What Libyan Efl Secondary School Teachers Believe Education Essay

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The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the data that shows what Libyan EFL secondary school teachers' beliefs and attitudes are toward CLT and the factors influencing them to implement CLT in their classrooms. Recall that Libya adopted a new curriculum in 2000 which focuses on linguistic structures and communicative competence aiming at achieving accuracy and fluency as well. Casual observation suggests that the majority of Libyan teachers and examination of the textbook used indicates that there is practice of language but communicative activities are neglected. Listening and speaking are ignored in both the classroom and in assessment which depends on memorization of vocabulary, dialogues, spelling and grammar instruction. Moreover, there are no training courses to present the CLT Approach and when training occurs, it focuses on theory and there is nothing on classroom practice or teaching methodology.

As discussed in Chapter 3, the data were gathered through a survey questionnaire, interviews and classroom observations completed by 24 Libyan EFL teachers. These instruments were used to elicit information on teachers' understanding, implementation and challenges facing them in the use of CLT.

This chapter will present in this order: results of the survey questionnaire in 4.2, results of the interviews in 4.3, and results of the classroom observations in 4.4. Before doing so, I will briefly discuss the approach to the data analysis.

4.1 Data analysis

Cohen et al. (2007: 475) define data analysis as the "reduction of copious amounts of written data to manageable and comprehensible proportions". The data were analyzed by both quantitative and qualitative methods. Cohen et al. (2007: 448) report that presenting "all the relevant data from various data streams (questionnaire, interviews and classroom observations completed by etc.) in order can "provide a collective answer to the research questions". Cohen et al. (2007: 468) described this approach as "very useful" for presenting and organizing data because it "returns the reader to the driving concerns of the research".

4.2. Results of the survey questionnaire:

The survey questionnaire was distributed to 26 English teachers from 12 secondary schools in Misurata, Libya. 24 returned the questionnaire, which is a high rate of return at 92.30%. To collect the data, as discussed in chapter 3, a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to elicit teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards various aspects of English instruction. The discussion below is divided into four sub-sections: 4.2.1demographic details of participants' education, 4.2.2 responses to 24 statements 4.2.3 the participants' understanding of CLT, and 4.2.4 the analysis of the results.

4.2.1 Demographic Details of Participants' Education

In the background section, the questionnaire investigated the participants' education and majors' level. Table 4.1 below shows the backgrounds of the participants' degrees. The table shows that all of the participants hold BA majoring in English Linguistics and Education. At the time of study, 18 of the respondents (75%) held BAs in Linguistics and 6 of them (25%) had BAs in Education.

Table 4.1 Participants' Educational Background

Participant

Number

Percentage

Linguistics

18

75%

Education

6

25%

Also in the background section, the questionnaire asked the participants to show the years of experience. Table 4.2 below says that 13 participants, (54.16%) have more than ten years of teaching experience (most experienced), while 7 participants, (29.16%) of them have from 6 to 10 (medium experienced) and 4 participants, (16.66%) of them have less than 5 years (least experienced).

Table 4.2 Participants' Educational background

Category

With Education background

With no Education background

Participants

16

8

Table 4.3 Participants Experience background

Teachers with most experience

Teachers with medium experience

Teachers with least experience

13

7

4

Table (4.4) below divides the responses from 24 participants for each statement above into four groups: Group one; importance of grammar instruction, group two; the role of the teacher, group three; group and pair work, and group four; scale of error correction

You still need to present the results below by group, as Al-Nouh did, not just the observation data.

Table 4.4 Groups' division

Group Number

Statements

Group One: Importance of grammar instructions

1, 3, 12, 17, 18, 23

Group Two: The role of the teacher

4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 19, 20, 24

Group Three: Group and pair work activities

2, 9, 13, 21, 22

Group Four: Scale of error corrections

6, 10, 14, 15

4.2.2 A report of the participants' responses to each of the 24 statements:

A total of 24 questionnaires were returned. These questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS Program. The 5-point Likert scale involved assigning 5 to strongly agree, 4= agree, 3 = undecided, 2 = disagree and 1= strongly disagree.

