagreed or strongly disagreed to this pertinent question. To further deepen our analysis, the different school types were then cross tabbed with video filming as a motivating factor to have a more explicit view of the tendencies towards this question.
The Cross tabulation indicates that most of the students who 'strongly disagreed' and 'disagreed' came from the vocational students of the M.I.T.D with 21.4% against 9.4% and 8.3% from the state and private students respectively.
H0: No association between perceptions of different school types and motivation through video filming
H1 : Association between perceptions of different school types and motivation through video filming
From a chi square test carried out, it was found out that Ï‡2 = 28.397, df= 8 and p < 0.005, hence rejecting H0. It can be concluded that at 5% level of significance, there is an association between the two variables labelled school types and motivation through video filming. As there is a relationship and H1 has been accepted, another test was carried out to find out the strength of association between these two variables. The Cramer's V test was done and the result was 0.195. This represents a weak relationship between the two variables as the value is very near to 0.
Therefore, it can be said that in our Mauritian educational set up, visualization software does not always suit certain school environment and types of students. For example, concerning the vocational institution, there is generally a lack of resources and the literacy level of the students is quite low. This is why there response is much lower compared to state and private colleges. On the contrary, it is seen that the state and private colleges responded quite positively towards this issue as these students know that video filming will bear a lot of importance in P.E classes in the future. In addition to that, students are also aware that P.E subject will be examinable and that their practical performances will be recorded through the Digital Video and sent to Cambridge for moderation.
4.2 STUDENTS AND TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS ICT TOOLS TO INCREASE PERFORMANCE
Our second major research question addresses whether ICT tools are likely to increase students performance. In developing an ICT culture in P.E, students and primarily teachers need to keep up with understanding "what learning means and what approaches are conducive to effective learning in P.E" (Elbourn & Cale, 2001). Literature has also shown how ICT tools can be used to enhance learning in P.E and especially in increasing performance of students. And the primary reason for using these kinds of ICT tools is to increase improvement in the performance level of student as they try to look impressive especially if their performances are recorded through the different technological tools. To depict the tendencies of this research question, a general analysis was done through frequency tabulation. The overall results were then demonstrated through a pie chart for both students and teachers (Figure 4.2.1 and Figure 4.2.2 respectively).
Figure 4.2.1 Figure4.2.2
The results positively illustrated that most of our targeted students and teachers are very much agreeable to the fact that ICT tools have a lot to do with performance of students with 38.1% who agreed and 29.9 % who strongly agreed (Figure 4.2.1: Students perceptions) and 63.6% who agreed and 27.8% who strongly agreed (Figure 4.2.2: Teachers perceptions).
A comparative analysis was further done through cross tabulations and displayed through clustered Pyramids to compare the tendencies of the different school types towards the usage of ICT tools in increasing performance for both students and teacher. This is particularly important to get a better interpretation of the question for both parties.
Figure 4.2.3 Figure 4.2.4
From the results, it is interesting to note from (figure 4.2.3 and 4.2.4) that the trend is more or less the same for both students and teachers in the different school types. It is also worth noting that from the 176 teachers' perspectives, none gave a negative view on the topic for which it does not feature in figure 4.2.4. In fact, the results are very much favorable with a maximum of 61, 27 and 55 counts from the state, private and vocational students and 50, 57 and 5 counts from state, private and vocational teachers.
Hence it can be said that the research question tallies with what it has been said earlier about ICT tools -as a support linked to immediate feedback and in improving students' performance level. Teachers also are likely to welcome ICT tools as a way to empower themselves and also in providing reliable, accurate and tracked performance of students.
4.3 EXPLANATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS ON SPSS FOR STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS
Questions that were supposed to measure the same underlying dimensions were selected for the factor analysis test. The first table is a correlation matrix that will check the relationship between the variables. The determinant is listed at the bottom of the table. From the findings of the project the respective determinant is 0.149 (i.e. greater than 1 x 10 -5) Hence it is concluded that correlation exists between the variables and multicollinearity is not a problem for these data.
The KMO value (Kaiser - Meyer - Olkin) is a measure of sampling adequacy. The KMO statistic varies between 0 and 1.The value should not be less than 0.5 otherwise this will imply that our sample size is not adequate. From our analysis the KMO value was found to be 0.710. This means that the pattern of correlation is quite compact and we expect at that level that the factor analysis will yield reliable results.
BARTLETT'S TEST OF SPHERICITY
This value should be less than 0.01 for the analysis to be meaningful and significant. For the purpose of our analysis the value was 0.00. Hence, there were relationships among the variables.
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. (KMO)
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
Rotated Component Matrix
Agree to use Technological tools to do assessment and evaluation
Agree if teachers use Technological tools to do P.E
ICT tools will increase performance
Integration of ICT in P.E
Using ICT to raise standard of P.E
Presence of Technology
Changes brought in Education
Role of Technology in Society
Importance of using latest Technology in P.E
Use of Technology to make class more interesting
Using ICT to develop cooperation and independence
Impact of Technology in Education system
Using ICT to boost up participation
Well versed in ICT
Use of ICT in some subjects
Effective communication with P.E teachers and friends
Use of Technological tools in P.E
More attention given to Technological Tools rather than skills and techniques
After analysis of the above table the following construction was possible:
THE POSITIVE INFLUENCE OF ICT ON PE TEACHING STRATEGY
Students accept that technological tools will be a valuable asset that PE teachers can use to enhance their interest in classes. These students also believe that during their assessment technological tools will be advantageous to them.
POSITIVE IMPACT OF ICT IN ALL MAURITIAN SECTORS
Students believe that ICT does not only influence the educational field but also other spheres of life.
The perception of Student is that in school ICT will help them to develop their ability to work in team.
Note: No conclusions were provided for components 3, 5, 6, 7 because they were unable to be categorized and furthermore some coefficients were negative.
It can be deduced from our analysis that
Proper training should be provided to teachers and students in relation to the use of ICT tools through workshops, seminars or other courses.
Specific equipments like digital video camera and visual analysis software should be provided to the P.E department in all school.
Such equipments are costly. So the P.T.A and other sponsors must contribute to raise funds to buy such equipments.
Internet facilities should be given to both teachers and students for good communication between departments, between teachers and students to raise standards of P.E, and also access to modern up to date technologies related to rules and regulations of sports.
Heart rate monitors and pedometers are useful apparatus which are directly related to the health conditions of students. These instruments represent a source of motivation as students can check their own performance. Digital multi exercises allow students to practice their weight training safely in the gym especially during rainy days at school.
Internet is a rich source to reach students and exchange meaningful information via email, face book and newsletter .Lesson plans can be given to students via on line for better assimilation of concepts. Students should be authorized to use their mobile phones with camera options to view their own or others' performances while performing a particular skill.
Each zone should be provided with specialised equipments to calculate the maximum volume of oxygen [VO2 max], that a student can consume during an endurance activity. This is very important for those athletes who represent schools or inter-colleges competitions.
This exercise will give an indication to all PE departments in general of the progress made by our pupils or participants. Pupils taking part for the Sc should be given the possibility of using these facilities and this should be extended to other schools as well. For example, in primary schools and special educational-need institutions.
Thus, we can see how valuable this digital video camera in teaching and learning of P.E. is. This can further enhance our cognitive domain as well as our psychomotor skills. Furthermore, students will not drop this subject in Form IV as they do for other purely academic subjects. In fact, they will be more likely to choose this subject as they will be assessed for 'playing' and doing exercises.