Tables (4.4, 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7) show means and standard deviation by the 24 participants who responded to the questionnaire. Here is where you can also group your participants by the demographic groups you present in section 4.2.1

Table 4.5 Group 1 Questions (Means (M), Standard Deviation (SD)).

Statement

Means

Standard Deviation

1- Grammatical correctness is the most important criterion by which language performance should be judged.

3.46

1.15

3. Grammar should be taught only as a means to an end and not as an end in itself.

4.13

0.78

12. Knowledge of the rules of a language does not guarantee ability to use the language.

4

1.04

17. By mastering the rules of grammar. Students become fully capable of communicating with a native speaker.

3.58

1.08

18. For most students, language is acquired most effectively when it is used as a vehicle for doing something else rather than studied as a primary end in itself.

4

0.96

23. Direct instructions in the rules and terminology of grammar are essential if students are to learn to communicate effectively.

3.13

1.09

Table 4.6 Group 2 Questions (Means (M), Standard Deviation (SD)).

Statement

Means

Standard Deviation

4- When a learner comes to the language classroom with little or no knowledge of the language, he/she cannot be expected to suggest what the content of the lesson should be or what activities are useful for him/her.

3.79

1.00

5. Training learners to take responsibility for their own learning is not feasible when learners are not used to such an approach.

3.25

1.13

7. The teacher as "authority" and "instructor" no longer describes all the teacher's roles in the language classroom.

3.75

0.97

8. The learner-centered approach to language teaching encourages responsibility and self- discipline to development to full potential.

4.13

0.83

11. 1n a large class, it is not possible to organize teaching so as to meet all individual needs.

2.33

1.21

16. The teacher as transmitter of knowledge is only one of the many different roles he/she performs during the course of a lesson.

4

0.76

19. The role of the teacher in the language classroom is to impart knowledge through activities such as explanation, writing and example.

2.46

0.91

20. Tasks and activities should be negotiated and adapted to suit the students' needs rather than determined by the teacher in advance.

4.08

1

24. To meet all the needs and interests, the teacher must supplement the textbook with other materials and tasks.

4.21

0.82

Table 4.7 Group 3 Questions (Means (M), Standard Deviation (SD)).

Statement

Means

Standard Deviation

2. Group work activities are essential for cooperative relationships and productive interactions among students to emerge.

4.46

0.58

9. Group work allows students to explore problems for themselves and thus have some measure of control over their own learning.

4.08

0.7

13.Group work activities are not an efficient use of planning and teaching time.

3.79

0.76

21. Small group work may occasionally be useful to vary the routine, but should be secondary to sound formal instruction by a competent teacher.

3.04

0.93

22. Group work activities have limited value since it is very difficult for the teacher to monitor the students' performance and prevent them from using their mother tongue.

3.29

1.06

Table 4.8 Group 4 Questions (Means (M), Standard Deviation (SD)).

Statement

Means

Standard Deviation

6. For students to become effective communicators in the foreign language, the teachers' feedback must be focused on the appropriateness and not the linguistic form of the students' responses.

3.63

0.90

10. Unless all their grammatical errors are corrected, students will be at risk of imperfect learning.

3.5

1.12

14. Since errors are a normal part of learning, too much time should not be spent in correction.

3.54

0.95

15. The communicative approach to language teaching produces fluent but inaccurate learners.

3.04

1.02

Group One questions: Importance of grammar instruction:

Table 4.8 Percentage of responses to Statement 1

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

4

11

2

6

1

Statement 1: Grammatical correctness is the most important criterion by which language performance should be judged.

16.66%

45.83%

8.33%

25%

4.16%

As shown in the table above, almost half of the participants (45.83%) agreed that the correcting grammatical errors are essential for performance, while few showed their strong agreement. On the other hand, a fair number of the participants expressed their disagreement. However, a small number of participants seemed to show their strong disagreement to this statement.

Table 4.10 Percentage of responses to Statement 3

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

8

12

3

1

0

Statement 3: Grammar should be taught only as a means to an end and not as an end in itself.

33.33%

50%

12.5%

4.16%

0%

Here the participants, by calculating the agreement and strong agreement, it is clear that the majority of the teachers, 83.33%, think grammar should be taught as a means, not an end in itself. Only 4.16% disagreed, and no one showed strong disagreement. Apparently, most participants showed their agreement and strong agreement with the role of grammar in CLT.

Table 4.11 Percentage of responses to Statement 12

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

8

12

1

2

1

Statement 12 Knowledge of the rules of a language does not guarantee ability to use the language.

33.33%

50%

4.16 %

8.33%

4.16%

Here, this table showed a high number of the participants, with high percentage of agreement and strong agreement, (83.5%) clearly agreed in principle that knowledge of grammar rules is not enough to use the language.

Table 4.12 Percentage of responses to Statement 17

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

4

12

3

4

1

Statement 17 By mastering the rules of grammar, students become fully capable of communicating with a native speaker.

16.66%

50%

12.50 %

16.66%

4.16%

Here the participants contradicted their responses to statement 12. Their responses here showed that the mastery of grammar gives the learners the ability to use language effectively. The participants here responded with a fair percentage of agreements and strong agreements, about 66.66%, to this statement. Few of them, about 16.66%, chose disagreement and only 4.16% marked strongly disagree for this statement.

The participants believed in teaching grammar and structure of language as an effective way to enable learners to communicate.

Table 4.13 Percentage of responses to Statement 18

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

7

13

2

1

1

Statement 18 For most students, language is acquired most effectively when it is used as a vehicle for doing something else rather than studied as a primary end in itself.

29.16%

54.16%

8.33 %

4.16%

4.16%

Similarly to statement three, a very high number of participants showed agreement and strong agreement, 83.32%, for this statement. Only 4.16% of participants expressed their disagreement and their strong disagreement with this point.

Table 4.14 Percentage of responses to Statement 23

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

2

9

4

8

1

Statement 23 Direct instructions in the rules and terminology of grammar are essential if students are to learn to communicate effectively.

8.33%

37.5%

16.66 %

33.33%

4.16%

Here, it seems that the teachers were quite reluctant about direct instruction of grammar. The responses here showed almost equal agreement, 37.5% and disagreement, 33.33%, with this statement, whereas only few expressed their agreement, 33.33%, and strong disagreement, 4.16%.

Apparently, the participants seem to prefer to teach grammar. They believe grammar is essential to achieve communication, and, at the same time, they understand that grammar alone is not enough for language communication. Yet they feel more confident and prefer teaching grammar rules as a traditional way of teaching.

Group Two Questions: The role of the teacher

Table 4.15 Percentage of responses to Statement 4

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

6

11

3

4

0

Statement 4 When a learner comes to the language classroom with little or no knowledge of the language, he/she cannot be expected to suggest what the content of the lesson should be or what activities are useful for him/her.

25%

45.83%

12.5%

16.66%

0%

Most of participants agreed, 45.83%, and strongly agreed, 25%, that learners cannot participate effectively in class. The teachers think that the students experience more teacher-centered instruction than a student-centered technique. Only about 16.66% disagreed and no one strongly disagreed on this point. In short, the participants believe that teachers should lead the instruction in the classroom.

Table 4.16 Percentage of responses to Statement 5

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

3

9

4

7

1

Statement 5 Training learners, to take responsibility for their own learning is not feasible when learners are not used to such an approach.

12.50%

37.5%

16.66%

29.16%

4.16%

From this tablet it is clear that almost half of the participants, 49.52%, show their agreement and strong agreement toward this statement.

Table 4.17 Percentage of responses to Statement 7

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

5

12

3

4

0

Statement 7 The teacher as "authority" and "instructor" no longer describes all the teacher's roles in the language classroom.

20.83%

50%

12.5%

16.66%

0%

Here, it is clear that most participants, 70.83%, agreed and strongly agreed that teachers act more roles than as an authority in the classroom. Only 16.66% disagreed and no one seemed to strongly disagree to this statement.

Table 4.18 Percentage of responses to Statement 8

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

8

13

1

2

0

Statement 8 The learner-centered approach to language teaching encourages responsibility and self-discipline to development to full potential.

33.33%

54.16%

4.16%

8.33%

0%

Interestingly, 54% agreed to this statement and 33.33% went further and showed their strong agreement. Furthermore, only 8.33% disagreed, while none of the participants declared a strong disagreement. Thus, the majority of the teachers agreed with the learner-centered approach and they realized they should encourage students to participate effectively in classroom.

Table 4.19 Percentage of responses to Statement 11

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

1

5

2

9

7

Statement 11 In a large class, it is not possible to organize teaching so as to meet all individual needs.

4.16%

20.83%

8.33%

37.5%

29.16%

Table 18 showed the majority of the participants, 66.66% agreed and strongly agreed that it is impossible in large classes to organize teaching activities to meet all students' needs.

Table 4.20 Percentage of responses to Statement 16

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

5

16

1

2

0

Statement 16 The teacher as transmitter of knowledge is only one of the many different roles he/she performs during the course of a lesson.

20.83%

66.66%

4.16%

8.33%

0%

The results in the table 19 showed very high percentages of agreement and strong agreement, totaling 88.49%. On the contrary, 8.33% claimed their disagreement and none showed disagreement. Clearly, participants realized that their way of teaching needs to be facilitative, and they should encourage students to participate and contribute in classroom effectively.

Table 4.21 Percentage of responses to Statement 19

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

1

3

3

16

1

Statement 19 The role of the teacher in the language classroom is to impart knowledge through activities such as explanation, writing and example.

4.16%

12.5%

12.5%

66.66%

4.16%

Unlike the previous statement, the participants here showed an opposite attitude; they stated a disagreement and strong disagreement, 70.82% to this statement, 70.82%. Only 12.5%% agreed and 4.16% strongly agreed with this statement. The results clearly disagreed with the teachers' role to impart knowledge in the classroom.

Table 4.22 Percentage of responses to Statement 20

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

9

11

2

1

1

Statement 20 The role of the teacher in the language classroom is to impart knowledge through activities such as explanation, writing and example.

37.5%

45.83%

8.33%

4.16%

4.16

A high percentage of the participants replied with agreement and strong agreement, 83.33% to the statement. Some participants gave negative answers to this point, while 8.33% preferred not to decide. The participants show that they believe in the modern techniques of teaching and learning process in the classroom and are also aware of the traditional methods such as the grammar translation method.

Table 4.23 Percentage of responses to Statement 24

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

9

13

0

2

0

Statement 24 To meet all the needs and interests, the teacher must supplement the textbook with other materials and tasks.

37.5%

54.16%

0%

8.33%

0%

A great number of teachers, 91.66% showed their agreement and strong agreement that the textbook alone is not enough for effective teaching and learning in the classroom. The participants suggested that the teachers should use multiple teaching materials other than text books. A few of the participants, 8.33%, disagreed and none strongly disagreed.

Group Three: Group and pair work

Table 4.24 Percentage of responses to Statement 2

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

12

11

1

0

0

Statement 2 Group work activities are essential for cooperative relationships and productive interactions among students to emerge.

50%

45.83%

4.16%

0%

0%

Clearly, the majority of participants, 95.83%, supported group work activities as a crucial part for teaching and they agreed that such activities do promote interaction among students. None disagreed or strongly disagreed, whereas 4.16% could not decide.

Table 4.25 Percentage of responses to Statement 9

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

6

15

2

1

0

Statement 9 Group work allows students to explore problems for themselves and thus have some measure of control over their own learning.

25%

62.5%

8.33%

4.16%

0%

The participants scored a very high percentage of agreement and strong agreed agreement (87.5%) in that these activities contribute to learners' autonomy. Only 4.16% disagreed and none took a strong stand and disagreement.

Table 4.26 Percentage of responses to Statement 13

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

3

15

4

2

0

Statement 13 Group work activities are not an efficient use of planning and teaching time.

12.5%

62.5%

1.66%

8.33%

0

In contrast with statement nine (group work allows students to explore problems for themselves and thus have some measure of control over their own learning), group work allows students to explore problems for themselves and thus have some measure of control over their own learning,

a very large percentage of teachers do not support group work activities in students' learning. A high number of the participants agreed and strongly agreed (75%) that group work activities were not a good use of teaching. Only 8.33% disagreed and none disagreed. Clearly, most participants did not support the idea that group work activities are efficient and feasible.

Table 4.27 Percentage of responses to Statement 21

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

1

8

6

9

0

Statement 21 Small group work may occasionally be useful to vary the routine. But should be secondary to sound formal instruction by a competent teacher.

4.16%

33.33%

25%

37.5%

0%

The results here contradict the idea of group work activities and student-centeredness. The reason behind this, perhaps, is that the teachers desired to implement such activities in classroom, but they faced some challenges in doing so - as shown by their responses to statement 13. Statement 22 again shows this - but the responses aren't exactly like those to statement 13.

Table 4.28 Percentage of responses to Statement 22

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

2

11

4

6

1

Statement 22 Group work activities have limited value since it is very difficult for the teacher to monitor the students' performance and prevent them from using their mother tongue.

8.33%

45.83%

16.66%

25%

4.16%

Again the results showed the teachers desire to implement group work activities in practice, but some challenges stand against them.

Group Four: Scale of error correction

Table 4.29 Percentage of responses to Statement 6

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

3

13

4

4

0

Statement 6 For students to become effective communicators in the foreign language the teachers' feedback must be focused on the appropriateness and not the linguistic form of the students' responses.

12.5%

54.16%

20.83%

16.66%

0%

The results revealed that most of the participants, 66.66%, agreed and strongly agreed that the students could effectively communicate with others if the feedback is focused on appropriateness rather than linguistic features. Is this more evenly distributed than responses to other statements or are there more undecided? Here is where it really would be useful to see responses subdivided by teachers' background in terms of their education and the years they have taught English.

Table 4.30 Percentage of responses to Statement 10

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

4

11

3

5

1

Statement 10 Unless all their grammatical errors are corrected, students will be at risk of imperfect learning.

16.66%

45.83%

12.50 %

20.83%

4.16%

The participants here undecided Some disregarded correction and think correcting all grammatical errors is a waste of time. Nearly half of the participants agreed, 45.83%; but did not take a strong stand on agreement whereas about 20.83% disagreed but only about 4.16% showed a strong disagreement.

Table 4.31 Percentage of responses to Statement 14

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

3

12

4

5

0

Statement 14 Since errors are a normal part of learning, too much time should not be spent on correction.

12.5%

50%

16.66%

20.83%

0%

Similar to statement 1 (Grammatical correctness is the most important criterion by which language performance should be judged), the participants tended to take the middle stand with 62.5% on agreement and strong agreement, and 20.83% on disagreement.

Table 4.32 Percentage of responses to Statement 15

Item

5

4

3

2

1

Frequency

1

8

8

5

2

Statement 15 The communicative approach to language teaching produces fluent but inaccurate learners.

4.16%

33.33%

33.33%

20.83%

8.33%

The results here were rather interesting because almost an equal number of participants showed their agreement and strong agreement, 37.49%, and disagreement and strong disagreement, 29.16%, with the statement; the communicative approach produces fluent but inaccurate learners. The results may suggest that for these teachers the role of accuracy and fluency are still controversial in CLT. In other words, teachers may have some contradictory assumptions about the current focus of function and form in the communicative approach (see Chapter 2 sections 2.1 & 2.2.2).

What follows is a summary of responses to the four main question groups: 1) importance of grammar instruction, 2) the role of the teacher, 3) group and pair work and 4) error correction.

Importance of Grammar instruction:

Based on the relevant statements (1, 3, 12, 17, 18, and 23) related to the importance of grammar instruction, grammar knowledge is considered to be as important as communicative competence because grammar is the basis for effective communication and speaking. For statement 1, almost half of the participants (45.83%) agreed, but a small number disagreed that the correcting grammatical errors are essential for performance. For statement 3, the majority of the teachers (83.33%) agreed and strongly agreed that grammar should be taught as a means, not an end in itself. But only 4.16% disagreed, and no one showed strong disagreement. For statement 12, a high number of the participants showed their agreement and strong agreement, (83.5%) that knowledge of grammar rules is not enough to use the language. For statement 17, the participants here responded with a fair percentage of agreements and strong agreements, about 66.66%, to this statement. Few of them, about 16.66%, chose disagreement and only 4.16% marked strongly disagree for this statement. For statement18, similarly to statement three, a very high number of participants showed agreement and strong agreement, 83.32%, for this statement. Only 4.16% of participants expressed their disagreement and their strong disagreement with this point. For statement 22, again the results showed the teachers desire to implement group work activities in practice, but some challenges stand against them. For statement 23, it seems that the teachers were quite reluctant about direct instruction of grammar. The responses here showed almost equal agreement, 37.5% and disagreement, 33.33%, with this statement, whereas only few expressed their agreement, 33.33%, and strong disagreement, 4.16%.

The role of the teacher:

The responses to the relevant statements (4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 16, 19, 20, and 24) showed that teachers agree they should be facilitators to enable the students learning in the classroom by a) encouraging the students to learn by themselves in the classroom (see Chapter 2 sections 2.3 and 2.4), b) providing resources other than textbooks, c) motivating the students in different ways, d) creating authentic situation in the classroom, and e) co-constructing knowledge by providing support during the learning activities. These teachers believe that they as teachers still have to help the students during the learning process to help them develop their language ability. The participants declared that teachers cannot ignore the role of grammar because grammar is an essential part of language competence to enable students to communicate. Students cannot communicate properly, if grammar is not taught explicitly. Grammar is seen to be helpful in that teachers believe both form and function are important, and grammar should be taught through developing the four skills, instead of focusing on translating the grammar rules.

Group& pair work activities:

The results obtained from statements 2, 9, 13, 21, and 22 showed that most participants had positive opinions that activities do promote interaction among students and develop their ability to communicate properly. They supported the claim that these activities contribute the student autonomy. That is, the participants valued the group and pair work activities as they help the learners increase opportunities for genuine communication, let students think critically and create a non-threatening classroom atmosphere. Moreover, they contribute to learners' autonomy and enhance students' outcome. However, at the same time, some limitations challenged the teachers in implementing group and pair work activities, some challenges facing them to implement group and pair work activities in classroom successfully, they supported CLT as approach focusing on helping students to learn and communicate successfully.

Scale of error correction:

More than half of the participants agreed with the statement that considered errors to be natural when learning. Students are expected to commit errors and language is learned through trial and error. The participants agreed that the teacher should correct grammatical errors and give feedback to the students. The students understood the grammatical rules probably with the help of correcting their errors and giving them the feedback. This would help them understand their errors and never repeat them. CLT can motivate students by correcting the errors and giving feedback.

The participants' understanding of CLT

The analysis of data has revealed that the most participants consider CLT a superior teaching approach compared to the traditional grammar-translation method in teaching speaking, and other skills. The participants agreed with xxx (say which ones) statements to show that they believe that: firstly, CLT focuses on language use, secondly, CLT is learner-centred, thirdly, CLT focuses on speaking, and fourthly, CLT gives more emphasis on fluency than on accuracy.

Some participants agreed with the statement that defined CLT as the teaching of English which focuses on fluency, i.e. speaking, whereas other participants stated that, CLT is a teaching and learning approach which focuses on fluency and other skills, listening, reading, and writing as well to encourage the students to use English to communicate and interact perfectly.

Most participants in this category indicated that CLT encourages students to engage in language communication. None of them agreed with the idea that CLT is meant to follow the traditional method of teaching, i. e. Grammar-Translation. Secondly, CLT is student- centered: Some participants agreed with the definition of learner-centeredness, which is featured in CLT. One participant mentioned that the teacher and students are co-construct knowledge as the teachers are facilitators. That is, the teacher gives support, advice, answers questions, gives directions, monitors classes and takes and corrects errors to the students.

Language should be used in communicative activities such as pair/group work. This will give students the opportunity to use English in the classroom communicatively. A participant mentioned that such activities can be used in the four skills of CLT: listening, speaking, reading, and writing, to help student use the language effectively. Thirdly, CLT focuses on speaking: The participants responded to this category by agreeing with the statement that CLT ignored the teaching of grammar, i. e. form rather than meaning. Grammar is not included in CLT definitions. Participants defined CLT as a method of teaching students how to speak and communicate i. e. to concentrate on fluency rather than accuracy.

For this category, the participants seemed to agree that CLT should engage communicative activities, and encourage students to contribute to the learning process in the classroom. Fourthly, CLT gives more emphasis on fluency than on accuracy: Some participants agreement with the statement that CLT placed more emphasis on fluency rather than on accuracy. A participant mentioned agreed with the statement?????? that CLT encouraged students to communicate and interact giving much focus on fluency. Language is used for speaking and communicating with others, and paying no attention to grammatical rules and how to use them in the context. Grammar cannot be ignored as it is basic knowledge to achieve communication. Students cannot communicate successfully with incorrect grammatical rules.

Some participants seemed to indicate that CLT is a student-centered approach. The teacher is just a facilitator in the classroom, and guides the students by giving them assignments to work in groups and/or in pairs.

Analysis and interpretation of the results:

It is notable from the results reported above that although most participants believed in grammar instruction and that this knowledge should be taught in the classroom, which is removed from ideas on implementing CLT, they seemed to have adopted the CLT approach, agreeing with statements that this approach contains teaching grammar, but not explicitly. In contrast to teaching grammatical rules using the grammar translation methods, students can learn a set of grammatical rules deductively and apply these through different communicative activities. In other words, when students participate in the CLT activities in the classroom, they are able to fully acquire the rules and structures of the language through using the language. On the other hand, teachers also believe that grammar should be taught properly, especially to low-proficiency learners. They also believe that grammar correction and feedback are essential; otherwise, the students will run the risk of insufficient learning. In CLT, grammar is taught in the classroom, yet the focus of teaching is not on grammar. That is to say, when teachers teach through communicative activities, the students are able to learn the grammatical rules inductively.

The participants responses to statements showed that they have some misconceptions of the CLT approach, such as that it focuses on teaching oral fluency more than the traditional grammar-translation method did, CLT is the suitable method of teaching for developing students' speaking ability. That is CLT is an effective teaching method mostly for speaking. For most participants, the communicative activities and tasks in which the students engage in their classroom mainly focus on speaking and give little attention to listening skills (statement #xxxx) . Another misconception is the role of teaching grammar. The participants agreed with the statement that when following the CLT approach, grammar is ignored and its teaching is discouraged in the classroom. As discussed in Chapter 2, in contrast to the participants' statement, CLT suggests a focus on integrated skills as opposed to speaking only. Likewise, grammar is suggested to be taught within a communicative activities and tasks in the classroom, such as group and pair work, role play, etc. Considering the responses to the statements about CLT, it is possible to say that the majority still prefer to use the grammar-translation method in teaching in their classes, and in looking at their responses to other statements, this seems to be because they consider it sufficient and more effective to teach grammar and skills (reading and writing) other rather than speaking.

The participants responses to statements show that they are interested in teaching the grammatical rules with full explanations, correcting students' errors and giving them feedback. However, scholars like Ellis et al., (2001); Muranoi, (2001); and Nicholas et al. (2001) emphasize the need to teach grammar when students need it Focusing on grammar, Ellis et al. (2001: 281) reported, "…can occur without disturbing the communicative flow of a classroom and … the classroom context can affect the amount of uptake". Muranoi, (2001) suggests that integrating formal instruction in grammar points into a communicative task in EFL classrooms had positive effects such as the learning of English articles. Finally, Nicholas et al. (2001:720) also reported that giving feedback in the form of recasts "... appear[s] to be most effective in contexts where it is clear to the learner that the recast is a reaction to the accuracy of the form, not the content, of the original utterance".

Most participants' responses indicated that they supported the student-centeredness which CLT applies. They supported the idea that the students can learn better if given the opportunity to learn and contribute in the classroom activities by themselves.

However, the participants also agreed with statements on large classes, where group and pair work tasks are of no benefit and are a waste of time. In other words, most participants showed no positive attitude toward the role of the teachers in the classroom when they are just acting as a facilitator.

Yet some participants believed that they do not see themselves as an authority and transmitter. They believe that teachers should encourage students to develop their learning ability to learn without guidance or control of the teacher. A facilitator guides, but does not control.

These results show that the participants' misunderstandings of CLT are widespread yet their attitudes are generally favourable. Therefore, one can add some modifications in order to make CLT applicable.

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